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Brains are information processing systems whose operational principles ultimately cannot be understood without resource to information theory. We suggest that understanding how external signals are represented in the brain is a necessary step towards employing further engineering tools (such as control theory) to understand the information processing performed by brain circuits during behaviour.
Integrating spiritual care into multidisciplinary care teams has seen both successful thoughtful collaboration and challenges, including feelings of competition and poor cross-disciplinary understanding. In Israel, where the profession is new, we aimed to examine how spiritual care is perceived by other healthcare professionals learning to integrate spiritual caregivers into their teams.
Semi-structured qualitative interviews of 19 professionals (seven physicians, six nurses, three social workers, two psychologists, and one medical secretary) working with spiritual caregivers in three Israeli hospitals, primarily in oncology/hematology. The interviews were transcribed and subjected to thematic analysis.
Respondents’ overall experience with adding a spiritual caregiver was strongly positive. Beneficial outcomes described included calmer patients and improved patient–staff relationships. Respondents identified reasons for a referral not limited to the end of life. Respondents distinguished between the role of the spiritual caregiver and those of other professions and, in response to case studies, differentiated when and how each professional should be involved.
Despite its relative newness in Israel, spiritual care is well received by a wide variety of professionals at those sites where it has been integrated. Steps to improve collaboration should include improving multidisciplinary communication to broaden the range of situations in which spiritual caregivers and other professionals work together to provide the best possible holistic care.
The stability of conducting Taylor–Couette flows under the presence of toroidal magnetic background fields is considered. For strong enough magnetic amplitudes such magnetohydrodynamic flows are unstable against non-axisymmetric perturbations which may also transport angular momentum. In accordance with the often used diffusion approximation, one expects the angular momentum transport to be vanishing for rigid rotation. In the sense of a non-diffusive
effect, however, even for rigidly rotating
-pinches, an axisymmetric angular momentum flux appears which is directed outward (inward) for large (small) magnetic Mach numbers. The internal rotation in a magnetized rotating tank can thus never be uniform. Those particular rotation laws are used to estimate the value of the instability-induced eddy viscosity for which the non-diffusive
effect and the diffusive shear-induced transport compensate each other. The results provide the Shakura & Sunyaev viscosity ansatz leading to numerical values linearly growing with the applied magnetic field.
Motivated by the need for accurate determination of wall shear stress from profile measurements in turbulent boundary layer flows, the total shear stress balance is analysed and reformulated using several well-established semi-empirical relations. The analysis highlights the significant effect that small pressure gradients can have on parameters deduced from data even in nominally zero pressure gradient boundary layers. Using the comprehensive shear stress balance together with the log-law equation, it is shown that friction velocity, roughness length and zero-plane displacement can be determined with only velocity and turbulent shear stress profile measurements at a single streamwise location for nominally zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers. Application of the proposed analysis to turbulent smooth- and rough-wall experimental data shows that the friction velocity is determined with accuracy comparable to force balances (approximately 1 %–4 %). Additionally, application to boundary layer data from previous studies provides clear evidence that the often cited discrepancy between directly measured friction velocities (e.g. using force balances) and those derived from traditional total shear stress methods is likely due to the small favourable pressure gradient imposed by a fixed cross-section facility. The proposed comprehensive shear stress analysis can account for these small pressure gradients and allows more accurate boundary layer wall shear stress or friction velocity determination using commonly available mean velocity and shear stress profile data from a single streamwise location.
Disaster Medicine (DM) education for Emergency Medicine (EM) residents is highly variable due to time constraints, competing priorities, and program expertise. The investigators’ aim was to define and prioritize DM core competencies for EM residency programs through consensus opinion of experts and EM professional organization representatives.
Investigators utilized a modified Delphi methodology to generate a recommended, prioritized core curriculum of 40 DM educational topics for EM residencies.
The DM topics recommended and outlined for inclusion in EM residency training included: patient triage in disasters, surge capacity, introduction to disaster nomenclature, blast injuries, hospital disaster mitigation, preparedness, planning and response, hospital response to chemical mass-casualty incident (MCI), decontamination indications and issues, trauma MCI, disaster exercises and training, biological agents, personal protective equipment, and hospital response to radiation MCI.
This expert-consensus-driven, prioritized ranking of DM topics may serve as the core curriculum for US EM residency programs.
Why doesn’t one single, solitary structural discontinuity form and cut across a laboratory test specimen or an outcrop, rather than forming a network? Why isn’t the San Andreas Fault just a single, continuous strand? Why are echelon arrays formed by the different structure types, such as joints, faults, or deformation bands?
Planar breaks in rock are one of the most spectacular, fascinating, and important features in structural geology. Joints control the course of river systems, the extrusion of lava flows and fire fountains, and modulate groundwater flow. Joints and faults are associated with bending of rock strata to form spectacular folds as seen in orogenic belts from British Columbia to Iran, as well as seismogenic deformation of continental and oceanic lithospheres. Anticracks akin to stylolites accommodate significant volumetric strain in the fluid-saturated crust. Deformation bands are pervasive in soft sediments and in porous rocks such as sandstones and carbonates, providing nuclei for fault formation on the continents. Faults also form the boundaries of the large tectonic plates that produce earthquakes—and related phenomena such as mudslides in densely populated regions such as San Francisco, California—in response to tectonic forces and heat transport deep within the Earth. Faults, joints, and deformation bands have been recognized on other planets, satellites, and/or asteroids within our Solar System, attesting to their continuing intrigue and importance to planetary structural geology and tectonics.
This chapter is devoted to geologic structural discontinuities that accommodate displacements perpendicular to their surfaces, including opening-mode fractures such as cracks, joints, veins, and dikes and closing-mode structures referred to as anticracks (Table 4.1). Opening-mode structures (mode-I, Fig. 1.16) are one of the most common types of geologic structural discontinuity. Cracks are defined as sharp planar to curviplanar surfaces of opening-mode displacement discontinuity (Table 1.1). During the process of crack growth, crack walls first were created, then were moved apart normal to the fracture trace to provide a slot-like opening in the rock. Frequently the crack is filled by mineral precipitates from hydrothermal solutions, such as quartz or calcite (producing veins), crystallized magma (producing igneous dikes and sills), or even petroleum or natural gas. Near the Earth’s surface cracks or joints are often found gaping without any infilling solids (Fig. 4.1); these produce the fracture permeability necessary for efficient transport of groundwater, natural gas, and other fluids. Cracks form interesting and aesthetically pleasing patterns; these joint sets and echelon arrays contain information on the growth history of the cracks and, in turn, the brittle deformation of the host strata. Joint patterns can also provide clues to the geomorphologic and tectonic development of a region. In rock engineering, joints and other types of fractures divide an outcrop into an assemblage called a rock mass (e.g., Hoek and Brown, 1980; Chapter 3).
Geologic fracture mechanics (GFM) can be thought of as an interdisciplinary field combining approaches from engineering, materials science, and geology. It includes Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) but relaxes some of the assumptions that are required for LEFM to apply to geologic structural discontinuities (i.e., fractures and deformation bands). LEFM is widely regarded as the most simple and restrictive special case of fracture mechanics (see discussions by Latzko, 1979; Kanninen and Popelar, 1985, p. 13; and Anderson, 1995, p. 117). Upon close examination, it may be seen that many of the predictions of LEFM do not match geologic observations as well as might be desired, suggesting the need for a more general approach that includes material from chemistry (to better consider diagenesis (Fig. 9.1) and subcritical fracture propagation) and plasticity (to better represent near-tip processes). Elements of some of these approaches are described in this chapter.
This chapter provides a synopsis of the use of 2-D (two-dimensional) stress in rock deformation. First, we’ll look at how to apply these simple equations to problems in Coulomb frictional sliding along surfaces in rock. Then we’ll introduce two other very useful, but somewhat more involved, failure criteria for rocks. By the end of the chapter you should be able to start with the stresses on a small piece of intact rock, know how to deal with either a simple Coulomb slip surface or a crack, and then apply this to understand the field-scale characteristics of large-scale fractured outcrops (Fig. 3.1).
Rheology is the study of flow or, more generally, the response of a material like rock to imposed stresses or strains (e.g., Johnson, 1970, pp. 13–22; Weijermars, 1997, p. 13; Karato, 2008). In this chapter we first review some aspects of experimental rock deformation that are relevant to the simplest and perhaps most widely used rheologic model for rocks, that of an elastic material. We’ll then examine the terminology of deformation and strain that flows from the corpus of laboratory studies of rock deformation.