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The accurate estimation of protein requirements for beef cattle is a key factor in increasing livestock profitability and decreasing the environmental impacts of excessive N excretion due to mismatching between assumed requirements and diet formulation. A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate and validate a new equation to predict the net protein requirements for growth (NPg) of Zebu beef cattle. For the development of the new approach, a database of 552 observations comprised of bulls, steers, and heifers of different genetic groups (Zebu, beef crossbreed, and dairy crossbreed) was assembled. The new approach was evaluated and compared to current models devised by the international nutrient requirements system committees (Agricultural Research Council, 1980; Beef Cattle Nutrient Requirements Model, 2016; BR-CORTE, 2016) to predict NPg. The model evaluation was performed through the model evaluation system (version 3.1.16) using an independent data set (n = 177 observations). An equation was considered the best estimator of NPg if the following conditions were met: (1) the intercept and slope of the regression between ordinary residues and/or predicted NPg values must have been equal to zero and one, respectively; and (2) the greatest concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) and determination coefficient (R), and lowest mean squared error of prediction (MSEP) were attained. Based on the regression models of the observed v. predicted NPg of Zebu beef cattle, both the new approach and that of the ARC (1980) correctly estimated NPg, since the intercept and slope were not different (P > 0.05) from zero and one, respectively. Additionally, the new approach’s determination coefficient was the greatest and the closest to one. The fact that the new model achieved a higher CCC and lower MSEP than the existing models indicated its superior reproducibility and accuracy. The equations proposed by BR-CORTE (2016) and the BCNRM (2016) did not correctly estimate NPg in that the intercept and slope were different (P < 0.01) from zero and one, respectively. Thus, the equations proposed by the new approach and the ARC (1980) accurately and precisely estimated NPg and are recommended for Zebu cattle. Furthermore, the inclusion of equivalent empty BW (EQEBW) in the new approach improves the estimation of NPg. We suggest the use of the following equation to calculate NPg for Zebu beef cattle: NPg = 176.01 × EBG – 0.381 × EQEBW0.75 × EBG1.035 (R = 0.80 and CCC = 0.75); where NPg = net protein requirements for growth, EBG = empty body gain, and EQEBW = equivalent empty BW.
This study aims to adapt and validate the most common measure of self-esteem, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), in the elderly Spanish population based on the initial one-factor model proposed by the author of the scale.
The factorial validity of the scale was tested using confirmatory factor analysis.
The study was carried out in the city of Valencia (Spain).
A total of 231 elderly people with a mean age 72.68 (SD=8.55).
The participants completed the questionnaire RSES for the validation process, sociodemographic data and Mini-Mental State Examination.
Confirmatory factor analysis with a five-item structure for the one-factor structure showed good fit indexes (Chi square  = 217.20, p < .05; CFI = .965; GFI = .980; RMSEA = .070 [90% confidence interval of RMSEA, .022-.087]), and reliability, as internal consistency, measure with Cronbach’s alpha was .732.
The adaptation of the RSES showed a unifactorial structure with good internal consistency. This reduced adaptation/version of the scale may facilitate clinical practice and be useful in research in older people.
Identifying risk factors of individuals in a clinical-high-risk state for psychosis are vital to prevention and early intervention efforts. Among prodromal abnormalities, cognitive functioning has shown intermediate levels of impairment in CHR relative to first-episode psychosis and healthy controls, highlighting a potential role as a risk factor for transition to psychosis and other negative clinical outcomes. The current study used the AX-CPT, a brief 15-min computerized task, to determine whether cognitive control impairments in CHR at baseline could predict clinical status at 12-month follow-up.
Baseline AX-CPT data were obtained from 117 CHR individuals participating in two studies, the Early Detection, Intervention, and Prevention of Psychosis Program (EDIPPP) and the Understanding Early Psychosis Programs (EP) and used to predict clinical status at 12-month follow-up. At 12 months, 19 individuals converted to a first episode of psychosis (CHR-C), 52 remitted (CHR-R), and 46 had persistent sub-threshold symptoms (CHR-P). Binary logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression were used to test prediction models.
Baseline AX-CPT performance (d-prime context) was less impaired in CHR-R compared to CHR-P and CHR-C patient groups. AX-CPT predictive validity was robust (0.723) for discriminating converters v. non-converters, and even greater (0.771) when predicting CHR three subgroups.
These longitudinal outcome data indicate that cognitive control deficits as measured by AX-CPT d-prime context are a strong predictor of clinical outcome in CHR individuals. The AX-CPT is brief, easily implemented and cost-effective measure that may be valuable for large-scale prediction efforts.
The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of institutional policies and practices for the prevention of and response to gender inequities as experienced by female faculty working in the health sciences at a US research university.
Data from the institution's Faculty Campus Climate Survey (n = 260 female faculty) were coupled with qualitative interviews (n = 14) of females in leadership positions, exploring campus climate, and institutional policies and practices aimed at advancing women.
Two-thirds (59%) of the female faculty respondents indicated witnessing sexual harassment and 28% reported experiencing sexual harassment. Several organizational themes emerged to address this problem: culture, including cultural change, transparency, and accountability.
The findings reveal the ways in which university culture mimics the larger societal context. At the same time, the distinct culture of higher education processes for recruitment, career advancement – specifically tenure and promotion – are identified as important factors that require modifications in support of reductions in gender inequalities.
This work presents the mesoscale step of a theoretical study of a Polymer-Clay Nanocomposite (PCN) composed by starch, pequi vegetable oil and montmorillonite (MMT), a phyllosilicate. In the present study, amylose oligomers, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids in the proportion found in that vegetable oil and MMT were studied, as a simplified model, in order to simulate in multiscale their structural and behavioral correlations. The calculations were carried out by Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD), at 363 K, using Materials StudioTM suite. The DPD model had its interaction parameters calculated from previous MD simulations. It was observed that the organic material concentrated near the MMT surfaces, which correlated with the MD results, implying in the validity of the model. The new knowledge acquired about those molecular systems, works as a starting point to build more complex models and, if the theoretical work converge with the experimental findings, encourages further studies in the design of PCNs with biopolymers.
The objectives were to develop an effective protocol for transfection of ovine secondary follicles and to assess the effect of attenuating aquaporin 3 (AQP3) using a small interfering RNA (siRNA-AQP3) on antrum formation and follicular growth in vitro. Various combinations of Lipofectamine® volumes (0.5, 0.75 or 1.0 µl), fluorescent oligonucleotide (BLOCK-iT ™) concentrations (3.18, 27.12 or 36.16 nM) and exposure times (12, 14, 16, 18 or 20 h) were tested. The BLOCK-iT™ was replaced by siRNA-AQP3 in the transfection complex. Ovine secondary follicles were isolated and cultured in vitro for 6 days using standard protocols. Follicles were transfected on day 0 or 3 or on both days (0 and 3) and then cultured for an additional 3 or 6 days. As revealed by the fluorescence signal, the Lipofectamine®/BLOCK-iT™ complex (0.75 µl + 27.12 nM by 12 h of incubation) crossed the basement membrane and granulosa cell and reached the oocytes. In general, the rate of intact follicles was higher and the rate of antrum formation was lower in transfected follicles compared with control follicles. In conclusion, ovine secondary follicles can be successfully transfected during in vitro culture, and siRNA-mediated attenuation of AQP3 gene reduced antrum formation of secondary follicles.
Drafters of legislation occupy an important position of constitutional significance, involving the translation of political will into legal form. They help clarify and refine the instructions from politicians and create statutory schemes which are internally coherent and have external coherence with wider legal and constitutional values. They begin the process of disciplining and refining political will through application of constitutional reason, which is then continued at the stage of interpretation of statutes by the courts. Drafters of legislation thus contribute to the formal rule of law values of predictability and certainty and also to more substantive values of fairness and respect for constitutional principles and rights. The better the drafting of legislation, the smoother the integration of democracy and the rule of law and the less need there is for interstitial law-making by judges in the interpretive exercise.
Bone health is determined by the rate of accrual in early life, followed by the rate of age-associated bone loss. Dietary protein intake might have a role in bone health across both of these phases via pleiotropic mechanistic pathways. Herein we summarise the pathways through which protein may exert either a positive or negative influence on bone. In the introduction, we describe the acid-ash hypothesis, which states that a high-protein intake may lead to an acidic residue that must be neutralised through the leaching of calcium and other minerals from the bone, subsequently leading to demineralisation and bone weakening. Conversely, and as described in the ‘Against: mechanisms through which protein may negatively impact bone’ section, protein intake may act to strengthen the bone by stimulating the activity of various anabolic hormones and growth factors, or by optimising muscle mass and functionality, which itself has an osteogenic influence. The net effect of these contrasting pathways is described in the ‘For: mechanisms through which protein may positively impact bone’ section, where a number of meta-analyses have demonstrated that higher protein intakes have a small positive impact on bone mass and fracture risk. Sometimes higher than recommended protein intakes are advised, e.g. during the earlier and later phases of the lifespan or during reduced energy availability. We conclude that protein is an essential nutrient for bone health, although further research is required to clarify the mechanistic pathways through which it exerts its influence, along with the clarification of the quantities, food sources and timing to allow for the optimisation of this protective influence and ultimately a reduction in fracture risk.
The outer stellar halo is home to a number of substructures that are remnants of former interactions of the Galaxy with its dwarf satellites. Triangulum-Andromeda (TriAnd) is one of these halo substructures, found as a debris cloud by Rocha-Pinto et al., (2004) using 2MASS M giants. Would be these structures related to dwarf galaxies or to the galactic disk? To uncover the nature of these stars we performed a high-resolution spectroscopic study (R = 40,000) along with a kinematic analysis using Gaia data. We determined the atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances of Ca and Mg for the 13 TriAnd candidate stars along with their respective orbits. Our results indicate that the TriAnd stars analyzed have a galactic nature but that these stars are not from the local thin disk.
There is a lack of studies evaluating smoking cessation treatment protocols which include people with and without mental and substance use disorders (MSUD), and which allows for individuals with MSUD undergoing their psychiatric treatment.
We compared treatment success between participants with (n = 277) and without (n = 419) MSUD among patients in a 6-week treatment provided by a Brazilian Psychosocial Care Center (CAPS) from 2007 to 2013. Sociodemographic, medical and tobacco use characteristics were assessed at baseline. Tobacco treatment consisted of 1) group cognitive behavior therapy, which included people with and without MSUD in the same groups, and 2) pharmacotherapy, which could include either nicotine patches, nicotine gum, bupropion or nortriptyline. For participants with MSUD, tobacco treatment was integrated into their ongoing mental health treatment. The main outcome was 30-day point prevalence abstinence, measured at last day of treatment.
Abstinence rates did not differ significantly between participants with and without MSUD (31.1% and 34.4%, respectively). Variables that were significantly associated with treatment success included years smoking, the Heaviness of Smoking Index, and use of nicotine patch or bupropion.
The inclusion of individuals with and without MSUD in the same protocol, allowing for individuals with MSUD undergoing their psychiatric treatment, generates at least comparable success rates between the groups. Predictors of treatment success were similar to those found in the general population. Facilities that treat patients with MSUD should treat tobacco use in order to reduce the disparities in morbidity and mortality experienced by this population.
We present a summary of the predictions from numerical simulations to our understanding of dwarf galaxies. It centers the discussion around the Λ Cold Dark Matter scenario (ΛCDM) but discusses also implications for alternative dark matter models. Four key predictions are identified: the abundance of dwarf galaxies, their dark matter content, their relation with environment and the existence of dwarf satellites orbiting dwarf field galaxies. We discuss tensions with observations and identify the most exciting predictions expected from simulations in the future, including i) the existence of “dark galaxies” (dark matter halos without stars), ii) the ability to resolve the structure (size, morphology, dark matter distribution) in dwarfs and iii) the number of ultra-faint satellites around dwarf galaxies. All of these predictions shall inform future observations, not only the faintest galaxies to be discovered within the Local Volume but also distant dwarfs driving galaxy formation in the early universe.
Chagas disease is a public health problem, affecting about 7 million people worldwide. Benznidazole (BZN) is the main treatment option, but it has limited effectiveness and can cause severe adverse effects. Drug delivery through nanoparticles has attracted the interest of the scientific community aiming to improve therapeutic options. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of benznidazole-loaded calcium carbonate nanoparticles (BZN@CaCO3) on Trypanosoma cruzi strain Y. It was observed that BZN@CaCO3 was able to reduce the viability of epimastigote, trypomastigote and amastigote forms of T. cruzi with greater potency when compared with BZN. The amount of BZN necessary to obtain the same effect was up to 25 times smaller when loaded with CaCO3 nanoparticles. Also, it was observed that BZN@CaCO3 enhanced the selectivity index. Furthermore, the cell-death mechanism induced by both BZN and BZN@CaCO3 was evaluated, indicating that both substances caused necrosis and changed mitochondrial membrane potential.
In this study, we performed computational simulations to extend the behavior knowledge over molecular systems composed by amylose oligomers, three fatty acids often found in Brazilian vegetable oils, water solvent, and montmorillonite. The focus is directed to the molecular movement and to intra and intermolecular interactions, each simulation step being compared with the literature's experimental profile. The calculations were mostly performed by Molecular Mechanics and Dynamics methods. The excellent agreement and complementarities with the literature results indicate, once again, the important contribution offered by the computational simulations to the design of new polymer–clay nanocomposites with biopolymers.
This work shows a part of a theoretical study of Polymer-Clay Nanocomposites (PCN) formed by an acetylated amylose segment and fatty acids present in the Pequi oil, a fruit from the Brazilian Cerrado, in aqueous medium, including or not, organophilized montmorillonite (MMT-O). The simulated systems aim to provide qualitative information about the molecular movement among diverse chemical species; their structural and behavioral correlations and essential intermolecular forces. The calculations were carried out by Molecular Mechanics and Dynamics methods with the Polymer Consistent Force Field-interface. Simulation results had shown behavioral differences between systems. Without MMT-O, the acetyl amylose residues quickly became coiled, most of the fatty acids cover its surface, and water molecules are stabilized over the polysaccharide portions free of fatty acids. With MMT-O the fatty acids show a potential plasticizing effect due to the greater compatibility between the components of the studied system, since the organic assemblage is strongly attracted by the electrostatic force of the clay. Besides, water molecules flow to the clay layer, while the non polar portion of fatty acids increase their flexibility, in spite to stay attached to acetyl amylose, progressively coiled, through hydrogen bonds. This behavior is interpreted as an improvement in the miscibility of the oil. The new knowledge acquired about these molecular systems encourages us to increase the models complexity, and undertake further studies in the design of PCNs with biopolymers.
Ovine reproduction efficiency in herds at high altitude (ha) is lower than that at low altitude (la). In ewes, ha effects are due to hypoxia and oxidative stress. Our aim was to establish the effect of antioxidant vitamin supplementation on semen traits and antioxidant status of rams exposed to short or long time ha. A total of 32 rams native to la (~500 m) were used, 16 were kept at la and the other 16 were brought to ha (~3600 m), where they were placed in the same flock as the ha native rams (n=16). Half of the animals in each group were supplemented daily with vitamins C 600 mg and E 450 IU per os, during the entire experimental period, starting the 4th day after animal’s arrival at ha (day 0). At days 0, 30 and 60 of treatment, blood and semen samples were collected for evaluation of antioxidant status and semen standard characteristics. Data were compared within each experimental time by analysis of variance using a general linear model. Elevated concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers were present in blood from animals maintained at ha. Ejaculates from ha exposed rams showed decreased sperm concentration, progressive motility and viability, in addition to decreased antioxidant status in seminal fluid. A total of 30 days of oral supplementation with vitamins C and E prevented some ha negative effects on semen characteristics, mainly in recently ha exposed rams. It is concluded that exposure of rams to ha negatively affects semen quality, where oxidative stress plays a predominant role. These effects are mainly prevented by oral supplementation of vitamins C and E, which constitutes a simple and cheap alternative to improve semen quality of rams when they are moved to ha.
Measure for Measure is not the only Shakespeare play to end with a crowd within the fiction gathered for a final scene of judgment. It is, however, the only play that ends such a scene with such uncertainty for the audience as to how it is to judge what it has witnessed that the play itself appears vitally to concern itself with the audience's capacity to judge. This chapter tackles that theatrical situation from two perspectives: the political implications, in 1604, of the play's appeal to its audience's capacity for judgment and the resonances of the historical concerns for contemporary politics in the twenty-first century. The chapter aims to recognize the historical specificity of the play's interest in jurisprudence, particularly in who has the means and authority to judge in early modern common law, in order to open these concerns out onto the present. The play may be set in a civil law jurisdiction, but at stake in its representation of judgment in the theater is the question of where the authority of the common law resides, who executes it, and what forms of judgment align with it, questions that are just as pressing in 2016 as they were in 1604.
The Common Law's “Reason”
Measure for Measure occupies an important moment in the history of the English common law. It was written and performed in the first few years of the century in which, as the legal philosopher Gerald Postema notes, “modern notions of law took shape.” Central to modern conceptions of the common law is the idea that the common law is “judge-made law,” a conception seen as arising from the work of Edward Coke (Attorney General 1594–1606, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas 1606–13, and Chief Justice of the King's Bench 1613–16). Most famously, in contradiction of James I's claim that he could “take what causes he shall please to determine, from the determination of the Judges, [to] determine them himselfe,” Coke argued for the common law's “artificiall” reasoning or the practice of analogical thinking through which lawyers and justices set the “facts” of a case before them in relation to previous cases like it. The practice, one that depended in Coke's view on “long study and experience,” excluded the king from directly rendering judgment in any case. Under the English common law, Coke insisted, “Judgements are given, Ideo consideratum est per Curiam,” or by a court.