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Social jetlag (SJ) occurs when sleep-timing irregularities from social or occupational demands conflict with endogenous sleep–wake rhythms. SJ is associated with evening chronotype and poor mental health, but mechanisms supporting this link remain unknown. Impaired ability to retrieve extinction memory is an emotion regulatory deficit observed in some psychiatric illnesses. Thus, SJ-dependent extinction memory deficits may provide a mechanism for poor mental health. To test this, healthy male college students completed 7–9 nights of actigraphy, sleep questionnaires, and a fear conditioning and extinction protocol. As expected, greater SJ, but not total sleep time discrepancy, was associated with poorer extinction memory. Unexpectedly, greater SJ was associated with a tendency toward morning rather than evening chronotype. These findings suggest that deficient extinction memory represents a potential mechanism linking SJ to psychopathology and that SJ is particularly problematic for college students with a greater tendency toward a morning chronotype.
The aim of the study was to measure the economic impact of informal care (IC) on caregivers assisting myocardial infarction (MI) survivors in France. Health and social impacts were also described.
Data from the prospective 2008 Health and Disabilities Households Survey (Enquête Handicap-Santé), carried out among the French general population, were used to obtain information about patients with MI and their informal caregivers. To estimate the approximate monetary value of IC, three methods were used: the proxy good method, opportunity cost method (OCM), and contingent valuation method (CVM). A multivariate analysis was performed to determine the associations of the IC duration and the existence of professional care with the health indicators stated by caregivers.
The analysis included data from 147 caregivers. The mean value of IC ranged from €9,679 per year using the CVM to €11,288 per year using the OCM (p > .05). The mean willingness to pay for an additional hour of IC was €10.9 (SD = 8.3). A total of 46.2 percent of caregivers reported that IC negatively affected theirs physical condition, and 46.3 percent reported that it negatively affected their psychological health. In addition, 40.1 percent declared that caregiving activity made them anxious and 38.8 percent stated they felt alone. Associations were identified between the duration of IC and feeling the need to be replaced, feeling alone and making sacrifices (p < .05).
Informal caregiver burden may be recognized in health technology assessment in order not to underestimate the cost of strategies and to facilitate the comparability of cost-effectiveness outcomes between studies.
Serum-antibodies against an organ specific CNS antigen as well as against serotonin and gangliosides (Gm 1) were analysed by ELISA in 34 patients with schizophrenia, ten patients with schizoaffective psychosis and 13 patients with major depressive disorder. Sixty-two patients with various rheumatic disorders and 32 blood donors were included in the study as controls. Sixty-two percent of the 13 patients with major depressive disorder had antibodies to serotonin and 69% to gangliosides, whereas antibody positive sera was only found in 38% of the 34 patients with schizophrenia. The same antibodies were found in only 6% (antibodies to serotonin) and 13% (antibodies to gangliosides) of the 32 blood donors and in a similar frequency in patients with schizoaffective psychosis. Organ specific antibodies to CNS-antigen could not be detected in the psychiatric patient group at any significant level. It is speculated that auto-immune reactions towards a serotonin receptor may be involved in the etiopathogenesis of major depressive disorder.
Sera from patients with major depressive disorder and paranoid schizophrenia were screened for antinuclear antibodies (antigens: ds-DNA, ENA, histone H3) and circulating immune complexes (CIC-Cq1) by ELISA. Controls were healthy blood donors. Only a few of the patients' sera were positive for anti-ds-DNA and anti-ENA antibodies. There was no significant result. In paranoid schizophrenia 20.5% of sera were positive for antibodies against histone H3. In the case of CIC-Cql, 7% of the patients with major depressive disorder and 11 % of those with paranoid schizophrenia were positive. Controls showed positive sera in 39%. This study disagrees with former studies which could demonstrate a series of antinuclear antibodies in mental disorders. In the case of antihistone antibodies, the present results could indicate an autoimmune process in a subgroup of schizophrenic patients.
This double-blind (DB), relapse prevention, phase-3 study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of paliperidone palmitate long-acting 3-monthly formulation (PP3M) versus placebo in delaying time-to-relapse of schizophrenia symptoms.
Adults (18-70 years old) with schizophrenia (DSM-IV-TR) were treated with PP (17-week, open-label [OL] transition phase: 50, 75, 100, or 150 mg eq, once-monthly, [PP1M]; 12-week OL maintenance phase: 3.5-fold PP1M stabilized dose, single injection), and then randomized (1:1) to PP3M fixed doses (175, 263, 350 or 525 mg eq.) or placebo.
305/506 patients enrolled were randomized (PP3M: n=160; placebo: n=145); majority were men (75%), white (59%), mean age 38.4 years. Interim analysis results favored PP3M vs. placebo (p = 0.0002, two-sided log-rank test; HR: 3.45, 95% CI: 1.73; 6.88); median time-to-relapse was 274 days in placebo and not estimable in PP3M group. Final results were consistent with interim analysis. Both PANSS total score and CGI-S score showed a significant effect over time in PP3M- vs. placebo-treated patients (p>0.001). 330/506 (65.2%) patients in OL phase and 183/305 (60.0%) in DB phase (PP3M: 61.9% vs. placebo: 57.9%) had ≥1 treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE). The TEAEs noted more frequently in PP3M-vs. placebo (DB phase) were nasopharyngitis (5.6% vs. 1.4%), weight gain (8.8% vs. 3.4%), headache (8.8% vs.4.1%) and akathisia (4.4% vs. 0.7%).
Compared with placebo, PP3M significantly delayed time to first relapse in patients with schizophrenia, previously treated for 4 months with PP1M. PP3M was tolerable with a safety profile generally consistent with other marketed formulations of paliperidone.
Healthy diet has been linked to better age-related functioning, but evidence on the relationship of diet quality in late midlife and measures of physical capability in later life is limited. Research on potential sex differences in this relationship is scarce. The aim was to investigate the prospective association between overall diet quality, as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015) at 60–64 years and measures of walking speed 7 years later, among men and women from the Insight 46, a neuroscience sub-study of the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development. Diet was assessed at 60–64 years using 5-d food diaries, from which total HEI-2015 was calculated. At 69–71 years, walking speed was estimated during four 10-m walks at self-selected pace, using inertial measurement units. Multivariable linear regression models with sex as a modifier, controlling for age, follow-up, lifestyle, health/social variables and physical performance, were used. The final sample consists of 164 women and 167 men (n 331). Women had higher HEI-2015 and slower walking speed than men. A 10-point increase in HEI-2015 was associated with faster walking speed among women (B 0·024, 95 % CI 0·006, 0·043), but not men. The association remained significant in the multivariable model (B 0·021, 95 % CI 0·003, 0·040). In women, higher diet quality in late midlife is associated with faster walking speed. A healthy diet in late midlife is likely to contribute towards better age-related physical capability, and sex differences are likely to affect this relationship.
The chapter argues that Bergson’s vitalism is a pseudo-naturalism that serves as a cover for pursuing a traditional metaphysical project. Bergson seems to work in the same direction as pragmatism to overcome the entrenched opposition between evolutionist, naturalist materialism and exceptionalist, antinaturalist spiritualism, underscoring the continuity between biological life and human social, moral, and political life and at the same time contrasting the latter’s specificity with our species’ biological nature. Yet this does not amount to a naturalist position, for two reasons. First, Bergson reasserts the primacy of mind over matter and articulates a global supernaturalism that fixes the point of departure of nature in a “supraconsciousness” and proposes that the telos of culture lies in the spiritual union of humans in and through the love of God. Bergson’s position is thus a variant of spiritualism, not a naturalist alternative to it. Second, an examination of Bergson’s method of identifying “differences in kind” reveals that the way he integrates humanity into the natural evolution of the species accords perfectly with the foundationalist project of metaphysics to discover a “source,” an antecedent nonhuman reality.
In the years just before the First World War, Henri Bergson (1859–1941) was at the height of his fame. His first two books, Time and Free Will (1889) and Matter and Memory (1896), had established him as the preeminent philosopher of France. But it was the publication of Creative Evolution in 1907 that made him a genuine cultural sensation. Avant-garde artists and writers flocked to his lectures at the Collège de France. As did “high society”: so much so that students, tired of losing their seats to those able to send valets hours in advance to reserve seats, circulated an (ultimately unsuccessful) petition to ban the general public. And on the day Bergson was elected to the French Academy, he found his lectern showered with flower petals, leading him to protest, “but … I am not a dancer!”
Summarizing the results of Bergson’s inquiry into the realities generally referred to under the heading “religion,” the chapter identifies what Bergson calls the “specifically religious element” as love (the mystics’ word for the élan vital) in action. To account for its possibility, the chapter turns to Bergson’s use of the term “conversion,” which he consistently employs to describe qualitative change, and articulates the mystic experience as a conversion that aims at a creative transformation of humanity. The very terms in which Bergson couches this conversion call up and shed new light on major themes of Bergson’s philosophy, including liberty, the élan vital, and philosophical intuition. The conclusion of the essay addresses Bergson’s problematic “conversion” to Catholicism as an instance of love in action.
This chapter lays out the principal features of Bergson’s new conception of truth. Although not always foregrounded by Bergson (and consequently overlooked by commentators), the issue of truth is central for him. Like William James, Bergson rejects the correspondence theory of truth because the world we seek to describe is endlessly changing. Accordingly, truth is not discovered in a quest for knowledge: it is invented. To counter the charge that such an invented truth is subjective and arbitrary, Bergson, again like James, insists on its practical verifiability. But, unlike James, he does not stop there: he seeks to establish theoretical criteria as well. This has three consequences: an emphasis on the notion of problems in philosophy; a recasting of the theory of general ideas; and the elaboration of Bergson’s well-known theory of intuition. Against this background, the chapter presents the central achievement of Bergson’s theory of truth, namely that it shows how what is true can be new and how what is new can be true.
Bergson was a pre-eminent European philosopher of the early twentieth century and his work covers all major branches of philosophy. This volume of essays is the first collection in twenty years in English to address the whole of Bergson's philosophy, including his metaphysics, epistemology, philosophy of science, philosophy of life, aesthetics, ethics, social and political thought, and religion. The essays explore Bergson's influence on a number of different fields, and also extend his thought to pressing issues of our time, including philosophy as a way of life, inclusion and exclusion in politics, ecology, the philosophy of race and discrimination, and religion and its enduring appeal. The volume will be valuable for all who are interested in this important thinker and his continuing relevance.