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Hyperspectral soft X-ray emission (SXE) and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectrometry have been used to investigate a carbonaceous-rich geological deposit to understand the crystallinity and morphology of the carbon and the associated quartz. Panchromatic CL maps show both the growth of the quartz and the evidence of recrystallization. A fitted CL map reveals the distribution of Ti4+ within the grains and shows subtle growth zoning, together with radiation halos from 238U decay. The sensitivity of the SXE spectrometer to carbon, together with the anisotropic X-ray emission from highly orientated pyrolytic graphite, has enabled the C Kα peak shape to be used to measure the crystal orientation of individual graphite regions. Mapping has revealed that most grains are predominantly of a single orientation, and a number of graphite grains have been investigated to demonstrate the application of this new SXE technique. A peak fitting approach to analyzing the SXE spectra was developed to project the C Kα 2pz and 2p(x+y) orbital components of the graphite. The shape of these two end-member components is comparable to those produced by electron density of states calculations. The angular sensitivity of the SXE spectrometer has been shown to be comparable to that of electron backscatter diffraction.
Eudialyte-group minerals (EGM) are very common in highly evolved SiO2-undersaturated syenites and are characteristic minerals of agpaitic rocks. Conversely, they are extremely rare in peralkaline granites, with only a handful of EGM occurrences reported worldwide. Here, we study two new examples of EGM occurrence in two types of peralkaline pegmatitic granites from the Cenozoic Ambohimirahavavy complex, and assess the magmatic conditions required to crystallize EGM in peralkaline SiO2-oversaturated rocks. In the transitional granite (contains EGM as accessory minerals) EGM occur as late phases and are the only agpaitic and major rare-earth element (REE) bearing minerals. In the agpaitic granite (contains EGM as rock-forming minerals) EGM are early-magmatic phases occurring together with two other agpaitic minerals, nacareniobsite-(Ce) and turkestanite. In these granites, EGM are partly-to-completely altered and replaced by secondary assemblages consisting of zircon and quartz in the transitional granite and an unidentified Ca-Na zirconosilicate in the agpaitic granite. Ambohimirahavavy EGM, as well as those from other peralkaline granites and pegmatites, are richer in REE and poorer in Ca than EGM in nepheline syenites. We infer that magmatic EGM are rare in SiO2-oversaturated rocks because of low Cl concentrations in these melts. At Ambohimirahavavy, contamination of the parental magma of the agpaitic granite with Ca-rich material increased the solubility of Cl in the melt promoting EGM crystallization. In both granite types, EGM were destabilized by the late exsolution of a fluid and by interaction with an external Ca-bearing fluid.
We conducted a survival analysis with competing risks to estimate the mortality rate and predictive factors for immunodeficiency-related death in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) in northeast Brazil. A cohort with 2372 PLWH was enrolled between July 2007 and June 2010 and monitored until 31 December 2012 at two healthcare centres. The event of interest was immunodeficiency-related death, which was defined based on the Coding Causes of Death in HIV Protocol (CoDe). The predictor variables were: sociodemographic characteristics, illicit drugs, tobacco, alcohol, nutritional status, antiretroviral therapy, anaemia and CD4 cell count at baseline; and treatment or chemoprophylaxis for tuberculosis (TB) during follow-up. We used Fine & Gray's model for the survival analyses with competing risks, since we had regarded immunodeficiency-unrelated deaths as a competing event, and we estimated the adjusted sub-distribution hazard ratios (SHRs). In 10 012·6 person-years of observation there were 3·1 deaths/100 person-years (2·3 immunodeficiency-related and 0·8 immunodeficiency-unrelated). TB (SHR 4·01), anaemia (SHR 3·58), CD4 <200 cells/mm3 (SHR 3·33) and being unemployed (SHR 1·56) were risk factors for immunodeficiency-related death. This study discloses a 13% coverage by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in our state and adds that anaemia at baseline or the incidence of TB may increase the specific risk of dying from HIV-immunodeficiency, regardless of HAART and CD4.
Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) is a diuretic used for the treatment of blood pressure (hypertension). HCTZ has two anhydrous polymorphs denoted as Forms I and II. Aiming at solid-state characterization, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) is known to be a powerful technique which has been successfully applied in investigating polymorphism in medicines. In this work, three tablets of HCTZ (a reference and two generic) were analyzed. The data were collected using Rigaku RINT2000 diffractometer copper rotate anode. The Rietveld method (RM) was applied for the characterization of HCTZ polymorphic form. For the crystalline excipients where the crystal structure is known, their phases were identified by the RM either. The results showed that all the tablets exhibit Form I of HCTZ, while the excipient lactose monohydrate is found to exhibit the crystalline form. One of the generics is also found to exhibit the excipient sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) in the crystalline form. Therefore, the RM and XRPD are an efficient methodology for characterization of the crystalline Form I of the active principle of HCTZ and crystalline excipients lactose monohydrate and SLS in solid formulations. It is also interesting to observe excipients not described in the package insert of the medicament.
The Mediterranean Sea is currently under siege by a conspicuous alien
pressure, and, within some families (e.g. the Ostreidae), the number of
native species seems to be remarkably outnumbered by that of the alien ones.
We wanted to test the reliability of the molecular data currently available
on the small alien oysters recently invading the Mediterranean Sea. Samples
from Greece and Turkey, encompassing the known species-specific
morphological variation, were sequenced for the markers with the widest
taxonomic coverage in the group of small oysters (i.e. the 16S rDNA and the
COI). The sequences obtained have been compared with those available in
GenBank, and a possible identification at the species level has been finally
tested in a DNA-barcoding fashion. The present results clearly demonstrated
that our samples belong to a single, morphologically highly variable
species. Their 16S sequences were closely related to a sequence registered
under the name Dendostrea folium, with a genetic distance
which does not warrant conspecificity. Additionally, a remarkable number of
sequences retrieved from the GenBank (of both genes) did not form a
monophyletic group according to the published classification of the
vouchers, suggesting—at least in part—an origin from specimens not properly
identified. Both genes seem promising for use as DNA-barcode, although the
COI will probably prove more effective. Therefore, we urge the availability
of a baseline of oyster pedigreed DNA barcode sequences in the public
databases, to allow the use of such genetic data to reliably monitor
bio-invasions in the Mediterranean Sea.
Atenolol is the most used drug in Brazil to hypertension treatment. Two crystal structures are known for this molecule: a racemic form (R,S)-atenolol and a pure form S-atenolol. The racemic form is found in commercial tablets. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) is an adequate tool to study crystalline structures including drugs. Using the Rietveld Method with XRD data it is possible to quantify the crystalline structures existing in the raw material. Other methods like Le Bail and Pawley can be used to the profile fit and phases identification. For this work we analyzed three tablets of atenolol, two generics and the reference (materials were purchased from a drugstore at the city of Araraquara). These tablets were analyzed by Rietveld, Le Bail and Pawley methods. All tablets exhibited the racemic mixture API (R,S)-atenolol. Some crystalline excipients could be characterized: magnesium carbonate hydrate, lactose monohydrate and talc. The conclusion is that the three methods can be efficiently used to characterize the three atenolol tablets.
Cores acquired from the Ross Sea continental shelf and continental slope during the XXX Italian Programma Nazionale di Ricerche in Antartide (PNRA) were analysed and yielded interesting micropalaeontological, biostratigraphic diatom results and palaeoceanographic implications. These multi-proxy analyses enabled us to reconstruct the glacial/deglacial history of this sector of the Ross embayment over the last 40 000 years, advancing our understanding of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) environmental and sedimentological processes linked to the Ross Sea ice sheet/ice shelf fluctuations in a basin and continental-slope environment, and allowed us to measure some of the palaeoceanographic dynamics. The central sector of the Ross Sea and part of its coast (south of the Drygalski Ice Tongue) enjoyed open marine conditions in the pre-LGM era (27 500–24 000 years bp). The retreat of the ice sheet could have been influenced by a southward shift of a branch of the Ross gyre, which triggered early deglaciation at c. 18 600 cal bp with a significant Modified Circumpolar Deep Water inflow over the continental slope at c. 14 380 cal BP. We assume that a lack of depositional material in each core, although at different times, represents a hiatus. Other than problems in core collection, this could be due to the onset of modern oceanographic conditions, with strong gravity currents and strong High Salinity Shelf Water exportation. Moreover, we presume that improvements in biostratigraphy, study of reworked diatom taxa, and lithological and geochemical analyses will provide important constraints for the reconstruction of the LGM grounding line, ice-flow lines and ice-flow paths and an interesting tool for reconstructing palaeo-sub-bottom currents in this sector of the Ross embayment.
III Zw2 was observed with XMM-Newton in July 2000. Its X-ray spectrum can be described by a power law of photon index Γ≈1.7 with a Gaussian line at 6.7 KeV. There is no significant evidence of intrinsic absorption within the source or of a soft X-ray excess. Multi-wavelength light curves over a period of 25 years show related variations from the radio to X-rays. We interpret the radio to optical emission as synchrotron radiation, self-absorbed in the radio/millimetre region, and the X-rays as mainly due to Compton up-scattering of low energy photons by the population of high energy electrons that give rise to the synchrotron radiation.
23 January 2012 marked 70 years since the death of the Italian plant breeder Nazareno Strampelli (1866–1942), one of the most important plant geneticists of the 20th century. During the first 30 years of what is known as the ‘short century’, Strampelli was among the first, in Europe and in the world, to systematically apply Mendel's laws to plant breeding, particularly to wheat breeding which resulted in varieties characterized by rust resistance, early flowering and maturity and short straw. Due to Strampelli's varieties Italian wheat production doubled, an achievement that during the fascist regime was referred to as the ‘Wheat Battle’.
Some of Strampelli's wheats, such as Mentana, Ardito and San Pastore, were used as parents in the breeding programmes of several countries after the Second World War; they also had a key role in the first phase of Norman Borlaug's Green Revolution, being instrumental in the development of the high-yielding varieties of the future Nobel Peace Laureate.
A century after the key cross in which Strampelli, 30 years before Borlaug, used the genes for short straw and earliness in wheat breeding, his name and his work are not known and appreciated as they deserve, despite the recent evidence that the resistance to the new rust races could derive from the very same resistance genes identified by the Italian breeder at the beginning of the 20th century.
Granitic pegmatites are exceptional igneous rocks and the possible role of an immiscibility process in their origin is strongly debated. To investigate metal and metalloid behaviour in hydrous peraluminous systems (aluminium saturation index, ASI >1), we analysed 15 quartz-hosted primary melt and fluid inclusions from pegmatites in the Ehrenfriedersdorf Complex (Erzgebirge, Germany) and 26 primary melt inclusions from leucogranites of the Ehrenfriedersdorf district (Germany), Kymi (Finland) and Erongo (Namibia) by femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry. The results presented here for 32 elements provide evidence for metal and metalloid fractionation between two types of immiscible melts (A and B) and NaCl – HCl-rich brine in the pegmatite system. No evidence for the boundary layer effect was observed in the 40 – 500 μm size melt inclusions that were investigated. The data on the Ehrenfriedersdorf pegmatites allow quantification of the metal and metalloid partitioning between natural NaCl-rich brine and the two types of melt (e.g. KAsbrine/type-A,B melts = 0.01 – 1.7; KSbbrine/type-A,B melts = 10 – 285; KZnbrine/type-A,B melts ≥ 50; KPbbrine/type-A melt ≥ 50; KAgbrine/type-A melt = 46). These data are in accord with existing natural and experimental data on equilibrium fluid – melt partitioning as well as spectroscopic data on the metal and metalloid complexation in hydrous aluminosilicate melts and NaCl – HCl-rich fluids.
Philippe Flajolet, mathematician and computer scientist extraordinaire, the father of analytic combinatorics, suddenly passed away on 22 March 2011, at the prime of his career. He is celebrated for opening new lines of research in the analysis of algorithms, developing powerful new methods, and solving difficult open problems. His research contributions will have an impact for generations, and his approach to research, based on curiosity, discriminating taste, broad knowledge and interests, intellectual integrity, and a genuine sense of camaraderie, will serve as an inspiration to those who knew him, for years to come.
In this study, the targetting-induced local lesions in genomes approach was used to identify mutants for genes related to starch metabolism in barley. Starch is the major reserve of plants and serves as primary carbohydrate component in human and livestock diets and has also numerous industrial applications. Mutants for biosynthetic or regulatory genes of starch metabolism often produce starch granules with abnormal morphological and molecular features that could be of interest for technological applications. We report the identification of 29 mutations in five starch-related barley genes (Bmy1, GBSSI, LDA1, SSI and SSII) through the molecular screening of TILLMore, a sodium azide-mutagenized population. Almost all the mutations detected were CG–TA transitions and several (c. 60%) implied a change in amino-acid sequence and therefore possible phenotypic effects. Four mutants showed non-sense or splice-junction alterations, which could drastically affect the protein function.
The continuity examined here involves the system of oppositions realized by the morphology and by syntactic construction types, independently of the realization of individual morphemes.
Given that Latin covered an extensive diachronic (and to some extent diastratic) span, part of what survives in Latin texts prefigures in some respects the Romance type. For the Romance languages were not born overnight, but after a long gestation which had already commenced in the period traditionally classified as Latin, and was generally masked by the ‘official’ literary and grammatical language. This tradition did, however, allow fleeting glimpses of innovative phenomena in the written documentation. And even what is justifiably considered an innovation has its roots in earlier linguistic usage: syntactic innovations often involve extension of existing structures to a wider range of contexts or are the result of more or less direct reinterpretation of the semantic value of an existing construction.
These difficulties in identifying the main points of continuity between Latin and Romance mean that we shall compare Classical Latin (not all attestations of Latin) with Romance (focusing on early varieties). Note also that continuity is sometimes only apparent: constructions may be reintroduced into the written language in imitation of Latin (see Pountain, this volume, chapter 13), or a subsystem or construction may change first and then be restructured, returning spontaneously to the original system.
Non-clinical psychotic symptoms appear common in children, but it is possible that a proportion of reported symptoms result from misinterpretation. There is a well-established association between pre-morbid low IQ score and schizophrenia. Psychosis-like symptoms in children may also be a risk factor for psychotic disorder but their relationship with IQ is unclear.
To investigate the prevalence, nature and frequency of psychosis-like symptoms in 12-year-old children and study their relationship with IQ.
Longitudinal study using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. A total of 6455 children completed screening questions for 12 psychotic symptoms followed by a semi-structured clinical assessment. IQ was assessed at 8 years of age using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (3rd UK edition).
The 6-month period prevalence for one or more symptoms was 13.7% (95% CI 12.8–14.5). After adjustment for confounding variables, there was a non-linear association between IQ score and psychosis-like symptoms, such that only those with below average IQ score had an increased risk of reporting such symptoms.
Non-clinical psychotic symptoms occur in a significant proportion of 12-year-olds. Symptoms are associated with low IQ and also less strongly with a high IQ score. The pattern of association with IQ differs from that observed in schizophrenia.
An investigation of bulk-rock and clay-fraction compositions of two sedimentary cores from southern Chile was performed to evaluate the record of temporal climatic changes during the late Quaternary (11 ky and 30 ky BP). The bulk mineralogy shows an abundance of feldspars, mica and quartz, with lesser chlorite, amphibole and pyroxene, and variable amounts of carbonates. The clay fraction consists of illite, chlorite and scarce smectite. Smectite shows platy morphology, an Al-Fe beidellite chemical composition, and is detrital. Smectite, together with biogenic carbonate, increases in levels diagnostic of warmer phases. Increases in smectite are attributed either to the beginning of chemical weathering, allowed by the glacial retreat, or to ice extension and sea-level variations. Warmer climates also favoured the increase of carbonate productivity. Levels diagnostic of colder phases show a large decrease in carbonate, small amounts of smectite and large amounts of chlorite and mica, as the abundance of glaciers reduced the productivity and prevented chemical weathering.
Aims – To start a process of Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) in an Italian Community Mental Health Service by using a quality assurance questionnaire in a self audit exercise. Methods – The questionnaire was administered to 14 key workers and clinical managers with different roles and seniority. One senior manager's evaluation was used as a benchmark for all the others. Changes were introduced in the service practice according to what emerged from the evaluation. Meetings were scheduled to monitor those changes and renew the CQI process. Results – There was a wide difference in the key workers' answers. Overall, the senior manager's evaluation was on the 60th percentile of the distribution of the other evaluations. Those areas that required prompt intervention were risk management, personnel development, and CQI. The CQI process was followed up for one year: some interventions were carried out to change the practice of the service. Conclusions – A self audit exercise in Community Mental Health Services was both feasible and useful. The CQI process was easier to start than to carry on over the long term.
Aims – Service user involvement in mental health service development and research is becoming more common in countries like the UK. USA and Canada. This systematic review of the international scientific literature has been carried out to assess the stage of development of mental health service users involvement in research. Method – Systematic review of any research project actively involving service users in any part of the research process. Results – Thirty-five studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review. Nine studies used quantitative techniques, 24 used qualitative techniques and two studies used both quantitative and qualitative techniques. While three studies were user-led, in three other studies the users were simply consulted but did not have any active role in the research. The remaining 29 studies were based on a collaboration between service users and professional researchers. Conclusions – The involvement of mental health service users in the research process is feasible both in quantitative and qualitative research studies. The involvement of service users in research has a number of benefits; such research requires more accurate planning and more time than the traditional research.