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To determine the risk of dementia in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes and in individuals with glycosylated haemoglobin, type A1C (HbA1c) of ⩾48 mmol/mol, which is the diagnostic limit for diabetes.
We included the following cohorts: all incident diabetes cases aged 15 or above registered in the National Diabetes Registry (NDR) from January 2000 through December 2012 (n = 148 036) and a reference population, adult participants from the Glostrup cohort (n = 16 801), the ADDITION Study (n = 26 586) and Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB) (n = 5408). Using these cohorts, we analysed if a diagnosis of type 1 or type 2 diabetes in the NDR or HbA1c level of ⩾ 6.5% (48 mmol/mol) in the cohorts increased risk of dementia in the Danish National Patient Registry or cognitive performance assessed by the Intelligenz-Struktur-Test 2000R (IST2000R).
A diagnosis of type 1 or type 2 diabetes in the NDR was associated with increased risk of dementia diagnosed both before or after age 65 as well as across different subtypes of dementia. Self-reported diabetes or high HbA1c levels were associated with lower cognitive performance (p = 0.004), while high HbA1c was associated with increased risk of dementia (HR 1.94 (1.10–3.44) in the Glostrup cohort but not in the ADDITION Study (HR 0.96 (0.57–1.61)).
Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are associated with an increased risk of dementia, while the importance of screening-detected elevated HbA1c remains less clear.
Persons with severe mental illness (SMI) have excess mortality, which may partly be explained by their high prevalence of diabetes.
We compared the overall and cause-specific mortality in persons with SMI and diabetes with that of the general Danish population between 1997 and 2009 by linking data from Danish national registries.
The cohort counted 4 734 703 persons, and during follow-up 651 080 persons died of whom 1083 persons had SMI and diabetes. Compared with the background population, the overall mortality rate ratios (MRRs) for persons with SMI and diabetes were 4.14 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.81–4.51] for men and 3.13 (95% CI 2.88–3.40) for women. The cause-specific MRRs for persons with SMI and diabetes were lowest for malignant neoplasms (women: MRR = 1.98, 95% CI 1.64–2.39; men: MRR = 2.08, 95% CI 1.69–2.56) and highest for unnatural causes of death (women: MRR = 12.31, 95% CI 6.80–22.28; men: MRR = 7.89, 95% CI 5.51–11.29). The cumulative risks of death within 7 years of diabetes diagnosis for persons with SMI and diabetes were 15.0% (95% CI 12.4–17.6%) for those younger than 50 years, 30.7% (95% CI 27.8–33.4%) for those aged 50–69 years, and 63.8% (95% CI 58.9–68.2%) for those aged 70 years or older. Among persons suffering from both diseases, 33.4% of natural deaths were attributed to diabetes and 14% of natural deaths were attributed to the interaction between diabetes and SMI.
Long-term mortality is high for persons with SMI and diabetes. This calls for effective intervention from a coordinated and collaborating healthcare system.
Family relations have for many years been acknowledged as having a protective impact on children's development if positive and as representing a risk factor if negative. Studies based on statistical information have demonstrated an overrepresentation of a number of family problems in low-income families. Does this image change with children themselves as informants on child–parent relationships? The article examines Norwegian children's perception of parental acceptance, support and monitoring in low-income families compared to children living in families from all income groups.
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