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To analyse the extent and nature of food and beverage advertising on the three major Brazilian free-to-air television (TV) channels.
Cross-sectional study. A protocol developed for the International Network for Food and Obesity/Non-Communicable Diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support was applied for data collection. A total of 432 h of TV programming was recorded from 06.00 to 24.00 hours, for eight non-consecutive and randomly selected days, in April 2018. All TV advertisements (ads) were analysed, and food-related ads were classified according to the NOVA classification system. Descriptive analyses were used to describe the number and type of ads, food categories and the distribution of ads throughout the day and time of the day.
The three most popular free-to-air channels on Brazilian TV.
The study did not involve human subjects.
In total, 14·2 % (n 1156 out of 7991) of ads were food related (858 were specific food items). Approximately 91 % of food items ads included ultra-processed food (UPF) products. The top three most promoted products were soft drinks, alcoholic beverages and fast-food meals. Alcoholic beverage ads were more frequently broadcast in the evening.
The high risk of exposure of the Brazilian population to UPF ads should be considered a public health concern given the impact of unhealthy food advertising on people’s food choices and health.
Remarkable increases in the production of dairy animals have negatively impacted their tolerance to heat stress (HS). The evaluation of the effect of HS on milk yield is based on the direct impact of HS on performance. However, in practical terms, HS also exerts its influence during gestation (indirect effect). The main purpose of this study was to identify and characterize the genotype by environment interaction (G × E) due to HS during the last 60 days of gestation (THI_g) and also the HS postpartum (THI_m) over first lactation milk production of Brazilian Holstein cattle. A total of 389 127 test day milk yield (TD) records from 1572 first lactation Holstein cows born in Brazil (daughters of 1248 dams and 70 sires) and the corresponding temperature–humidity index (THI) obtained between December 2007 and January 2013 were analyzed using different random regression models. Cows in the cold environment (THI_g = 64 to 73) during the last 60 days of gestation produced more milk than those cows in a hot environment (THI_g = 74 to 84), particularly during the first 150 days of lactation (DIM). The heritabilities (h2) of TD were similar throughout DIM for cows in THI_g hot (0.11 to 0.20) or (0.10 to 0.22), while the genetic correlations (rg) for TD between these two environments ranged from 0.11 to 0.52 along the first 250 DIM. The h2 estimates for TD across THI_m were similar for cows in THI_g hot (0.07 to 0.25) and THI_g cold (0.08 to 0.19). The rg estimates ranged from 0.17 to 0.42 along THI_m between TD of cows in cold and hot THI_g. The results were consistent in demonstrating the existence of an additional source of G × E for TD due to THI_g and THI_m. The present study is probably the first to provide evidence of this source of G × E; further research is needed because of its importance when the breeding objective is to select animals that are more tolerant to HS.
The sperm epigenome is unique and of profound clinical importance based on its role in influencing embryogenesis. Potentially, the sperm epigenome can also be of importance to the clinician and toxicologist in assessing the effects of environmental exposures and lifestyle factors on spermatogenesis and sperm function, since the sperm epigenome contains historical markers of spermatogenesis, as well as programmatic factors of early embryonic development. Various industrial and agricultural chemicals are implicated in affecting male fertility, and recent studies have begun to evaluate the effects of these chemicals on the sperm epigenome. Additionally, lifestyle factors, such as obesity and advanced paternal age at the time of conception, are also being shown to affect the sperm epigenome. This chapter evaluates such factors and their effects on the sperm epigenome, highlighting the possible effects on both the father and potential progeny.
The use of antibiotics as performance enhancers in animal feeding is declining, so Lippia gracilis Schauer essential oil (LGSEO) could be used as a potential substitute for the conventionally used growth promoters. The LGSEO contains components such as carvacrol and thymol, which kill and/or control pathogenic bacteria, increase population of beneficial organisms, act against oxidative processes and onto nutrient digestibility and absorption. The aim of this study was to investigate the action and the effects of LGSEO as a growth promoter in the diet of Japanese quail by examining their productive performance, intestinal microbiology, blood biochemical parameters, hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content and intestinal gene expression. A total of 252 two-day-old quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were assigned to 3 treatments in 7 replicates, using 12 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of a basal diet, basal diet + LGSEO at 400 mg/kg of diet and basal diet + chemical antimicrobial (bacitracin methylene disalicylate) at 500 mg/kg of diet. The experimental period was 34 days. The highest feed intake (P < 0.01) was found in the group receiving the conventional antimicrobial, whereas the best feed conversion (P < 0.01) was shown by the animals receiving LGSEO. Escherichia coli growth was restricted in the quail receiving the growth promoters. Salmonella spp. growth was controlled by the treatment containing the conventional antimicrobial. There was no difference between the treatments (P > 0.05) for the concentration of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase enzymes in the blood or hepatic TBARS content. Birds receiving negative-control treatment exhibited a higher expression of sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT1), while those receiving the treatment with essential oil showed lower catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX7) expressions compared to the conventional antimicrobial and control groups, respectively. Lippia gracilis Schauer essential oil is a powerful performance enhancer for Japanese quail by virtue of its abilities to improve their intestinal environment, balance the microbial population and reduce energy expenditure for oxidative processes.
There is an urgent need to find alternative feed resources that can further substitute fishmeal in Atlantic salmon diets without compromising health and food quality, in particular during the finishing feeding period when the feed demand is highest and flesh quality effects are most significant. This study investigates efficacy of substituting a isoprotein (35 %) and isolipid (35 %) low fishmeal diet (FM, 15 %) with Antarctic krill meal (KM, 12 %) during 3 months with growing finishing 2·3 kg salmon (quadruplicate sea cages/diet). Final body weight (3·9 (se 0·04) kg) was similar in the dietary groups, but the KM group had more voluminous body shape, leaner hearts and improved fillet integrity, firmness and colour. Ectopic epithelial cells and focal Ca deposits in intestine were only detected in the FM group. Transcriptome profiling by microarray of livers showed dietary effects on several immune genes, and a panel of structural genes were up-regulated in the KM group, including cadherin and connexin. Up-regulation of genes encoding myosin heavy chain proteins was the main finding in skeletal muscle. Morphology examination by scanning electron microscopy and secondary structure by Fourier transform IR spectroscopy revealed more ordered and stable collagen architecture of the KM group. NEFA composition of skeletal muscle indicated altered metabolism of n-3, n-6 and SFA of the KM group. The results demonstrated that improved health and meat quality in Atlantic salmon fed krill meal were associated with up-regulation of immune genes, proteins defining muscle properties and genes involved in cell contacts and adhesion, altered fatty acid metabolism and fat deposition, and improved gut health and collagen structure.
En este trabajo se describen las relaciones que las sociedades humanas establecieron con su entorno durante el período Formativo (3000-1000 aP) en la Pampa del Tamarugal, Desierto de Atacama, desde una perspectiva teórico-metodológica que pone el acento en el potencial del registro ecofactual. Éste, al mediar entre lo cultural y lo ambiental, proporciona información vital para una mejor comprensión de la relación entre naturaleza y cultura construida por estas sociedades. Queremos demostrar que este proceso forma parte de una larga historia de racionalización del desierto y de sus recursos silvestres, locales e introducidos, así como de la vivencia particular que tuvieron estas comunidades andinas. Por consiguiente, proponemos que la intervención humana en la Pampa del Tamarugal puede ser entendida como un cambio no sólo ecológico y económico, sino también cosmológico.
This study evaluated the effects of rosuvastatin in vivo on toxoplasmosis chronic infection. Thirty-five Swiss mice were orally infected (ME-49 strain). After 50 days, the mice were separated into five groups: GI – non-infected, GII – infected, GIII – infected and treated with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine (12.5 + 50 mg kg−1 body weight day−1), GIV and GV – infected and treated with rosuvastatin 10 and 40 mg kg−1 body weight day−1, respectively. After 21 days, we collected blood, liver, lungs, femoral biceps and brain were removed for Toxoplasma gondii DNA quantification by qPCR and histopathological analysis. GIV and GV did not present premature death or clinical changes, and the hepatic enzyme levels were lower compared to GI. Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected mainly in brain and muscle, but the parasite load was significantly lower in GV compared to GII brains (P < 0.05). Histopathological changes were observed in brains, with T. gondii cysts as well as an inflammatory condition, including necrosis areas in GII and GIII. These data confirm active infection with tissue injury. This inflammatory condition was attenuated in the groups treated with rosuvastatin, especially R40 (GV). Our findings demonstrated the in vivo action of rosuvastatin in reducing cerebral parasitic load and indicate that this drug may interfere in chronic toxoplasmosis.
The objective of the work described in this research communication was to determine the lipoproteolytic capacity and potential of Pseudomonas spp. from the microbiota of refrigerated raw milk. The influence of temperature and bacterial population on these activities was also evaluated. Pseudomonas spp. (PS) counts (30 °C/48 h) were confirmed by PCR. Proteolytic (10% milk agar) and lipolytic capacities (PLC) (tributyrin agar) were evaluated (21 °C/72 h). Proteolytic (PP) and lipolytic potential (LP) were assessed by measuring the diameter of the halos and were categorized as low or high. A total of 91.3% PS possessed PLC. The PP of 64.16% isolates was high and was frequently observed in PS from milk samples with higher counts and lower temperatures. The LP of 70.52% isolates was low, and higher LP was associated with low microbiological counts and temperatures. Genetic studies evaluating Pseudomonas spp. strains in the milking environment and investigating the origin of these isolates could be useful to improve the quality and shelf life of dairy products.
Un trabajo de rescate arqueológico en la cuenca alta del Río Loa (norte de Chile) resultó en el hallazgo de una inhumación prehispánica de un infante asociado a variados atavíos y ofrendas, junto a los restos óseos parciales de una adolescente. Ambos individuos fueron sometidos a análisis de isótopos estables para establecer paleodieta (δ13C y δ15N) y movilidad (δ18O y 87Sr/86Sr). Además, se efectuaron dataciones radiocarbónicas pareadas de los restos bioantropológicos y culturales con el fin establecer la cronología de la inhumación y, a la vez, evaluar la existencia de un posible efecto reservorio marino. Los resultados isotópicos sugieren consumo de dieta principalmente terrestre y un origen local para los individuos, aunque con una ingesta moderada de recursos marinos. Los fechados radiocarbónicos presentan una inesperada diferencia entre las edades de las ofrendas y los restos humanos, indicando la existencia de un importante efecto reservorio. Dichos resultados dan nuevas luces sobre el consumo de alimentos marinos durante el Formativo temprano en la región, a la vez que permiten ejemplificar los alcances de efectuar dataciones pareadas de restos humanos y culturales.
The following paper argues for a critical creative paedagogy as a means of meaningfully engaging with Indigenous and decolonial philosophies. We showcase our critical frameworks and pathways for teaching a decolonial and Indigenous university course where philosophy and arts meet to engage with complex colonial, racial and epistemological questions. We first frame our theoretical and philosophical stance within critical postcolonial, Indigenous and decolonial studies. We then describe an epistemological critique within western philosophical discourse that will gesture towards a decolonial pathway to arts and discuss our creative teaching approach grounded in decolonial and Indigenous theories. Lastly, we reach to a critical and decolonial space where ‘southern’ philosophies can be ‘heard’ in their fullest complexity. We contend that creative writing and visual arts grounded in critical decolonial and Indigenous theories provide a space in which a decolonised knowledge seems possible.
While the Canaries undoubtedly belong geographically to the African continent, and although their first settlers came from Africa, inhabitants have not always accepted this connection. From the Castilian conquest onward, the islands formed an eminently Atlantic territory that served as a bridge between Europe, America, and Africa. The intensity and consistency of relations with the latter continent were quite strong throughout the centuries. However, as a colonized territory, its capacity for decisions was limited and depended on the choices made outside of the archipelago, including conversations about relations with Africa.
The Canaries was always a territory that stood out in its relation with Africa and Africans, both north and south of the Sahara. In comparison with the rest of Spain, its linkages with the continent of Africa have been undoubtedly the most regular. Various causes explain this fact. First, it is necessary to highlight the geographical position of the Canaries. The archipelago is situated on the African tectonic plate, only about sixty miles from the continent, while it is 680 miles from the closest point of Europe. Due to its political allegiance, the Canaries forms part of the European Union, which recognizes its ultraperipheral character; that is to say, it lies beyond the traditional frontiers of Europe itself.
In contrast, throughout its history, Canarian culture has reflected its tricontinental nature, mixing African, European, and American influences in different proportions depending on the historical moment under consideration. Because of its role as an intersection of routes, the Canaries developed as a crossing place obligatory for Spanish interests in Africa in addition to those of other European authorities and, more recently since the beginning of the twentieth century, world powers. The Canaries works as a gateway that opens in various directions, one that is permeable for comings and goings. Moreover, due to its special historical development, the regularity of contacts has been constant to the point where the development of life on the islands cannot be understood without this bond.
Along with the geographical position, there are other conditioning factors that limited the connections with the African continent. One of these is the development of the Canarian productive forces themselves and the productive model developed at each historic economic cycle.
Replacing ground maize (GM) with steam-rolled maize typically increases feed efficiency in maize-silage-based diets. However, little is known about optimal carbohydrate supplementation in sugarcane silage-based diets. The objective was to quantify the effect of partially replacing GM with steam-rolled maize (SRM) or pelleted citrus pulp (PCP) at two concentrate levels (600 or 800 g/kg DM) in sugarcane-based diets on feeding behaviour, performance and blood parameters of finishing Nellore bulls. One hundred and eight young bulls were allocated to 36 pens in a randomized block design and fed for 84 d. Feeding 800 g/kg concentrate decreased time spending eating and ruminating, but improved G:F ratio, hot carcass weight and carcass dressing, compared to 600 g/kg concentrate. Bulls fed SRM and PCP diets with 600 g/kg concentrate had lower intake compared to GM. Both final weight and average daily gain decreased when bulls were fed PCP and SRM with 600 g/kg concentrate compared to GM diets, and when fed with PCP and 800 g/kg concentrate. Substituting PCP for GM decreased gain efficiency, carcass weight, rumination time and intake efficiency, indicating that the bulls consumed less feed per hour spent eating. Substituting SRM for GM increased backfat thickness and blood urea concentration. In conclusion, the replacement of GM with PCP reduces intake and enhances selection against large particles, decreasing rumination, performance and final carcass weight and dressing. Replacement of GM with SRM increases blood urea and fat deposition, with no impact on performance.
Graded exercises tests are performed in adult populations; nonetheless, the use of this type of assessment is greatly understudied in overweight and obese adolescents.
To investigate heart rate autonomic responses to submaximal aerobic exercise in obese and overweight adolescents.
We recruited 40 adolescents divided into two groups: (1) overweight group comprising 10 boys and 10 girls between Z-score +1 and +2 and (2) obese group comprising 10 boys and 10 girls above Z-score >+2. Heart rate variability was analysed before (T1) and after exercise (T2–T4) on treadmill at a slope of 0%, with 70% of the maximal estimated heart rate (220 – age) for 20 minutes.
Heart rate in the overweight group was: 93.2±10.52 bpm versus 120.8±13.49 bpm versus 94.6±11.65 bpm versus 93.0±9.23 bpm, and in the obese group was: 92.0±15.41 bpm versus 117.6±16.31 bpm versus 92.1±12.9 bpm versus 91.8±14.33 bpm. High frequency in the overweight group was: 640±633.1 ms2 versus 84±174.66 ms2 versus 603.5±655.31 ms2 versus 762.6±807.21 ms2, and in the obese group was: 628.4±779.81 ms2 versus 65.4±119.34 ms2 versus 506.2±482.70 ms2 versus 677.9±939.05 ms2; and root mean square of successive differences in the overweight group was: 37.9±18.81 ms versus 10.9±8.41 ms versus 32.8±24.07 ms versus 36.7±21.86 ms, and in the obese group was: 38.7±23.17 ms versus 11.5±8.62 ms versus 32.3±16.74 ms versus 37.3±24.21 ms. These values significantly changed during exercise compared with resting values in overweight and obese groups. Moreover, we also reported no significant difference of resting parasympathetic control of heart rate between obese and overweight adolescents.
There was no significant difference of autonomic responses elicited by submaximal aerobic exercise between overweight and obese adolescents.
The Roosevelt–Rondon Expedition marmoset Mico marcai was first collected in 1914 and all information on this primate previously came from three skins brought back by this expedition. As a result, M. marcai is categorized as Data Deficient on the IUCN Red List. As the presumed range of M. marcai lies on the path of the advancing arc of deforestation in Brazil, the collection of relevant data to assess the conservation status of this Amazonian species is of some urgency. Here we present the first field data on the distribution and population size of, and threats to, M. marcai, to reassess the species’ conservation status. During 2012–2015 we surveyed the species in the Marmelos–Aripuanã interfluve, and estimated its density using distance sampling. We also used spatial predictive modelling to estimate forest loss within the species range under two deforestation scenarios. We found the marmoset in 13 localities and estimated its extent of occurrence to be 31,073 km2. We estimated the species’ density to be 8.31 individuals/km2 and extrapolated this to estimate a total population of 258,218 individuals (CI 150,705–441,860). Under a business-as-usual deforestation scenario, c. 10,000 km2 of forest, comprising 33% of the species’ range, would be lost in three marmoset generations (c. 18 years), and we, therefore, recommend that M. marcai be categorized as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List based on criterion A3c. Other Amazonian marmosets require similar reassessment as their ranges also fall in the path of the arc of deforestation.
An obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) subtype has been associated with streptococcal infections and is called pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococci (PANDAS). The neuroanatomical characterization of subjects with this disorder is crucial for the better understanding of its pathophysiology; also, evaluation of these features as classifiers between patients and controls is relevant to determine potential biomarkers and useful in clinical diagnosis. This was the first multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) study on an early-onset OCD subtype.
Fourteen pediatric patients with PANDAS were paired with 14 healthy subjects and were scanned to obtain structural magnetic resonance images (MRI). We identified neuroanatomical differences between subjects with PANDAS and healthy controls using voxel-based morphometry, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and surface analysis. We investigated the usefulness of these neuroanatomical differences to classify patients with PANDAS using MVPA.
The pattern for the gray and white matter was significantly different between subjects with PANDAS and controls. Alterations emerged in the cortex, subcortex, and cerebellum. There were no significant group differences in DTI measures (fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, radial diffusivity, and axial diffusivity) or cortical features (thickness, sulci, volume, curvature, and gyrification). The overall accuracy of 75% was achieved using the gray matter features to classify patients with PANDAS and healthy controls.
The results of this integrative study allow a better understanding of the neural substrates in this OCD subtype, suggesting that the anatomical gray matter characteristics could have an immune origin that might be helpful in patient classification.
The objective of the current experiment was to determine the effects of increasing levels of palm kernel cake in a finishing diet on feed intake, digestibility, performance, ingestive behaviour and carcass traits in zebu bulls. Thirty-two Nellore bulls (420 ± 25.0 kg initial body weight [BW] and 24-months-old), were assigned randomly to individual pens with four treatments (0, 70, 140 and 210 g/kg of palm kernel cake by total dry matter [DM]) and eight replicates per treatment. The inclusion of palm kernel cake linearly decreased DM, crude protein and non-fibrous carbohydrate intake and increased ether extraction intake and digestibility. There was a linear decrease in final BW and hot carcass weight (HCW) associated with palm kernel cake inclusion in the bull diet. However, the gain : feed ratio was similar among the diets. Eating and rumination rates (g DM or neutral detergent fibre/h) were reduced, whereas the total chewing time and idling (min/day) were not affected by palm kernel cake inclusion. There were no effects of palm kernel cake inclusion on most quantitative carcass characteristics and qualitative carcass attributes (subcutaneous fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, colour, texture and marbling). The inclusion of palm kernel cake (up to 210 g/kg total DM) in beef cattle finishing diets decreased eating and rumination rates, thereby decreasing average daily gain and, consequently, final BW and HCW. However, qualitative carcass attributes were not affected by the use of palm kernel cake.
This article analyzes the relationship between parties and the representation of women in Spanish subnational legislatures. We argue that studies on party ideology and gender have generally failed to (a) acknowledge the effect of electoral time: the left started to recruit women earlier, when their number was low and they were mainly perceived as liabilities; and (b) distinguish between two different party mechanisms: parties can be gate openers and ease the access of newcomers to the legislature, and they can be career promoters, which facilitate the parliamentary continuity of incumbents. Drawing on a database containing comprehensive information about the population of regional members of parliament (MPs) (N = 5,353) in 138 elections and focusing on the two most prominent parties, the conservative People's Party and the Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party), we test the hypothesis that left-wing parties outperform right-wing parties concerning gender representation. Our statistical analyses show that electoral time blurs the effect of ideology on the share of women MPs. Once time is controlled for, the socialists emerge as systematically recruiting more women. Concerning the two mechanisms, the Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party fares better as a gate opener, while the People's Party, unexpectedly, excels as a career promoter.
To assess the daily intake of polychlorinated biphenyls not similar to dioxins (NDL-PCB) derived from fish consumption in Spain and compare it with tolerance limits in order to establish a safe threshold so that the nutritional benefits derived from fish consumption may be optimized.
Analysis of NDL-PCB in fish samples and ecological study of the estimated intake of NDL-PCB from fish consumption in different Spanish population groups.
National representative sample of the Spanish population.
The intake of NDL-PCB was estimated in two different scenarios: upper bound (UB) and lower bound (LB). Estimating intake using the average concentration of NDL-PCB found in the fish samples, the intake for ‘other children’ is estimated as: 1·80 (UB) and 5·33 (LB) ng/kg per d at the 50th percentile (P50); 7·39 (UB) and 21·94 (LB) ng/kg per d at the 95th percentile (P95) of fish consumption. Estimated NDL-PCB intake shoots up in the toddler group, reaching values of 30·43 (UB) and 90·37 (LB) ng/kg per d at P95. Estimated intake values are lower than those previously estimated in Europe, something expected since in previous studies intake was estimated through total diet. In adults, our estimated values are 1·59 (UB) and 4·72 (LB) ng/kg per d at P50; 4·95 (UB) and 14·72 (LB) ng/kg per d at P95.
NDL-PCB concentration in fish is under the tolerance limits in most samples. However, daily intake in consumers of large quantities of fish should be monitored and special attention should be given to the youngest age groups due to their special vulnerability and higher exposure.