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In this book, Sander Van der Leeuw examines how the modern world has been caught in a socio-economic dynamic that has generated the conundrum of sustainability. Combining the methods of social science and complex systems science, he explores how western, developed nations have globalized their world view and how that view has led to the sustainability challenges we are now facing. Its central theme is the co-evolution of cognition, demography, social organization, technology and environmental impact. Beginning with the earliest human societies, Van der Leeuw links the distant past with the present in order to demonstrate how the information and communications technology revolution is undermining many of the institutional pillars on which contemporary societies have been constructed. An original view of social evolution as the history of human information-processing, his book shows how the past offers insight into the present, and can help us deal with the future. This title is also available as Open Access.
To investigate the association between the intake of selected food groups and beverages and serum uric acid (UA).
Cross-sectional study using the baseline data (2008–2010) from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Food intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire with 114 items. Linear and logistic regressions investigated the associations between the daily intake of each food group (servings/d) and UA (mg/dl) and hyperuricemia (UA ≥ 6·8 mg/dl), respectively. All the analyses were adjusted for potential confounders, energy intake and all food groups.
Teaching and research institutions from six Brazilians states.
The participants were 14 320 active and retired civil servants, aged 35–74 years.
Higher intake of dairy products was associated with lower serum UA levels in both sexes, with a statistical dose-response gradient. High meat intake was associated with high UA only in women, and high intake of organ meats, in men. Intake of fish and fruits, vegetables and legumes were not associated with serum UA. In men, moderate and high intake of alcoholic beverages, specifically beer and spirits, but not wine, increased UA. In women, only high intake of alcoholic beverages, specifically beer, was associated with increased serum UA. Similar associations were seen for hyperuricemia.
Results suggest a potential beneficial role of dairy products consumption on UA levels. The association between alcohol intake and UA differed according to type of beverage and between sexes. Results reinforce the need to consider the whole diet in the analysis and to conduct sex stratified analysis.
Iron deficiency (ID) defined as plasma ferritin <12 µg/L is associated with delayed cognitive development in early childhood and increased incidence of infections, however the longitudinal association between early life factors and ID in 18-month-old children in Denmark is unknown. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of ID and to describe risk factors associated with ID in healthy 18-month-old Danish children. Blood samples, anthropometric measurements and self-reported questionnaire data had been obtained in the birth cohort, Odense Child Cohort (OCC). The questionnaires were modified from those used in the DNBC, Danish National Birth Cohort. Plasma ferritin and C-reactive protein in venous, non-fasting samples were analysed in the final sample size of 370 children after exclusion of 79 children due to chronic disease, acute infection, C-reactive protein >10 mg/L, twin birth or prematurity. Associations with ID were analysed by logistic regression, adjusting for sex, maternal education, duration of partial breastfeeding and current intake of milk, fish and meat. Overall, 56 children had ID (15.1%). Factors associated with increased risk were exclusive breastfeeding beyond 4 months (OR 5.97, 95%CI [1.63; 21.86]) and no intake of oral iron supplements from 6-12 months (OR 3.99, 95%CI [1.33; 11.97]. Duration of partial breastfeeding and current diet were not associated with ID. In conclusion, the ID prevalence was 15.1%, and both exclusive breastfeeding beyond 4 months and no intake of oral iron supplements from 6-12 months were associated with increased risk for ID in 18-month-old children.
The USA is the largest consumer of legally, internationally-traded wildlife. A proportion of this trade consists of species listed in the Appendices of CITES, and recorded in the CITES Trade Database. Using this resource, we quantified wildlife entering the USA for 82 of the most frequently recorded wildlife products and a range of taxonomic groups during 1979–2014. We examined trends in legal trade and seizures of illegally traded items over time, and relationships between trade and four national measures of biodiversity. We found that: (1) there is an overall positive relationship between legal imports and seizures; (2) Asia was the main region exporting CITES-listed wildlife products to the USA; (3) bears, crocodilians and other mammals (i.e. other than Ursidae, Felidae, Cetacea, Proboscidea, Primates or Rhinocerotidae) increased in both reported legal trade and seizures over time; (4) legal trade in live specimens was reported to be primarily from captive-produced, artificially-propagated or ranched sources, whereas traded meat was primarily wild sourced; (5) both seizures and legally traded items of felids and elephants decreased over time; and (6) volumes of both legally traded and seized species were correlated with four attributes of exporting countries: species endemism, species richness, number of IUCN threatened species, and country size. The goal of our analysis was to inform CITES decision-making and species conservation efforts.
Individuals appearing before the ICJ on behalf of states are not subject under international law to any compulsory code of conduct to guide them in navigating issues of professional ethics. Article 42(2) of the ICJ Statute merely provides that parties “may have the assistance of counsel or advocates before the Court” and does not impose qualification requirements on those a state elects to appear on its behalf. In practice, legal teams appearing before the Court are comprised of individuals from different legal backgrounds who are either qualified legal practitioners or academics (referred to below as “counsel”). Qualified practitioners will likely be subject to professional codes of conduct applicable to them in their home jurisdiction, and those codes of conduct may bind them in relation to proceedings before the ICJ. But the professional obligations applying to practitioners from different jurisdictions can vary considerably. Some may consider that their domestic code of conduct does not (and/or should not) bind counsel before an international court. Those who are academics or are not admitted in any jurisdiction may not be subject to any conduct rules when acting as counsel. The absence of a common set of professional obligations means that the obligations bearing upon the conduct of particular counsel are unclear and certainly not uniform. This may have an impact on the presentation of a case before the Court, and in turn on the Court's understanding of the dispute. Ultimately, it could materially impact the outcome of a case.
In this article, we describe two experiments measuring the impact of a collection of interventions informed by behavioural sciences to reduce unemployment. In a small-scale pilot study (n = 2,383) run in partnership with a Jobcentre in the UK, we found that small changes to the way jobseekers interacted with employment advisers showed promising effects. Based on these findings, we refined our intervention and tested it in a second, larger trial (n = 88,033) across 12 Jobcentres in the UK. We found that our intervention significantly increased off-flow from benefits. These experiments demonstrate that policies and programmes aimed at reducing unemployment can benefit greatly from a deeper understanding of the behaviours of jobseekers and employment advisers. Further, we suggest that this approach could have positive implications for other areas of public policy.
As the glow that accompanied the kinetic judicialization of the field of international criminal justice has faded over time, scholars have increasingly turned to expressivist strands of thought to justify, assess, and critique the practices of international criminal courts. This expressive turn has been characterized by a heightened concern for the pedagogical value and legitimating qualities of international criminal courts. This article develops a unique typology of expressivist perspectives within the field of international criminal justice, distinguishing between three strands of expressivism: instrumental expressivism, which concerns the justification of different practices of international criminal courts in terms of the instrumental value of their expressive qualities; interpretive expressivism, which concerns the identification of expressive avenues for improving the sociological legitimacy of international criminal courts; and critical expressivism, which concerns the illumination of the expressive limits of international criminal courts, as well as unveiling the configurations of power that underpin the messages and narratives constructed within such courts in different institutional contexts. Reflecting on the limitations of these perspectives, the article elaborates a nascent strand of expressivism – strategic expressivism – which concerns whether and how different actors in the field may harness the expressive power of international criminal justice in line with their strategic social and political agendas.
The distinction between attackers and defenders might help refine the understanding of the role of emotions in conflicts. Here, we briefly discuss differences between attackers and defenders in terms of appraisals, action tendencies, emotional preferences, and brain activities. Finally, we outline how attackers and defenders may differ in their response to emotion-based interventions that aim to promote conflict resolution.
Among social stimuli, the human face is unique. Its properties and features, both static and dynamic, reveal different aspects of a person. Perceivers use this information when they aim, for example, to recognize individuals, identify their social groups, discern their personality, detect their focus of attention, understand their verbal and non-verbal behaviours, and infer their emotions. Emotions that we read from facial actions are crucial to social interaction: They provide information that helps us understand social intentions, how to react to others, and to evaluate the affective meaning of many events that we encounter in our environment. In this chapter, we focus on social appraisal – one of the central mechanisms involved in affective social learning. In particular, we discuss the notion that, through a particular socio-affective inferential mechanism, social appraisal plays a significant role when the emotional expression of person A is used to learn about the value of the emotion expressed by person B. The first section of this chapter provides a brief historical introduction to the relation between contextual information and emotion recognition in faces. Then, we focus on the construct of social appraisal and its manifestation in socio-affective inferential mechanisms involved in emotion recognition. In the third section, we present empirical evidence supporting the automaticity of such socio-affective inferential mechanisms and discuss its implication for the theoretical framework of affective social learning. Next, we discuss the idea that ambiguous situations may be particularly prone to social appraisal taking place. Finally, we discuss how social appraisal, underpinned by a socio-affective inferential mechanism, may be integrated into the affective social learning framework.
In this paper, we experimentally study the influence of large-scale Taylor rolls on the small-scale statistics and the flow organization in fully turbulent Taylor–Couette flow for Reynolds numbers up to
. The velocity field in the gap confined by coaxial and independently rotating cylinders at a radius ratio of
is measured using planar particle image velocimetry in horizontal planes at different cylinder heights. Flow regions with and without prominent Taylor vortices are compared. We show that the local angular momentum transport (expressed in terms of a Nusselt number) mainly takes place in the regions of the vortex in- and outflow, where the radial and azimuthal velocity components are highly correlated. The efficient momentum transfer is reflected in intermittent bursts, which becomes visible in the exponential tails of the probability density functions of the local Nusselt number. In addition, by calculating azimuthal energy co-spectra, small-scale plumes are revealed to be the underlying structure of these bursts. These flow features are very similar to the one observed in Rayleigh–Bénard convection, which emphasizes the analogies of these systems. By performing a complex proper orthogonal decomposition, we remarkably detect azimuthally travelling waves superimposed on the turbulent Taylor vortices, not only in the classical but also in the ultimate regime. This very large-scale flow pattern, which is most pronounced at the axial location of the vortex centre, is similar to the well-known wavy Taylor vortex flow, which has comparable wave speeds, but much larger azimuthal wavenumbers.
To identify differences in dietary quality, dietary greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and food consumption over 20 years in a Dutch cohort.
Participants (n 8932) filled out an FFQ in 1993–1997 and in 2015. The Dutch Healthy Diet index 2015 (DHD15-index) score, GHG emissions and consumption of food groups (g/4184 kJ (1000 kcal)) were compared between the time points with paired t tests.
European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition – Netherlands (EPIC-NL) cohort, aged 18–65 years at baseline.
Total energy intake decreased by –678 (95 % CI –4908, 3377) kJ/d (–162 (95 % CI –1173, 807) kcal/d) for men and –372 (95 % CI –3820, 3130) kJ/d (–89 (95 % CI –913, 748) kcal/d) for women. DHD15-index scores increased by 11 % (from 64·8 to 71·9 points) and 13 % (from 65·2 to 73·6 points) in men and women, respectively (P < 0·0001), mainly due to an increased (shell)fish and nuts/seeds/nut paste consumption. After energy intake adjustment, dietary-related GHG emissions increased by 5 % in men (2·48–2·61 kg CO2-eq/4184 kJ (1000 kcal), P < 0·0001) and were similar in women (0·4 %, 2·70–2·71 kg CO2-eq/4184 kJ (1000 kcal), P = 0·3930) due to the increased consumption of (shell)fish, nuts/seeds/nut paste, poultry and higher GHG-intensive red meats such as beef.
This Dutch cohort analyses showed more healthy diets without mitigated GHG emissions over a 20-year period, at similar energy intakes. Higher consumption of (shell)fish and poultry was not yet at the expense of red and processed meat. Lower consumption of animal-based foods is needed to achieve healthier as well as environmentally friendly diets.
This paper reports the results of preparing alloy nanoparticles by mechanical grinding followed by filtration to sort the particles according to size. Although the long-term goal of this work is to prepare icosahedral quasicrystalline nanoparticles, the alloy used in this study is of Al65Cu25Fe15 composition and multi phases, under the assumption that the established procedure is applicable to future quasicrystalline nanoparticle fabrication. The obtained particle size and elemental information were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Problems with filter fragment fall-out and salt contamination were encountered and procedures to address the problems have been suggested and tested. The study is successful in obtaining alloy particles with reduced sizes.
The aim of our research is to stimulate cross disciplinary design collaboration to improve innovation processes in product and service design domain. We focus on the intersection of biotechnology and design as this field poses great challenges and opportunities for innovation, and it has received little attention in light of technological advancements of digital goods over the past decades. Experimental studies in the area expose challenging interactions, rising from lack of common vocabulary and preconceptions. Organisational management studies suggest that creativity is a prerequisite for innovation in group processes. As such, we are interested in enhancing collective creativity. Numerous studies investigate external creativity triggers, however only on individual level. Our review suggests that external triggers can be effective when the task is problem solving or styling, but ambiguous goals like innovation require stimulation of intrinsic triggers, such as group incidental learning and tacit knowledge. To explain this, we propose a hypothetical innovation approach, that draws attention to cognitive stimulation methods leading to creativity in multidisciplinary teams.
A first exploration is conducted to what the French biological philosophy of technology perspective has to offer to the field of design methodology. If this French perspective is combined with contemporary speculative pragmatism a generative design methodology emerges offering novelty in what is sensed as important in a design situation. Within this perspective, drawing upon the late French philosopher Gilbert Simondon, technical objects have their own mode of existence and their own trajectory of development apart from human intention.
Designers working with such a generative design methodology follow the constitutive value of openness and attune to the regulative value of techno-aesthetic judgments. By way of a 'vignette+', a paradigmatic example from a real case, a more encompassing argument is made towards design situations where a sophisticated machine is 'inserted' into a domestic setting.
The example taken is the use of an artificial kidney machine in a domestic setting and the development of a novel machine with a design team. Four aspects were sensed as important in the unfolding design situation and directions for further research are discussed.