To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Formal mentoring programs are increasingly recognized as critical for faculty career development. We describe a mentoring academy (MA) developed for faculty across tracks (i.e., researchers, clinicians, educators) within a “school of health” encompassing schools of medicine and nursing. The program is anchored dually in a clinical and translational science center and a school of health. The structure includes the involvement of departmental and center mentoring directors to achieve widespread uptake and oversight. A fundamental resource provided by the MA includes providing workshops to enhance mentoring skills. Initiatives for junior faculty emphasize establishing and maintaining strong mentoring relationships and implementing individual development plans (IDPs) for career planning. We present self-report data on competency improvement from mentor workshops and data on resources and barriers identified by junior faculty (n = 222) in their IDPs. Mentors reported statistically significantly improved mentoring competency after workshop participation. Junior faculty most frequently identified mentors (61%) and collaborators (23%) as resources for goal attainment. Top barriers included insufficient time and time-management issues (57%), funding limitations (18%), work–life balance issues (18%), including inadequate time for self-care and career development activities. Our MA can serve as a model and roadmap for providing resources to faculty across traditional tracks within medical schools.
Recently, openness has become a new approach in strategizing as ownership and control of internal assets are no longer vital to achieving competitive advantage (Chesbrough & Appleyard, 2007). Nowadays, knowledge is widespread and open systems are generally regarded as beneficial in terms of organizational design and work culture. However, openness also comes with politics and it is not a practice that will necessarily be welcomed by all. Openness changes the power dynamics within an organization; there are critics as well as friends, as we shall explore. Openness is a process that can change over time, becoming more or less open as events occur and contingencies or actors change. We are interested in how dominant organizational actors can seemingly manipulate “open systems” strategically. Openness is problematic per se for social systems. Systems endogenously construct their differentiation from other systems through closure achieved through specific cognitive rules. In this chapter, we use Clegg’s (1989) “circuits” approach to a theory of power to grasp the politics of openness in terms of three circuits of power. Some of the recent problems posed in the wider world of social media will be analyzed in terms of the three circuits to illustrate some potential problems.
Introduction: Unique weather patterns on March 16th, 2017 led to 3 times the number of emergency department (ED) visits due to fall-injuries (FIs) on snow or ice compared to winter averages. The objective of the study was to identify weather-dependent differences in demographics, length-of-stay (LOS) predictors, and volume of ED presentations for winter FIs. We placed emphasis on Chinook phenomenon (rapid freeze-thaw cycles) common east of the Rocky Mountains. Methods: Patients with extremity injury due to fall on snow or ice were identified from the Alberta Health Services ED database from November 1st 2013 to March 31st 2018. We conducted regressions, chi-square analysis, bivariate correlations, and t-tests to identify differences in post-Chinook, high-volume, and regular winter patient cohorts. High-volume dates included any date with more than 25 FI presentations, representing a 400% increase from the daily average of 5. Results: We identified 3478 patients, with females more likely to present, X2 (1, N = 3480) = 443.266, p < 0.001, making up 67.8% of the total cohort. Mean age was 48.2 (SD ± 19.9) in all patients, and 48.4 (SD ± 20.0) among the post-Chinook cohort. Looking at ED LOS in the full patient cohort, age over 65 predicted longer ED LOS (mean = 4.23, SD ± 3.06) compared to younger age groups (mean = 3.42, SD ± 2.39), t(3478) = -7.37, p < 0.001]. Patients with fractures to the wrist or hand had shorter ED LOS (mean = 2.50, SD ± 5.83) than those without (mean = 10.95, SD ± 92.54), t(3478) = 2.64, p = 0.008. Among admitted patients, results were similar, with elevated inpatient LOS for patients over the age of 65 (mean = 171.71, SD ± 508.35) compared to younger patients (mean = 45.45, SD ± 39.53), t(3478) = −3.41, p = 0.001. Patients with radius fractures had shorter LOS (mean = 61.87, SD ± 210.37) compared to those without (mean = 288.83, SD ± 632.29), t(3478) = 3.87, p < 0.001. With respect to volume and weather, night-freezing events (below-freezing temperatures the preceding day, followed by freezing temperatures prior to 0600 hours the following day) were more likely to result in high FI volume (OR, 8.08; 95% CI, 5.14, 12.07; p < 0.001) as were recent Chinook events (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.06, 1.81; p = 0.017). Conclusion: Chinook-induced meteorological mass-casualty events can be severe, but do not target populations distinct from winter averages. They can be predicted based on forecasted weather variations and should be considered for population-level alerts utilizing cellular technology.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: People with metabolically abnormal obesity (MAO), defined as those with insulin resistance and high intrahepatic triglyceride, are at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Weight loss through reduced energy intake and increased physical activity has profound impacts on improving cardiometabolic function. However, the specific additional effects of exercise training with diet-induced weight loss on metabolic function are equivocal. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A comparative trial is ongoing in MAO adults undergoing 8-10% weight loss induced by a very-low fat plant-based (PB) diet with structured exercise training (n=8) compared to the same weight loss induced by the PB diet alone (n=3). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Preliminary results indicate that, PB diet with or without exercise training results in significant weight loss concomitant with enhanced insulin sensitivity, reduced intrahepatic triglyceride, reduced 24-hour postprandial glucose response, reduced fat mass, and reduced diastolic blood pressure. Those undergoing PB diet with exercise training had greater improvements in muscular strength and cardiorespiratory fitness than those undergoing PB diet alone. Differences between intervention groups for other cardiometabolic measures are not yet known. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Each of the interventions resulted in improved cardiometabolic measures; however the extent of the differences between the interventions is not yet clear. It is hypothesized that compared with weight loss induced by a PB diet, the same weight loss induced by a PB diet and structured exercise training will i) cause greater improvement in skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity, ii) will attenuate the usual decline in muscle mass while increasing strength, and iii) result in greater increases in left ventricular diastolic function. The long-term objective of this proposal is to provide a foundation for future studies evaluating mechanisms for the effects of exercise in cardiometabolic disease prevention and therapy.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To identify the most frequently reported barriers/constraints and resources by junior faculty in achieving their goals at a large medical school in the Western United States. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We reviewed 222 individual development plans (IDPs) from 26 departments in an academic medical center for content regarding constraints and resources to achieve activities and barriers and/or resources to achieve new goals. The content and quality of the IDPs included was ascertained using quantitative data analysis as well a review of open-ended qualitative questions. In addition to analyzing the content, the quality and percent completion of data filled out for each field in the IDP was also assessed to help identify gaps with departments in successfully completing and submitting their IDPs. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Junior faculty indicated the following barriers: time/time management (55%); work/life balance (32%); funding (8%) and other (5%). Junior faculty also indicated that they had resources to help them achieve their goals, including: mentors (60%); collaborators (26%); colleagues (6%); other (8%). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The barriers in goal achievement (e.g., time/time management & work/life balance issues) at this academic medical setting suggest that further resources regarding time management and work - life balance need to be developed and disseminated in order to assist faculty in achieving their objectives. This project also reinforces the importance of having a robust mentor or mentoring team for junior faculty. Mentors and administrators should work collaboratively with junior faculty to identify resources to improve time management and work-life balance.
THE MEDIEVAL SAGAS OF ICELAND (Íslendinga sögur) capture a world at once fantastic and familiar to modern audiences – a world in which individuals and families fought to survive in a frontier landscape, navigating threats natural and supernatural, political and economic, ultimately creating a complex social organisation unlike any other in the medieval world. Composed during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, the sagas reflect a vision of the past lives of Iceland's farmers (bondi) and chieftains (goði) in the tenth- to eleventh-century Icelandic Commonwealth, around and after the time of the country's settlement and conversion to Christianity (c. 1000). A second textual legacy of medieval Iceland is the culture's highly intricate set of legal codes, adopted and maintained at the annual national assembly and regulating conduct in areas ranging from inheritance to slander, from marriage to property disputes over driftwood. Together, the literary and legal texts of Iceland establish the law codes as a shared means of regulating behaviour and of strengthening familial and political connections within communities. Concurrently, the legal and literary texts offer glimpses of the gaps between theory and practice. While the law requires that individuals keep themselves open in their deeds and honest in their reputations, the sagas reveal that the force of the law, in fact, depends upon one's reputation, and that legal rituals meant to bring foul deeds to light could, in turn, be used by characters to conceal guilt and to escape social responsibility.
For cases of homicide, both legal and saga texts provide formulae (verbal and non-verbal) to enable the public pursuit of justice by bringing the act of killing into the open. Yet the Icelandic sagas rarely reproduce the detailed script that legally transforms murder to manslaughter; in most cases, the saga-authors create their own language for bringing murder to light. While saga-characters employ various modes of legal and poetic performance to declare and conceal their own crimes, the saga-authors use these dramatic moments to critique the repurposing and circumvention of Icelandic law by the powerful, revealing the importance of reputation in securing justice and exploring how narrow the space between honour and dishonour might be.
According to Icelandic law, the act that distinguishes manslaughter from murder occurs in the performative act of ‘publishing’ a killing.
Introduction: On March 16 2017, emergency departments and urgent care centres (collectively, EDs) in Calgary saw 3 times the number of fall-related ED visits, and 8 times the number of ED orthopedic consultations and admissions than the daily average for March 2014-2016. Fall-related injuries have significant associated morbidity and burden of disease, as well as cost to the health care system, caregivers and society. The purpose of this study was to use regression analysis to generate best fit models and identify weather and temporal variables which predict the frequency of fall-related ED visits, orthopedic consultations and admissions in winter (November-March). Methods: Daily number of ED visits, orthopedic consults, and orthopedic admissions for presenting complaint of Lower Extremity Injury, Upper Extremity Injury, or with an ED diagnosis of Fracture or Fall, were obtained for winter months from November 1 2013 to March 31 2017 from the Alberta Health Services ED database. Weather data was obtained from Environment Canada. Linear and multiple regression were performed to evaluate the predictive value of individual weather and temporal parameters, and derive the best-fitting model to predict the number of ED visits, orthopedic consultations, and orthopedic admissions. Results: Individual predictive factors (p<0.05) were month, temperature, overnight temperature drop from >0C to <0C, day of the week, amount of snow on the ground at 05:00, post-chinook day (chinooks are a warm winter wind in Calgary that can cause large temperature swings), maximum wind gust speed, and presence of precipitation. The best-fit multivariable models predicting fall-related ED visits (F-stat=15.36, R2=0.171), orthopedic consults (F-stat=6.369, R2=0.048), and orthopedic admissions (F-stat=8.658, R2=0.126) were statistically significant (probability of F-statistics all <0.0001). Conclusion: This study is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to use multiple regression to compute models using weather and temporal variables that can predict fall-related ED visits, orthopedic consults and admissions. This information could be used to alert the population regarding an increased fall and fracture risk ahead of the weather occurrence, as well as municipal snow and ice clearing services, who may be able to mitigate that risk. The ability to predict the frequency of fall-related injuries could enable EDs, EMS, orthopedic services, and hospitals to adjust resource and staffing allocation in anticipation of increases in fall-related injuries.
A new helminthomorph millipede, Sinosoma luopingense new genus new species, from the Triassic Luoping biota of China, has 39 body segments, metazonites with lateral swellings that bear a pair of posterolateral pits (?insertion pits for spine bases), and sternites that are unfused to the pleurotergites. This millipede shares a number of characters with nematophoran diplopods, but lacks the prominent dorsal suture characteristic of that order. Other “millipede” material from the biota is more problematic. Millipedes are a rare part of the Luoping biota, which is composed mainly of marine and near-shore organisms. Occurrences of fossil millipedes are exceedingly rare in Triassic rocks worldwide, comprising specimens from Europe, Asia, and Africa, and consisting of juliform millipedes and millipedes that are either nematophorans or forms very similar to nematophorans.
Study of short-term feeding behaviour (STFB) could improve the understanding of variation in daily intake in dairy cows. STFB is generally measured in short bouts (e.g. visits to feeders) that are clustered in larger bouts (or meals). The value of bout analysis depends strongly on the choice of an appropriate bout. Before bouts can be grouped into meals, a meal criterion (MC, that is: the longest non-feeding interval accepted as part of a meal) must be estimated. Tolkamp and Kyriazakis (1999) criticised existing methods and recently developed a new technique to estimate meal criteria. These log-normal models were developed on basis of the idea that eating bouts end when animals are satiated (i.e., in a state of low feeding motivation) (Tolkamp and Kyriazakis, 1999). This implies that feed consumption during the relevant eating bout will result in a gradual increase in satiety. This will be associated with an increase in the probability of cows ending a bout. In this study we will analyse whether meals are a more biologically relevant unit of STFB than the short feeding bouts (i.e. visits) that are routinely recorded.
The movie Jurassic Park has engendered much excitement and some speculation among both the general public and the scientific community as to the possibilities of genetic research and molecular preservation.
But will the dinosaurs “rise” again? Will scientists be able to ‘clone’ a dinosaur out of bits of genetic material and once again unleash these great beasts to walk the earth? If it is possible, should it be attempted? If not, why are time, money and effort being expended by several groups of investigators in attempts to isolate and characterize the DNA of these extinct creatures, if such DNA can possibly still exist? What can we hope to learn from these efforts, should they be fruitful?
In this study, we analyze a large dataset of seismic signals, recorded by station TROLL in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. The signals, recorded in April–December 2012, came from sources near the edge of the ice shelves, at distances of 230–500 km from TROLL. The sources, which moved westward with time, could be associated with four large, tabular icebergs, drifting between 15° E and 8° W. Combining the seismological data with information from satellite remote sensing, we find that one-third of the signals can be attributed to individual icebergs. The trajectories of three of the associated icebergs are known through iceberg-tracking databases, whereas the fourth, a fragment of one of the other three, is untracked, and only scarce information is available from satellite imagery. The observed seismic signals exhibit a wide variety of frequency characteristics, from unstructured episodes to occurrences of iceberg harmonic tremor. Although we are not able to determine the exact cause of the signals, we classify them into five classes on a phenomenological basis. This study demonstrates the potential of regional seismic networks for iceberg monitoring as supplementary resources to information obtained with remote-sensing technologies.
Vineyards worldwide are subjected to spatial variability, which can be exhibited in both low and high yield areas. We developed a variable rate drip irrigation (VRDI) concept to reduce such variability. The VRDI system divides the vineyard into 30×30-meter irrigation zones, enabling individual irrigation of each zone according to normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) maps. The first VDRI system was installed in on a 1.2-hectare vineyard Syrah red grape in Israel. With the VRDI system, the yield, leaf area index (LAI), canopy size, water potential, and primary juice chemical analysis results were very uniformed in comparison to previous years without the system.
The present study examined protective factors associated with the wellbeing of 93 youth from a refugee background resettled in Brisbane, Australia. Wellbeing was defined as an absence of psychological distress and the presence of subjective wellbeing. Students at Milpera State High School, a special English language school, completed a battery of questionnaires. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses examined the relationship between protective factors and wellbeing, while controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. The results indicated that higher levels of school connectedness and acculturation were significantly associated with lower levels of psychological distress. Further, higher levels of school connectedness, acculturation and resilience, in addition to having a permanent visa, were significantly associated with higher levels of subjective wellbeing. Notably, 55% of the variance in subjective wellbeing was explained jointly by these factors. School connectedness, acculturation, resilience, and visa certainty were instrumental in enhancing aspects of wellbeing in the present sample of students from a refugee background. Implications for refugee-related policy and strategies in schools, mental health services, and at broader governmental levels are discussed.
Tiny, pelagic arthropods from the Anisian Luoping Biota exposed in two quarries near Luoping, Yunnan Province, China, represent the numerically most abundant organisms in the assemblage. They form the basis for definition of two, and possibly three, species referred to the order Lophogastrida, family Eucopiidae. Yunnanocopia grandis new genus new species and Y. longicauda n. gen. new species represent the oldest occurrence of mysidaceans in the fossil record. Their anatomy allies them with the Ladinian species Schimperella acanthocercus Taylor, Schram, and Shen, 2001, from Guizhou Province, China, which previously was thought to be the oldest lophogastrid, and with extant species of Eucopiidae. Their appearance in the Anisian represents one additional element of the early faunal radiation within the Luoping Biota following the end-Permian extinction event. Presence of well-preserved oostegites, along with other morphological features, documents a conservative bauplan expressed in Eucopiidae.
Two new Raninoida crabs from the Cretaceous of Texas are described, Planocorystes robreidi new genus new species, and Texicancer new genus to accommodate Necrocarcinus renfroae. All the previously described raninoid-like decapods from the Pawpaw Formation have been reassigned according to Karasawa et al. (2014). Cretaceous raninoid-like crabs are the dominant taxa amongst the fossil decapods found in the Fort Worth, Texas, area, with hundreds of specimens collected. All of these fossils have been collected from limonitic nodules, and most of them present a good degree of preservation, with articulated pereiopods, pleons, venter and in rare occasions even the gills. The decapod fauna of the Pawpaw Formation represents a diverse population, with a large number of taxa in high abundance. One specimen of P. robreidi appears to exhibit a lethal bite mark.
A large assemblage of small specimens of Tridactylastacus sinensis Feldmann, Schweitzer, and Zhang in Feldmann et al., 2012, from the Middle Triassic (Anisian) Luoping Biota, Yunnan Province, China, permitted cladistic analysis confirming their placement within Litogastridae in the superfamily Glypheoidea. Orientation of 86 specimens closely spaced on a single slab from one bedding surface revealed a preferred orientation suggestive of mild current activity. The specimens were interpreted to have been victims of a mass kill, possibly an algal bloom, within the water column.
Yvain, Chrétien's masterpiece, has been conventionally seen as a counterpoise to Erec et Enide, attempting to reconcile the conflicting claims of love and chivalry. The several versions of this interpretation are misleading, if not quite wrong, because they divert our attention from what is special about Yvain to what it has in common with Erec. In all of them the lion is peripheral, although for Chrétien himself the lion gave the romance its name: Le Chevalier au lion. I intend to argue that Yvain is rather a critique of the Arthurian ideal, using patristic — or, if one prefers, Christian — psychology to show its hero fall victim to the sins of superbia, invidia, and ira in the first part and triumph over them in the second. Chrétien, I propose, made the lion a symbol of ira as a power of the soul and as ambivalent emotion, so that the two-part figure of the Chevalier au Lion — Yvain with his lion — dramatizes the restoration of ideal order within Yvain himself. Since the story of Yvain derives almost certainly from a Celtic source, Chrétien's originality consists not in the main events but in their disposition and in the emphasis assigned them in order to reveal their psychological and moral significance. I shall use comparisons with the Welsh story of Owein and the Lady of the Fountain to set that originality in relief, for whether the Welsh romance itself is the ultimate source of Yvain or both develop from some common source, it very likely approximates the form of the story prior to Chrétien's revision. It contains all the essential elements of Chrétien's romance — except Yvain's meeting with the hermit and the dispute between the daughters of the Lord of Noire Espine — masterly in detail but loosely connected, without moral focus or thematic coherence. Yvain, on the other hand, is distinguished, as this essay will try to show, by Chrétien's use of a progression of parallel incidents, together with the symbolic figure of the lion, to reveal gradually the meaning of the whole.