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From a contemporary perspective, Wisconsin hardly counts as part of any possible “German-speaking world,” but a century ago, there were very real and robust German-speaking communities in much of Wisconsin and in other parts of the surrounding Upper Midwest. This was true to the point that the major history of the state includes the statement that Wisconsin was “a society made up of separate societies, each with its own churches and other organizations, its own customs, and even its own language” (Thompson 1973–1998: vol. 2, 128). This was true for Norwegian and Polish and other languages, but nowhere more true, nor true on a larger scale, than among German speakers. Today’s Wisconsin is majority English speaking – emphatically not German speaking – yet the English of the state and the state’s literal and figurative landscape still show clear marks of this linguistic history. In this chapter, we take that earlier status and trace key developments along several dimensions.
To explore beverage intake and associations between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake and sociodemographic, life circumstances, health and well-being factors in a national cohort of Indigenous children.
We calculated prevalence ratios for any SSB consumption across exposures, using multilevel Poisson regression (robust variance), adjusted for age group and remoteness. A key informant focus group contextualised these exploratory findings.
Diverse settings across Australia.
Families of Indigenous children aged 0–3 years, in the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children.
Half (50·7 %, n 473/933) of children had ever consumed SSB at survey, increasing from 29·3 % of 0–12-month-olds to 65·7 % of 18–36-month-olds. SSB consumption prevalence was significantly lower in urban and regional v. remote areas, and in families experiencing socio-economic advantage (area-level advantage, caregiver employed, financial security), better life circumstances (caregiver social support, limited exposure to stressors) and caregiver well-being (non-smoking, social and emotional well-being, physical health). SSB consumption prevalence was significantly lower among those engaged with health services (adequate health-service access, regular prenatal check-ups), except SSB consumption prevalence was higher among those who received home visits from an Aboriginal Health Worker compared with no home visits. Key informants highlighted the role of water quality/safety on SSB consumption.
A substantial proportion of Indigenous children in this sample consumed SSB from an early age. Health provider information needs to be relevant to the context of families’ lives. Health system strategies must be paired with upstream strategies, such as holistic support programmes for families, reducing racism and improving water quality.
The present study investigated the ability of the Multilingual Naming Test (MINT), a picture naming test recently added to the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center’s (NACC) Uniform Data Set neuropsychological test battery, to detect naming impairment (i.e., dysnomia) across stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD).
Data from the initial administration of the MINT were obtained on NACC participants who were cognitively normal (N = 3,981) or diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (N = 852) or dementia (N = 1,148) with presumed etiology of AD. Dementia severity was rated using the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale.
Cross-sectional multiple regression analyses revealed significant effects of diagnostic group, sex, education, age, and race on naming scores. Planned comparisons collapsing across age and education groups revealed significant group differences in naming scores across levels of dementia severity. ROC curve analyses showed good diagnostic accuracy of MINT scores for distinguishing cognitively normal controls from AD dementia, but not from MCI. Within the cognitively normal group, there was a robust interaction between age and education such that naming scores exhibited the most precipitous drop across age groups for the least educated participants. Additionally, education effects were stronger in African-Americans than in Whites (a race-by-education interaction), and race effects were stronger in older than in younger age groups (a race-by-age interaction).
The MINT successfully detects naming deficits at different levels of cognitive impairment in patients with MCI or AD dementia, but comparison to age, sex, race, and education-corrected norms to determine impairment is essential.
Objectives: Research has shown that analyzing intrusion errors generated on verbal learning and memory measures is helpful for distinguishing between the memory disorders associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other neurological disorders, including Huntington’s disease (HD). Moreover, preliminary evidence suggests that certain clinical populations may be prone to exhibit different types of intrusion errors. Methods: We examined the prevalence of two new California Verbal Learning Test-3 (CVLT-3) intrusion subtypes – across-trial novel intrusions and across/within trial repeated intrusions – in individuals with AD or HD. We hypothesized that the encoding/storage impairment associated with medial-temporal involvement in AD would result in a greater number of novel intrusions on the delayed recall trials of the CVLT-3, whereas the executive dysfunction associated with subcortical-frontal involvement in HD would result in a greater number of repeated intrusions across trials. Results: The AD group generated significantly more across-trial novel intrusions than across/within trial repeated intrusions on the delayed cued-recall trials, whereas the HD group showed the opposite pattern on the delayed free-recall trials. Conclusions: These new intrusion subtypes, combined with traditional memory analyses (e.g., recall versus recognition performance), promise to enhance our ability to distinguish between the memory disorders associated with primarily medial-temporal versus subcortical-frontal involvement.
The International Polar Year 2007–2008 stimulated a wide range of education, outreach and communication (EOC) related to polar research, and catalysed enthusiasm and networks that persist ten years on. Using a multi-method approach that incorporates case studies, auto-ethnographic interviews, and survey data, we interrogate the opportunities and limitations of polar EOC activities and propose a new framework for practical, reflexive, engagement design. Our research suggests that EOC activities are under-valued and often designed based on personal instinct rather than strategic planning, but that there is also a lack of accessible tools that support a more strategic design process. We propose three foci for increasing the professionalisation of practitioner approaches to EOC: (1) improved articulation of goals and objectives; (2) acknowledgement of different drivers, voices and power structures; and (3) increased practical training, resources and reporting structures. We respond to this by proposing a framework for planning and design of public engagement that provides an opportunity to become more transparent and explicit about the real goals of an activity and what “success” looks like. This is critical to effectively evaluate, learn from our experiences, share them with peers, and ultimately deliver more thoughtfully designed, effective engagement.
Techniques of mineral analysis by fluorescent X-ray spectrography can generally be classified on the basis of (1) extensive sample preparation and simple instrumental examination, (2) simple sample preparation and extensive instrumental examination, (3) extensive processes for both, or (4) simple processes for both major phases of the technique. The latter type of technique is usually the most commensurate with the concept “maximum information with minimum effort.”
Suitable analytical results with multielement calibration systems for random mineral samples can be obtained if there are valid considerations of the relevant absorption and enhancement effects or if the systems are based on general procedures to minimize absorption and enhancement effects. Preliminary investigation indicated that control of sample mass and use of thin films of the mineral sample is a convenient and simple method of minimizing absorption and enhancement effects.
Successful application of thin-film samples with known masses in a multielement calibration system is highly dependent upon details of sample preparation and comprehensive studies of these details will be discussed.
The calibration system is suitable for the determination of minor and major concentrations in the sample, but it is not recommended for determination of trace concentrations.
A method is described for the x-ray fluorescence analysis of small samples, taken from museum objects, to determine alloy composition. The samples are dissolved in an appropriate reagent and absorbed on cellulose powder. The resulting powder is formed into a film of less than critical thickness and the effective absorption of the sample for the characteristic wavelength of the element being measured is determined. The effective absorption coefficient is used to correct the observed intensities in order to obtain quantitative results.
The use of electronic discrimination at a fixed goniometer position for an X-ray spectrographic determination is a conventional means of improving the signal-tonoise ratio and minimizing interferences due to multiple-order diffractions of radiation with shorter wavelengths. The same advantage can be gained with a moving goniometer in a scanning procedure if adjustment of the baseline of the electronic discriminator is properly coordinated with the movement of the goniometer. Å study of optimum baseline levels for various wavelengths in the range of 0.3 to 3.0 Å indicated a hyperbolical correlation of optimum baseline voltage vs. 2θ angle. This experimental correlation is the basis for synchronization of electronic discrimination with movement of the goniometer during the scanning procedure. A suitable mechanism for coordinated baseline adjustment was developed by Technical Equipment Corporation, Denver, Colorado, and improved results are obtained for trace analysis with a scanning technique routinely used for qualitative, semiquantitative determinations for elements with atomic numbers 22 and higher.
Applications of filters are routine and useful techniques in X-ray diffraction and.can also be useful in X-ray spectrography to improve analytical results with very simple procedures. Fankuchen demonstrated the use of filters over the window of the X-ray tube to minimize background from the target element and/or elements in other components of the X-ray tube in research programs at the X-ray- Laboratory, Metallurgy Division, Denver Research Institute during the summer of 1952. This general procedure has been adapted to routine analyses by modification of the spectrograph to provide for movement of filters in and out of position between the window of the X-ray tube and the sample while the instrument is in operation. Placement of filters in the X-ray beam path of the spectrograph between the sample and the analyzing crystal is also a useful procedure to reduce interferences by elements exhibiting lines at closely adjacent wavelengths.
Fluorescent x-ray speorographic studies of mineral systems were begun in the Metallurgy Division of the Denver Research Institute in 1953. These studies were concerned with several techniques but the primary research emphasis was placed on a method involving conjunctive analyses by monochromatic x-ray absorptiometry and fluorescent x-ray spectrography.
Experimental data for mineral systems with wide variations in matrix compositions exhibit departures from simple calibration curves relating intensity and concentration for an element in a series of samples analyzed by simple fluorescent x-ray spectrographic procedures.
Absorptiometric measurements are made with a thin layer of the mineral sample as an absorption filter for the monochromatic x-rays emitted by the element in question. The results of these measurements provide information for improvement of the simple correlation of intensity and concentration by manipulation of the experimental data with various operations based on Beer's law of radiation absorption.
The results of work at the Denver Research Institute indicated the feasibility of the fluorescent x-ray spectrographic-absorptiometric method and the current work is an extension of the study of basic fundamentals, mechanical factors and practical applications of the technique.
Semiquantitative results are adequate for the satisfactory solution of many problems involving mineral analyses, andfluorescent X-ray spectrography is gaining more recognition as a satisfactory method for performance of these analyses.
Successful applications of the method, in various instances are discussed to demonstrate a system involving minimum s am - pie preparation and the use of instrumental factors in establishing multielement calibration curves.
A highly simplified multielement calibration systemfor semiquantitativeanalyses of mineral samples by fluorescent X-ray spectrography was discussed at the Eighth Annual Conference on Applications of X-ray Analysis. This system relates scattered radiation intensity (background) with peak intensity as measuredon a chart recording to determine concentrations of several elements in a sample.
A continuation of the study reveals the effects of operating variables such as: (1) sample preparation and choice of sample type, (2) operating power and target choice of the X-ray tube, (3) collimation ratio, (4) goniometer scanning rate, (5) choice of method for measurement of background intensity, and (6) control and adjustment of detector, sealer-ratemeter, recorder, and other electronic circuits.
The over-all effects of some operating variables are negligible owing to the compensatory nature of the calibration system. The net effects of others can be directly attributed to particular operating conditions, and these conditions can be controlled to achieve an optimum balance of effects to yield the desired results for accuracy, time required to complete the analyses, and other important requirements in the analyses of minerals.
Humans can recollect past events in details (recollection) and/or know that an object, person or place has been encountered before (familiarity). During the last two decades, there has been intense debate about how recollection and familiarity are organized in the brain. Here, we propose an Integrative Memory model which describes the distributed and interactive neurocognitive architecture of representations and operations underlying recollection and familiarity. In this architecture, the subjective experience of recollection and familiarity arises from the interaction between core systems storing particular kinds of representations shaped by specific computational mechanisms and an attribution system. By integrating principles from current theoretical views about memory functioning, we provide a testable framework to refine the prediction of deficient versus preserved mechanisms in memory-impaired populations. The case of Alzheimer's disease is considered as an example because it entails progressive lesions starting with limited damage to core systems before invading step-by-step most parts of the model-related network. We suggest a chronological scheme of cognitive impairments along the course of Alzheimer's disease, where the inaugurating deficit would relate early neurodegeneration of the perirhinal/anterolateral entorhinal cortex to impaired familiarity for items that need to be discriminated as viewpoint-invariant conjunctive entities. The Integrative Memory model can guide future neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies aiming to understand how such a network allows humans to remember past events, to project into the future and possibly also to share experiences.
Objectives: Although the influence of prior knowledge on associative memory in healthy aging has received great attention, it has never been studied in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This study aimed at assessing whether AD patients could benefit from prior knowledge in associative memory and whether such benefit would be related to the integrity of their semantic memory. Methods: Twenty-one AD patients and 21 healthy older adults took part in an associative memory task using semantically related and unrelated word pairs and were also submitted to an evaluation of their semantic memory. Results: While participants of both groups benefited from semantic relatedness in associative discrimination, related pairs recognition was significantly predicted by semantic memory integrity in healthy older adults only. Conclusions: We suggest that patients benefitted from semantic knowledge to improve their performance in the associative memory task, but that such performance is not related to semantic knowledge integrity evaluation measures because the two tasks differ in the way semantic information is accessed: in an automatic manner for the associative memory task, with automatic processes thought to be relatively preserved in AD, and in a controlled manner for the semantic knowledge evaluation, with controlled processes thought to be impaired in AD. (JINS, 2019, 25, 443–452)
In pig husbandry, pregnant females are often exposed to stressful conditions, and their outcomes on maternal and offspring health have not been well evaluated. The present study aimed at testing whether improving the welfare of gestating sows could be associated with a better maternal health during gestation, changes in the composition of lacteal secretions and improvement in piglet survival. Two contrasted group-housing systems for gestating sows were used, that is, a French conventional system on slatted floor (C, 49 sows) and an enriched system using larger pens on deep straw (E, 57 sows). On the 105th days of gestation (DG105), sows were transferred into identical farrowing crates on slatted floor. Saliva was collected from all sows on DG35, DG105 and DG107. Blood samples were collected on DG105 from all sows and on the 1st day of lactation (DL1) from a subset of them (C, n=18; E, n=19). Colostrum and milk samples were collected from this subset of sows at farrowing (DL0) and DL4. Saliva concentration of cortisol was greater in C than in E sows at DG35 and DG105, and dropped to concentrations comparable to E sows after transfer into farrowing crates (DG107). On DG105, plasma concentrations of haptoglobin, immunoglobulins G (IgG) and A (IgA), blood lymphocyte counts and plasma antioxidant potential did not differ between groups (P > 0.10), whereas blood granulocyte count, and plasma hydroperoxide concentration were lower in E than in C sows (P < 0.05). Concentrations of IgG and IgA in colostrum and milk did not differ between the two groups. The number of cells did not differ in colostrum but was greater in milk from E than C sows (P < 0.05). Pre-weaning mortality rates were lower in E than C piglets (16.7% v. 25.8%, P < 0.001), and especially between 12 and 72 h postpartum (P < 0.001). Plasma concentration of IgG was similar in E and C piglets on DL4. In conclusion, differences in salivary cortisol, blood granulocyte count and oxidative stress markers between groups suggested improved welfare and reduced immune solicitation during late gestation in sows of the E compared with the C system. However, the better survival observed for neonates in the E environment could not be explained by variations in colostrum composition.