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Working in Hong Kong, an international hub blessed with vibrant domestic and expatriate communities, family law practitioners respond to manifold enquiries oft en driven by social and technological change and different cultural expectations. How is Hong Kong's family law evolving to meet the changing needs of this dynamic, multi-faceted community?
Whilst Hong Kong's family law has responded innovatively to some of the challenges brought in recent years, perhaps most notably the Court of Final Appeal's support in LKW v. DD for a move from needs-based ancillary relief to a starting point of equal division of matrimonial property, it is also true to say that change has sometimes been more cautious. For example, consider the very carefully drawn decision of the Court of Final Appeal in W v. Registrar of Marriages on the scope for marriage by a transsexual in their reassigned gender identity.
While earlier resistance to legal recognition of same-sex relationships, parental responsibility in lieu of parental authority, and children as rights-holders rather than the ‘property’ of parents, suggests a tension between a ‘traditional’, hetero-normative, hierarchical concept of family life and a more progressive vision of family life and family law, 2018 saw key developments challenging the dominance of a ‘traditional’ family law. Nonetheless, the question remains: is the pace of change so glacial that any impact is only illusory?
LIMITED LEGAL RECOGNITION OF SAME-SEX RELATIONSHIPS
In 2018, two sets of legal proceedings, each claiming legal recognition of same sex-relationships in relation to spousal benefits, travelled through the courts.
The first case, Leung Chun Kwong v. Secretary for the Civil Service, was an appeal and cross-appeal to the Court of Appeal (CA) from the judgment of the Court of First Instance (CFI). The applicant – a Senior Immigration Officer – employed by the Civil Service and a Hong Kong permanent resident, had legally married his same-sex partner in New Zealand in 2014. Back in Hong Kong, he subsequently claimed financial spousal benefits which were denied. He then sought a judicial review of the decisions against him. The CFI found in his favour in relation to the Secretary for Civil Service's refusal to extend spousal medical and dental benefits to his same-sex husband.
In the last decades of the nineteenth and first decades of the twentieth century, widespread wage labour emerged across the African continent for the first time. The continent's population and economy remained, as it would throughout the twentieth century, largely rural and agrarian. Forced labour, driven by both colonial states and private employers, also remained widespread. However, the growing importance of capitalist mining and agriculture, along with the increasing development of roads, railways and other infrastructure by colonial states, produced a market for wage labour in locations across the continent on an unprecedented scale.
In this same period, European intellectuals were in the midst of a fervent debate on the ‘social question’. The rapid transformation that nineteenthcentury capitalist expansion had initiated called for a reconsideration of welfare, well-being and the very structure of social life. This debate might have seemed distant from the African context at the time. The emerging groups of urban wage workers on the continent were assumed by colonial states to be temporary sojourners from their natural and permanent homes in the countryside. The welfare and social reproduction of African workers were seen as the domain of the rural and traditional. However, as capitalism and colonialism continued to disrupt and dislocate extant forms of social life, this assumption was increasingly exposed as fiction. Already by the 1930s the question of social welfare had been brought to the centre of colonial administrators’ attention through burgeoning nationalist and labour movements across the continent. Since the period of late colonial reforms, through the developmentalism of the post-independence era, and into the more recent focus on poverty reduction, social welfare has remained a central focus of African political debates and policy initiatives.
Social welfare in Africa has had both political and economic dimensions. Waves of contention, advancing demands for independence and democracy, have repeatedly reshaped the relationship between states and citizens. The state provision of welfare first emerged from the colonial authorities, who hoped that improving standards of living would quell growing demands for political transformation. For post-independence states, welfare provided by the government and by private employers was a tool for securing the support of workers, who were among the most organized, and in some cases oppositional, constituencies in the political landscape of many new countries.
Due to concerns over increasing fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance among gram-negative organisms, our stewardship program implemented a preauthorization use policy. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between hospital FQ use and antibiotic resistance.
Large academic medical center.
We performed a retrospective analysis of FQ susceptibility of hospital isolates for 5 common gram-negative bacteria: Acinetobacter spp., Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Primary endpoint was the change of FQ susceptibility. A Poisson regression model was used to calculate the rate of change between the preintervention period (1998–2005) and the postimplementation period (2006–2016).
Large rates of decline of FQ susceptibility began in 1998, particularly among P. aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp., and E. cloacae. Our FQ restriction policy improved FQ use from 173 days of therapy (DOT) per 1,000 patient days to <60 DOT per 1,000 patient days. Fluoroquinolone susceptibility increased for Acinetobacter spp. (rate ratio [RR], 1.038; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.005–1.072), E. cloacae (RR, 1.028; 95% CI, 1.013–1.044), and P. aeruginosa (RR, 1.013; 95% CI, 1.006–1.020). No significant change in susceptibility was detected for K. pneumoniae (RR, 1.002; 95% CI, 0.996–1.008), and the susceptibility for E. coli continued to decline, although the decline was not as steep (RR, 0.981; 95% CI, 0.975–0.987).
A stewardship-driven FQ restriction program stopped overall declining FQ susceptibility rates for all species except E. coli. For 3 species (ie, Acinetobacter spp, E. cloacae, and P. aeruginosa), susceptibility rates improved after implementation, and this improvement has been sustained over a 10-year period.
be an anisotropic quadratic form defined over a general field
. In this article, we formulate a new upper bound for the isotropy index of
after scalar extension to the function field of an arbitrary quadric. On the one hand, this bound offers a refinement of an important bound established in earlier work of Karpenko–Merkurjev and Totaro; on the other hand, it is a direct generalization of Karpenko’s theorem on the possible values of the first higher isotropy index. We prove its validity in two key cases: (i) the case where
, and (ii) the case where
is quasilinear (i.e., diagonalizable). The two cases are treated separately using completely different approaches, the first being algebraic–geometric, and the second being purely algebraic.
Electronic data capture is essential to advancing family-centered coordinated care in early intervention (EI). The purpose of this paper is to report on EI service coordinator response to piloting an electronic parent-reported outcome (e-PRO) assessment as part of their routine workflow, including lessons learned that may inform future phases of e-PRO implementation.
This second pilot study involved families enrolled in a large EI program (n=1040 families) in concert with their implementation of a statewide quality improvement initiative for care plan development and outcomes reporting. A total of 22 EI service coordinators and supervisors were engaged in 3 phases: initial e-PRO intervention, peer-mentor enhancement, and standard recruitment protocol.
Implementation of the e-PRO intervention and peer-mentoring enhancement yielded low enrollment rates over the first 6 months (n=17). A standard recruitment protocol has resulted in enrollment growth (n=83) towards the targeted enrollment rate (n=832).
This study reports on early insights for building and sustaining a productive academic-community partnership for e-PRO implementation to support family-centered coordinated care. Lessons learned from this academic-community partnership with respect to strategies for enhancing community significance, collaboration, return, and control are discussed as they inform further development of this intervention before scale-up.
To explore children’s responses to sponsorship of community junior sport by unhealthy food brands and investigate the utility of alternative, pro-health sponsorship options.
Between-subjects experiment, with four sponsorship conditions: A, non-food branding (control); B, unhealthy food branding; C, healthier food branding; D, obesity prevention campaign branding.
Online experiment conducted in schools. Participants were shown a junior sports pack for their favourite sport that contained merchandise with branding representing their assigned sponsorship condition. Participants viewed and rated the sports pack, completed a distractor task, then completed questions assessing brand awareness, brand attitudes and preference for food sponsors’ products.
Students in grades 1 to 3 (aged 5–10 years; n 1124) from schools in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia.
Compared with the control condition, there were no significant effects of unhealthy food branding on awareness of, attitudes towards or preference for these brands. Exposure to healthier food branding prompted a significant increase in the proportion of children aware of these brands, but did not impact attitudes towards or preference for these brands. Exposure to either healthier food branding or obesity prevention campaign branding prompted a significant reduction in the proportion of children showing a preference for unhealthy food sponsor products.
The sponsorship of children’s sport by healthier food brands may promote awareness of these brands and healthier sponsorship branding may reduce preferences for some unhealthy food products. Establishing and implementing healthy sponsor criteria in sports clubs could forge healthier sponsorship arrangements and help phase out unhealthy food and beverage sponsors.
Aflatoxin contamination of food can cause liver cancer in humans and animals. Identification of aflatoxin risk areas allows farmers to adapt management strategies before planting, during growth and at harvest. Aflatoxin contamination is driven by high temperatures and drought conditions and crops grown on light textured soil in the south eastern USA are at particular risk. Aflatoxin assessment is expensive so a role of extension services in precision farming is to identify the areas most at risk of contamination so that farmers can adapt irrigation or planting strategies. This paper extends a county-level risk factors approach developed by Kerry et al. (2017) by investigating the use of NDVI and thermal IR data to indicate drought stress and thus aflatoxin contamination risk at the sub-county level.
Aflatoxin is a fungal toxin contaminating corn and causing liver cancer in humans and animals. Contamination is driven by high temperatures and drought. Aflatoxin assessment is expensive so extension services need to identify high risk areas so irrigation, planting strategies and corn varieties can be adapted. This research presents a web-based decision support tool for risk illustrated with a case study from southern Georgia. The tool employs the approach, developed by Kerry et al. (2017b) where exceedance of key thresholds in temperatures, rainfall, soil type and corn production are used to determine risk. The tool also includes NDVI to indicate drought stress and could be further expanded to include new risk factors and adapted to other crops.
To examine demographic and behavioural correlates of high consumption of soft drinks (non-alcoholic sugar-sweetened carbonated drinks excluding energy drinks) among Australian adolescents and to explore the associations between high consumption and soft drink perceptions and accessibility.
Cross-sectional self-completion survey and height and weight measurements.
Australian secondary schools.
Students aged 12–17 years participating in the 2012–13 National Secondary Students’ Diet and Activity (NaSSDA) survey (n 7835).
Overall, 14 % of students reported consuming four or more cups (≥1 litres) of soft drinks each week (‘high soft drink consumers’). Demographic factors associated with high soft drink consumption were being male and having at least $AU 40 in weekly spending money. Behavioural factors associated with high soft drink consumption were low fruit intake, consuming energy drinks on a weekly basis, eating fast foods at least once weekly, eating snack foods ≥14 times/week, watching television for >2 h/d and sleeping for <8 h/school night. Students who perceived soft drinks to be usually available in their home, convenient to buy and good value for money were more likely to be high soft drink consumers, as were students who reported usually buying these drinks when making a beverage purchase from the school canteen/vending machine.
High soft drink consumption clusters with other unhealthy lifestyle behaviours among Australian secondary-school students. Interventions focused on reducing the availability of soft drinks (e.g. increased taxes, restricting their sale in schools) as well as improved education on their harms are needed to lower adolescents’ soft drink intake.