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I may be privileged to say a word on the microscopes turned out of your workshops. I tested them and found them in design and execution as good as anything I have used manufactured by British and German makers. The increase of pupils and the extension of the Research Laboratory of the National Medical College of India in the departments of Physiology and Bacteriology have made it incumbent on us to add to the microscopes and other instruments. We were thinking of indenting these from Germany but what I saw last night has inspired me with the hope that we might be able to satisfy our wants nearer home. Your boys have inaugurated a new era in the production of scientific instruments in India and I see no reason why we should not be a self-sufficing nation even in regard to these delicate instruments.
—Dr S. K. Mallik, M.D., C.M. (Edin.), Dean of the National Medical College, Calcutta, to Satish Chandra Mukherjee, Principal of the Bengal National College (1909)
Presiding over the annual prize-giving of the Bengal Engineering College at Shibpur, Howrah, yesterday afternoon, the Hon. Khan Bahadur M. Azizul Haque, Minister of Education, said that India's resources had not yet been fully trapped, and it would be the task of student engineers of to-day to realize those untapped resources for the good and betterment of this country. The Hon. Minister pointed out that though in the past former students of the college had done excellent work in later life, modern India would make even greater demands than had been made in the past.
— ‘Great Demand for Engineers: Minister's Speech’, annual prize-giving at Shibpur College (1936)
Institutional history is an emerging field within the broader – and yet nascent – field of the history of technology. This chapter elucidates the history of Bengal Engineering College, Sibpur, and the College of Engineering and Technology, Jadavpur. A brief account of the history of the two higher educational institutions will illustrate the complexity of the issues involved in the progress of technical education during the period 1880–1945.
The demand of electrical energy in this great city [Calcutta] has recently increased very rapidly, and energetic steps have had to be taken by the Electric Supply Corporation, under the Chairmanship of Lord Meston, to keep pace with the requirements of their area with its population of one and a half millions. In 1925 100 million units were sold. Last year this output reached 148 millions while the estimate for the current year is 168 millions. Truly remarkable progress.
The leading developments to be noted with regard to the general supply in the city are the recent completion of the transfer of the Tramway Company's load to the Electric Supply Corporation and the substantial progress made in the electrification of the Jute Mills and other industries.
—A. T. Cooper, a professional engineer with wide experience of electrical problems in India (1929)
The historians of technology, dealing with colonial South Asia, mostly discuss the new infrastructural and transportation technologies, and the modernization narrative from the mid-nineteenth century onwards. Surprisingly enough, this scholarship is not very vocal about perhaps twentieth century's most dynamic technology – electricity. The saga of electrification and its interface with colonial society is mostly unwritten. Sunila Kale explains this gap – electric power emerged as a new technology only near the end of the nineteenth century and thus left a tiny record in the colonial archive, unlike the long histories of canal irrigation and railroads, to document the recent past. Although this technology arrived in India just after it was first introduced in London and New York in the 1880s, the electricity networks expanded here only in the early twentieth century. Akhil Gupta remarks, as there is no ‘sensual way’ to experience electricity, thus from the beginning it is a social and cultural thing, ‘not something that belongs to the natural world, however that might be constructed’. Historically a young form of power, electricity became conducive for lighting purposes, and thus gradually outshined other forms of energy.
A technology is not merely a combination of machines with certain purposes, but part of our society.
We had an interview with Sir R. Mookerjee…. In his opinion the standard of education in mechanical and electrical engineering up to the ‘Improver Class’ does not need extending, but should be of a very practical nature. He did not think very high training was required as men so trained would not obtain appointments, and he, from a commercial point of view, would much prefer an European to an Indian of similar qualifications when a man with a higher training was wanted.
—E. H. deV. Atkinson and Tom S. Dawson, in a report (1912)
In engineering colleges, we found that the engineers that the colleges turned out were only operation and maintenance engineers – none of them was an engineer of a higher type who could undertake work of designing except in civil engineering – say of the Damodar Valley or other river valley projects which we are undertaking. We did not find any place where any research work was being done on the production of machinery or other articles which we very badly need for the reconstruction of the country.
—Meghnad Saha during a Lok Sabha debate in 1952
The history of technology in South Asia, as an academic discipline, is witnessing a debate between the significance of ‘big’ technology (railways, canal irrigation, hydraulic dam, and so on) and ‘small everyday technology’ (wristwatch, bicycle, sewing machine, and so on) in understanding its appropriation in the Global South. In this methodological deliberation, the former is linked to imperial politics and the latter to everyday life experiences of the people. The narratives of big technologies coincide with subjugation and ultimately the ‘tools of empire’ thesis, whereas the advocates of ‘everyday technology’ believe that the small technologies mingled with South Asian culture without much contestation. However, for a better understanding of the subject, we need to accommodate both the extremes. This is relevant to discuss a complex question: What is South Asia in science, technology, and innovation on the one hand, and what are science, technology, and innovation in South Asia on the other? Put another way: Can one see South Asians as intellectuals thinking about and making technology based on intellect?
Bengal is the poorer for the death, which took place yesterday at the age of only 52 of Mr. H. Bose, the well-known perfumer. Mr. Bose was a born businessman. He came from Eastern Bengal and studied both at University and Medical College at Calcutta. He did not graduate either in Arts on Medicine, but his Medical studies appear to have directed his attention to the subject of perfumes and here his business acumen enabled him to score a veritable triumph. But Mr. Bose's energies were too great to be confined to a single trade, and a few years ago he developed a large Gramophone Business, started a well-equipped printing press, and launched out into the motor trade. Most if not all these enterprises have been highly successful.…
—The Statesman commemorates the sudden demise of Hemendra Mohan Bose, popularly known as H. Bose, famous perfumer and mechanic (1916)
An important subject to which I should like to refer is the progress of science and industry in this country. Faced as we are with international conflicts of gigantic proportions, it does not require much imagination to see that the scientific and industrial development of a country is essential not only for its prosperity but also for its very existence. The industrial development of a country is, however, conditioned not only by research but also by the all-important questions of finance and national policy. In Germany, the intimate cooperation among the government, universities and the industrial organizations resulted in a very rapid development.… If the government, universities and industrial organizations are made to participate in a national policy of intensive industrialization, none can resist the early attainment of India's economic freedom.
—Syama Prasad Mookerjee, eminent educationalist and politician, in his speech delivered at the Banaras Hindu University Convocation (1940)
The collaboration between academic institutions, industry, and the state is vital to innovation and progress in a knowledge-based economy. Innovation, the reconfiguration of elements into a more productive combination, takes on a wider connotation in today's world.
Perhaps, it is too early yet to judge of the results of a movement which began in right earnest not more than a decade ago. But I am constrained to sound a note of warning and to try to dispel an illusion, more, because of the share, however, humble, I have had in the Technical Education movement, and because, I confess, I have been under the illusion myself. The illusion is, that with the progress of technical education and with persistent endeavour, India will gradually become studded with factories after the manner of the flourishing countries of Europe owned and managed by Indians.
—P. N. Bose, the noted geologist and science enthusiast, in 1916
Many consider an electrification is luxury even today. But this is not true. We know the electrification leads to rapid industrialization. The recent industrial growth of our country creates huge demand for continuous power supply. Use of the diesel engine is economical compared to the steam engine on several reasons. To fulfil the huge industrial demand, we need plenty of such engines for power supply without an interruption. How long we will depend on the foreign counties for supply of these engines? Or shall we try to manufacture such engines in our country itself?
—Jatindranath Basu, Professor at the Bengal Technical Institute (1928)
Recent scholarship has recognized well the significance of technology in understanding the history of modern India. During the second half of the twentieth century, the ‘colonial world’ became a prominent research focus for historians, and the history of modern technology is written in the backdrop of the empire. The history of technology on the subcontinent thus framed narrates a general story about the character of empire and the other forces that shaped this history up until independence in 1947. But today historians of technology share an interest in the history of knowledge, the relation between the global and the local, and the role played by experts and know-how. As Karel Davids rightly observes, ‘software’ has become as crucial as ‘hardware’ for technology's storytellers; information techniques are as important as instruments and machines.
Today, most industrialized states in the world attempt to secure the most effective utilization of their respective knowledge base.
When electricity first came to Calcutta, it was a fearful object to most of the rich and affluent of the city. They assumed that for new electric connection they had to make a hole in the wall and that could be risky. Thus, tried hard to avoid such things! My father was the first who discarded such phobia by applying for electricity and subsequently got the connection in our locality. The incident acted as a catalyst and after that many applied for electric connection. As that was like big advertisement for them, a pleased electric supply company relieved my father from remitting the connection changes.
—Purnima Debi on her father, Gaganendranath Thakur (1900?)
Realizing the need of a journal on electricity in vernacular, we started Bijoli few months back. We earnestly hope that our initiative would be recognized by the Bengali entrepreneurs who involve in the business of electricity and things electrical in and outside Bengal. We also hope that the journal would be helpful to them. We want to see our fellow Bengalis to excel in electricity industry and our journal would be the mouthpiece of such emerging entrepreneurial activities.
—Bijoli, in an editorial published in 1933
The introduction of electricity transformed life fundamentally. At first, a luxury good, electric light and power generation, both symbols of modernity, soon became a basic need everywhere in the world. The subject of electrification has fascinated business and economic historians along with scholars with an interest in technology: analysing strategies of manufacturing companies from different perspectives, the interaction between social and cultural factors and the process of electrification, the history of electrical technology, and many more aspects. But the literature mostly caters to the Global North. Alongside capital, land, and labour, energy – especially electricity – is the key input for contemporary capital accumulation. Poor quality power supply damages the industrial and commercial interests of the state and thus casts doubt on the extent of the state's ‘pro-business tilt’. Elizabeth Chatterjee rightly opines that the power sector provides a crucial lens on Indian political economy.
The harnessing of electricity has been considered one of the driving technologies behind modern capitalism and industrialization.
If the Government really desire to remove the wants of the Indian people, it should send Indian youths to England in order to have them taught in the working of machinery. India is suffering heavy loss for the want of knowledge. The manufacture of jute cloths is very profitable. But educated Indians do not engage in that profitable business. Manchester drains away the wealth of this country by making cloth out of its jute. The writer complains that every European country levies duties upon goods imported from India. Even, London, the home of free trade, levies duties upon Indian gold and silver plates. This oppression will not cease until India begins to manufacture articles with the aid of machinery.
— Charu Varta, Bengali periodical, 24 March 1884
Among the various exhibits of the Calcutta Exhibition, the mechanical appliances of Ghatak Iron Works deserve mention. These include the rice-husking machine, flour-husking machine, pump, etc. Late Jagadishwar Ghatak, the father of the present proprietor Babu Umapati Ghatak, first introduced rice-mill in Bengal almost thirty-five years ago. Today rice-mill is a flourishing industry throughout Bengal. The Ghatak Iron Works also first established match factory in Bengal and invested huge amount of money to strengthen the industry. Many aspirant young men learnt the art from them and started match industry successfully. Their match-making machine was the centre of attraction in the Calcutta Exhibition of 1923–24 and won gold-medal and felicitation. Their inventive capacity is commendable.
—Arthik Unnati, a monthly journal in Bengali, reported in 1928
The history of technology is not merely a history of the machines. It is much more than that: an inquiry into the application of the human imagination. The history of technology can also be written in terms of the ways people associate with and yet at the same time seek to keep themselves aloof from technological objects. Modern technologies, starting from the electric telegraph to the modern-day computer, originated in the West. However, this does not mean that their histories were uniform across the globe – only replicas of the Western models. Since the late nineteenth century, our society witnessed the incorporation of numerous technologies and transformations therein.
LET THERE BE LIGHT is a sacred phrase: It is found in Genesis 1: 3 of the Torah. There it is mentioned, in the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. The earth was formless, and darkness prevailed all around. Then God said, ‘Let there be Light’, and there was light. God saw that light was good and thus separated it from the darkness. God called the light ‘day’, and the darkness ‘night’. However, now in modern times, after sunset, another day emerges – night, with its electric lights, is sometimes brighter than the day! Just imagine what would have been our state of existence without electricity. Modern industry could not exist without it. The transformation of science into economic goods is not new. There have been many instances of scientific ideas transforming into industrial practice since the advent of the Industrial Revolution, the classic example being the electrical industry. What is new is the magnification of this process, including the shortening of the time span between invention and application, and the increased reliance of entrepreneurs on knowledge manufactured in academic institutions.
The significance of the history of technology is realized when technology is understood not simply as an artefact or technique, but as part of the history of a culture and of the social and intellectual development of human civilization. There was a close connection between commercial interests, technological changes, and government policy in India from the early years of British rule. Western technologies are significant, Roy Macleod and Deepak Kumar emphasize, not only as ‘tools’, but also as forms of knowledge, occasionally mentioned as technical education in the colonial archives. From an artefact to a modern machine, a certain amount of knowledge must be embedded in it. The use of the term ‘techno-science’ in this book is to explain the application of scientific knowledge (both pure and applied) for technological solutions, sometimes loosely used in the literature as ‘engineering sciences’. Several new technologies came to India as colonial baggage. However, Indians were not mere spectators; on numerous occasions they manipulated and contributed to the domestication of modern technologies.
The purpose of this paper is to disclose improved crystal based frequency source system covering design techniques and experimental methodologies for the stabilization of phase noise performance of X-band phase-locked loop (PLL) at 10.6 GHz. Phase noise performance of PLL-based unit under test (UUT) is prone to disturbance occurred in random vibration profile frequency spectrum. UUT self-resonance plays vital role in occurrence of disturbance in random vibration profile. The stabilization of phase noise performance during dynamic (random) vibration condition is achieved by following methodologies, i.e. vibration-isolator compensation techniques, purification tactic for reference crystal of PLL, and spatial location analysis for finding out mounting position of reference crystal. Spatial analysis helps to filter out UUT self-resonance frequency from random vibration spectrum which leads to reduction of frequency resonance pickups during random vibration testing.
The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has resulted in various changes in knowledge, attitude and practice among doctors. A survey was conducted of otolaryngologists in India regarding these aspects in relation to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.
Otolaryngologists from West Bengal (India) were invited to participate in an online self-administered survey. Data were collected and analysed using appropriate methods.
Responses from 133 participants, grouped into 4 groups by their career stage, were collected and analysed. Of the participants, 36.8 per cent were directly involved in treating a known or suspected coronavirus disease 2019 patient, although 66.2 per cent considered the personal protective equipment inadequate. Ninety-four per cent indicated that their willingness to perform procedures depended on personal protective equipment availability. Of the respondents, 83.5 per cent revealed additional mental stress due to the pandemic. Of the participants, 41.4 per cent took hydroxychloroquine as coronavirus disease 2019 prophylaxis.
This study provides an insight into which issues may need attention, to help ENT surgeons tackle the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic more effectively based on analysis of responses in the survey.
Design of composite semiconductor nanostructures with proper band alignment for efficient charge separation and carrier transport has been at the center of research for photoelectrochemical water splitting. This work demonstrates the deposition of a NiFe2O4 @Fe2O3 core-shell nanostructured film sensitized with CdS to form a ternary heterojunction for cascade type electron transfer. The hematite nanostructures were grown by hydrothermal approach through dipping into a solution of Nickel Nitrate yielded anchoring of Ni2+ ions on the outer surface. The films were then annealed at 650 0C for the diffusion of Ni2+ ions into the hematite lattice which forms core-shell NiFe2O4 @Fe2O3 heterojunction. The films were further sensitized with CdS nanoparticles deposited by a hydrothermal approach to form the final ternary heterojunction photoanode. Several different nanostructures were grown and the effect of crystal facet tailoring was observed on Ni loading and photoelectrochemical performance. The photoelectrochemical measurements were carried out using a potentiostat under 100 mW/cm2 light source (150W Xenon Lamp) with Pt counter electrode and 0.5 M Na2S and 0.5 M Na2SO3 electrolyte. A current density of 3.47 mA/cm2 was observed at 1.23 V (vs Ag/AgCl). An Applied Bias to Photocurrent Efficiency (ABPE) of 1.8 % photoconversion efficiency was observed using the fabricated electrodes at 0.288V (vs Ag/AgCl).
The purpose of this research was to investigate coronavirus disease (COVID-19) susceptibility in districts of Bangladesh using multicriteria evaluation techniques.
Secondary data were collected from different government organizations, 120 primary surveys were conducted for calculating weights, and results were validated through 12 key people’s interviews. Pairwise comparison matrixes were calculated for 9 factors and subfactors. The analytic hierarchy process used for calculating the susceptibility index and map was prepared based on the results.
According to the results, multiple causal factors might be responsible for COVID-19 spreading in Bangladesh. Dhaka might be vulnerable to COVID-19 due to a higher population, population density, and international collaboration. According to the pairwise comparison matrix, the consistency ratio for subfactors and factors was in the permissible limit (ie, less than 0.10). The highest factor weight of 0.2907 was found for the factors type of port. The maximum value for the susceptibility index was 0.435219362 for Chittagong, and the minimum value was 0.076174 for Naogaon.
The findings of this research might help the communities and government agencies with effective decision-making.
Utilization of low-input feed resources rich in plant bioactive compounds is a promising strategy for modulating the fatty acid profile in ruminant products. They manipulate microbes involved in rumen biohydrogenation and increase the accumulation of desirable fatty acids at the tissue level. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to assess the effect of dietary supplementation of aniseed straw and eucalyptus leaves on growth performance, carcass traits and fatty acid profile of finisher lambs. Thirty-six Malpura hogget were divided into three treatment groups of 12 each, reared individually in pen (1.6 m × 1.1 m) and fed ad libitum complete feed blocks made up of 55 parts concentrate, 5 parts molasses and 40 parts roughage. Roughage in control (Con) was 20 parts each of ardu (Ailanthus excelsa) leaves and oat (Avena sativa) straw. In test diets, that is, Con-as and Con-el, 10% aniseed (Pimpinella anisum) straw and Eucalyptus rudis leaves, respectively, were added by replacing 5% each of oat straw and eucalyptus leaves. The lambs were weighed weekly; and at the end of 3 months of feeding trial, the lambs were slaughtered to study the carcass traits, composition and product evaluation. Average daily gain (ADG) and DM intake (DMI) was higher (P < 0.05) in Con-as compared to Con and Con-el, while ADG and feed conversion ratio decreased (P < 0.05) by 29.4% and 36.4%, respectively, in Con-el compared to Con. Carcass traits showed lower (P < 0.05) loin eye area and chilling loss in the Con-el group compared to the Con-as and Con, and the total carcass fat compared to Con-as. However, the keeping quality of meat improved in both Con-as and Con-el which was reflected by lower (P < 0.05) thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values. Nuggets prepared from Con and Con-as meat had superior (P < 0.05) sensory attributes with an overall palatability. Fatty acid profile of longissimus thoracis muscle showed lower (P < 0.05) atherogenic and thrombogenic indices in Con-as and higher (P < 0.05) in Con-el group. Moreover, in Con-as group, the proportion of C16:0 was lower (P < 0.05) and C18:3n-3 was higher (P < 0.05), but no effect was observed on the amount of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; C18:2 c9t11). In case of adipose tissue, the content of CLA was higher (P < 0.05), and the ratio of n-6:n-3 was more nearer to desirable levels in Con-as group. Therefore, it can be concluded that aniseed straw is a promising feed supplement compared to eucalyptus leaves for improving meat quality and fatty acid profile in lambs.