To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To investigate the association between suicide death and serum cholesterol levels as measured at times close to suicide death.
We conducted a nested case-control study of 41 cases of suicide deaths and 205 matched controls with serum total cholesterol (TC) levels till 3 years before suicide death in a large cohort of Japanese workers.
Individuals in the lowest versus highest tertile/predefined category of TC in a Japanese working population had a three- to four-fold greater risk of suicide death. Each 10 mg/dl decrement of average TC was associated with an 18% increased chance of suicide death (95% confidence interval, 2–35%). Similar results were found for TC levels at each year.
These results suggest that a low serum TC level in recent past is associated with an increased risk of suicide death.
Molluscan shells showing phenotypic variations are ideal models for studying evolution and plasticity. In north-eastern Asia, genetic and morphological diversity of the gastropod, Monodonta labio, were assumed to be influenced by both palaeoclimatic changes and current ecological factors. In this study, we examined spatial variations in shell shape of M. labio using general measurement and geometric morphometric analysis. We also investigated whether shell shape variation is best explained by environmental gradients or by genetic structuring, based on our prior molecular phylogeographic study. Two common morphological forms were observed among Chinese populations and in the adjacent Asian areas. Both the analyses revealed separation patterns in morphological variations of shell shape among the clades and populations. Environmental modelling analysis showed a significant correlation between shape variations and local maximum temperatures of the warmest month, indicating the role of natural selection in the evolution of this species. Data obtained in this study, combined with the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) molecular phylogenetic data from the prior study, showed that morphological variations in M. labio were constrained by both local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity. We hypothesized that geographic separation by the Dongshan Landbridge was the first step towards its diversification, and that the temperature gradient between the East China Sea and South China Sea probably was the selective force driving the divergence of its morphological variations.
Many medical procedures such as brachytherapy, thermal ablations, and biopsies are performed using needle-based procedures. In this work, 3D manipulation of an active needle realized by multiple Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuators was first predicted by Finite Element Analyses (FEA), and then demonstrated by a fabricate prototype. The FEA results were validated by planar deflection of an active needle. A similar FEA was developed to predict 3D manipulation of the active needle. For 17-gage needle, a maximum of 26° reversible deflection was achieved in 3D space via actuation forces of a 0.127 mm SMA wire. A scaled prototype was also developed and tested to show the feasibility of developing a 3D steering active needle with multiple actuators.
Does cultural consolidation among ethnic groups lead to nationalist mobilization? Extant research in the study of nationalism suggests a tight connection between the two. My article addresses this question by operationalizing cultural consolidation through language standardization and by providing an empirical analysis. I argue that not all ethnic groups that consolidate their culture build institutions toward sovereignty and propose that cases that fail to invest in institutions make strong contributions to the existing framework in the literature. Following a brief survey on the Bulgarians as a case of successful mobilization, I document evidence from an in-depth study on the Occitans, a minority ethnic group in France, as a failed case. Findings from a process-tracing approach indicate that although the Occitans standardized their language by 1900, their leading intellectuals grew content became content with the situation and failed to make the next move. I contribute by operationalizing cultural consolidation and by introducing “institution-building” as a crucial outcome between cultural consolidation and state-building. My article suggests that decisions of ethnic elites matter to understand why some groups start nationalist mobilization.
To develop a dish composition database (DCD) and assess its ability to estimate dietary intake.
The DCD was developed based on 16 d dietary records (DR). We aggregated all reported dishes into 128 dish codes and calculated mean food group and nutrient contents for each code. These data were used to calculate dietary intake in a different population that completed a 4 d DR. The estimated values were compared with those estimated using the standard food composition database (FCD) of Japan.
A total 252 adults aged 31–81 years for the 16 d DR (3941 d in total) and 392 adults aged 20–69 years for the 4 d DR (1568 d in total) participated.
There were significant differences in median intakes between the DCD and the FCD for eighteen and twenty (of twenty-six) food groups and for twenty-nine and twenty-two (of forty-three) nutrients (including energy) in men and women, respectively. For food group intakes, Spearman correlation coefficients between the DCD and FCD ranged from 0·19 (animal fats) to 0·90 (fruits and alcoholic beverages) in men (median: 0·61) and from 0·25 (oils) to 0·89 (noodles) in women (median: 0·58). For nutrient intakes, the corresponding values ranged from 0·25 (retinol) to 0·90 (alcohol) in men (median: 0·60) and from 0·15 (retinol) to 0·74 (alcohol) in women (median: 0·53).
Whereas it is difficult to accurately estimate absolute dietary intake values using the present DCD, it has acceptable ability to rank the intakes of many food groups and nutrients.
Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, for the first time, describes how disaster affects the health of people. Japan is prone to natural hazards, but at the same time, Japan has achieved one of the highest life expectancies (LE) in the world. After experiencing many disasters, Japan seems to have achieved resilience against disasters. Thus, we tested a hypothesis that high LE correlates with low disaster risk.
We compared LE from the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Health Observatory and the Index for Risk Management’s (INFORM) disaster risk index, or World Risk Index (WRI), of each country using JMP software. INFORM risk index varies from 0-10, while WRI varies from 0-1, where a higher value means higher disaster risk in both systems. INFORM risk index considers hazard and exposure, vulnerability, lack of coping capacity, and lack of reliability. WRI considers exposure, susceptibility, lack of coping capacity, and lack of adaptive capacity, including logarithmized LE as a part of adaptive capacity.
The overall INFORM risk index was negatively correlated with LE (p<0:0001). Although natural hazard did not correlate with LE (p=0.7), the human hazard, vulnerability, and lack of coping capacity negatively correlated with LE (p<0.0001, respectively). Health-related indicators, which confirm the vulnerability and lack of coping capacity, were negatively correlated with LE. Cluster analysis of LE and INFORM risk of six categories resulted in four clusters of countries, suggesting that health development and disaster risk reduction are independent determinants. WRI also correlated with LE, but there are many outliers compared to the INFORM risk index.
High LE can be a good complementary indicator of low disaster risk. Strategies to achieve better health that contribute to high LE are also effective and important strategies for disaster risk reduction.
Psychiatric disorders and related intermediate phenotypes are highly heritable and have a complex, overlapping polygenic architecture. A large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) of anxiety disorders identified genetic variants that are significant on a genome-wide. The current study investigated the genetic etiological overlaps between anxiety disorders and frequently cooccurring psychiatric disorders and intermediate phenotypes.
Using case–control and factor score models, we investigated the genetic correlations of anxiety disorders with eight psychiatric disorders and intermediate phenotypes [the volumes of seven subcortical brain regions, childhood cognition, general cognitive ability and personality traits (subjective well-being, loneliness, neuroticism and extraversion)] from large-scale GWASs (n = 7556–298 420) by linkage disequilibrium score regression.
Among psychiatric disorders, the risk of anxiety disorders was positively genetically correlated with the risks of major depressive disorder (MDD) (rg ± standard error = 0.83 ± 0.16, p = 1.97 × 10−7), schizophrenia (SCZ) (0.28 ± 0.09, p = 1.10 × 10−3) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (0.34 ± 0.13, p = 8.40 × 10−3). Among intermediate phenotypes, significant genetic correlations existed between the risk of anxiety disorders and neuroticism (0.81 ± 0.17, p = 1.30 × 10−6), subjective well-being (−0.73 ± 0.18, p = 4.89 × 10−5), general cognitive ability (−0.23 ± 0.08, p = 4.70 × 10−3) and putamen volume (−0.50 ± 0.18, p = 5.00 × 10−3). No other significant genetic correlations between anxiety disorders and psychiatric or intermediate phenotypes were observed (p > 0.05). The case–control model yielded stronger genetic effect sizes than the factor score model.
Our findings suggest that common genetic variants underlying the risk of anxiety disorders contribute to elevated risks of MDD, SCZ, ADHD and neuroticism and reduced quality of life, putamen volume and cognitive performance. We suggest that the comorbidity of anxiety disorders is partly explained by common genetic variants.
Previous studies have associated dietary patterns with diabetes risk in Western countries, but such studies among the Japanese population are scarce. The present study aimed to investigate dietary patterns associated with abnormal glucose tolerance determined by elevated glycated Hb (HbA1c) levels.
The 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS) database was used for the cross-sectional study. Dietary patterns were analysed by factor analysis of twenty-five food items from the dietary intake survey and household-based semi-weighed dietary records. OR and 95 % CI for elevated HbA1c levels (≥6·5 %) according to dietary patterns were estimated using logistic regression models.
The study population comprised 9550 Japanese aged ≥40 years registered in the nationwide NHNS.
Three dietary patterns were identified: (i) high-bread and low-rice; (ii) high-meat and low-fish; and (iii) vegetable. The high-bread and low-rice pattern, characterised by high frequent consumption of bread, milk and dairy products, and fruits, and low rice intake, was associated with marginally decreased prevalence of elevated HbA1c levels (Ptrend=0·047). The vegetable pattern, characterised by vegetables, mushrooms, soyabeans and soybean products, was significantly inversely associated with elevated HbA1c levels (4th v. 1st quartile: multivariable OR=0·68; 95 % CI 0·49, 0·95; Ptrend=0·007).
Our findings suggest that the vegetable pattern is associated with decreased prevalence of elevated HbA1c levels among Japanese.
A X-ray diffraction system using an Imaging Plate(IP) has been developed for time resolved X-ray measurements. The system consists of a new drum scanning type IP reader which includes a multiple time resolved X-ray exposure mechanism and a simple high temperature sample holder. Both are controlled from a personal computer. The new IP reader also supports 50μm/pixel reading for high resolution type IP (Blue IP), and has a spatial resolution better than 75μm.
As known well, non-linear sin2ϕ diagrams are observed from materials having either steep gradients of residual stresses paralell to the surface normal of the specimen or tri-axial stress components. Many authors have reported on this problem for several processing such as polishing and grinding etc. The authors also obtained such non-linear data from an electro-plated zinc—nickel alloy. For these cases, the sin2ϕ method is inadequate for the stress evaluation. Much attention has been given to the stress analysis from about 1970s as compared to the X-ray elastic constants for this phenomenon.
Titanium aluminide base allays are new materials of interest with exellent potential for high temperature structural applications. Several studies on the fracture toughness of these alloys have been reported and the beneficial effect of lamellar microstructure consisting of Ti3Al(α2) and TiAl(γ) has been detected. While these studies indicate such an enhancement of the fracture toughness is caused by micro-crack toughening, SEM observation alone is insufficient to clarify the fracture mechanism.
The Fuji Imaging Plate (IP) is a 2-dimensional detector in which a latent X-ray image is stored as a distribution of color centers on a photostimulable phosphor (BaFBr:Eu2+) screen. It has a large effective area, wide dynamic range and high sensitivity. Thus it has been widely used not only in medical but also in scientific and industrial fields. Particularly in X-ray structure analysis, mainly of proteins, it has been used extensively and achieved good results.
On the other hand, few applications have been reported in the field except for structure analysis, in spite of the superior performance of the IP which will give significant advantages in various measurements which have been done using an X-ray film such as electric device and fiber specimen.
Therefore we report here the basic performance of R-AXIS II(Rigaku Automated X-Ray Imaging System II), an IP reader made by Rigaku, and some applications of X-ray diffraction measurements using IP.
The Fuji Imaging Plate (IP) is a 2-Dimensional X-ray detector on which a latent X-ray image is stored as a distribution of color centers in a photo-stimulable phosphor(BaFBr:Eu) screen. It has excellent characteristics such as a wide dynamic range of five or more digits and an order of magnitude higher sensitivity than X-ray film. Thus it has been actively used in the field of X-ray single crystal structure analysis.
For polymer studies, 2-D information is useful to analyse a sample's orientation or periodic structure, and some system such as 2-D position sensitive detector (PSD) are widely used. But in spite of the superior performance of the IP which will give significant advantages in various measurements, few applications have been reported in this field, because most conventional IP based systems are specialized for the single crystal structure analysis,
Therefore we developed the R-AXIS II D (Rigaku Automated X-ray Imaging System II D), an IP reader for general X-ray diffractometry which has a removable IP in order for exposure with external X-ray optics, and software which converts 2-D data to conventional 2theta-intensity or beta-intensity data for analysis of crystallinity or orientation. In this paper, we report the performance of R-AXIS II D and its applications to polymer studies and thin film analyses.
Nonlinear sin2ψ curves are often obtained in X-ray stress measurement. One of the reasons, for non-textured materials, is a steep stress gradient snowing in a surface layer of a sample. Regarding such experimental results, several new principles have been developed for X-ray stress analysis. At the present stage, we can evaluate the stress gradient in a triaxial stress state. As the next stage of the investigation, it is necessary to consider the validity of the assumptions taken in the principle, especially, the assumption about linear distribution of stress along the depth direction.
Residual stress in thin films of RF-sputtered aluminum coated on substrate of glass was measured by X-ray multiaxial stress measurement. The films were manufactured under the various conditions such as temperature of substrate ranged from 473K to 573K, and pressure of argon gas range from 0.0093Pato 13.3Pa respectively. These results brought comprehension that residual stress existed in tri-axial and that was influenced by temperature of substrate and pressure of argon gas. Residual stresses were unstable in range of less than 1.33Pa of pressure of argon gas.
When X-ray residual stresses are determined taking into account the stress gradients within the penetration depth of X-rays, three assumptions have usually been made; 1) the stress gradient is linear in respect to the depth from the specimen surface, 2) the penetration depth of X-rays is a function of Sin2ψ and 3) the strain measured by X-rays corresponds to the average strain weighted on the intensity of the diffracted X-rays. However, the assumption of the penetration depth of X-rays is the reason we sometimes observed noticeable errors which depend on the combination of stress components in the stress tensor.
Zn-Ni-alloy electroplated steels are used for the parts of automob iles because of their high corrosion resistance. in the x-ray stress measurement of this material, some unique experimental results were observed: (i) The sin2Φ diagrams were severely curved, and (ii) the influence of the wave length of x-ray radiations upon the shape of the d-sin2Φ diagram was very slight. As no strong texture or the gradients of composition were observed in this material, the above experimental results suggested the existence of steep stress gradients in the direction of depth, and a theoretical problem on the difference in the effective penetration depth of x-rays and the weighted mean of the lattice strain between thin films and ordinary thick materials.
Since the method of X-ray multiaxial stress analysis (ψ-splitting problem) was proposed by Dolle and Hauk, their method is often utilized for residual stress evaluation on a processed surface. However, as pointed out by thanselves, a theoretical problem still remains on the assumption of the stress state. Namely, the effect of ψ-splitting is impossible unless stress gradients with respect to the direction of the depth in σ13 or σ23 are present, because these components and σ33 have to vanish at the outer surface. Actually, we often find the 2θ vs. sin2ψ relations which do not agree with their theory. In this paper, we proposed a new method for X-ray multiaxial stress analysis in which the effect of stress gradient was considered. The basic equation of this method was solved by means of the integral method proposed by Lode and Peiter. The validity of the present method was proved through a numerical simulation and an experiment.