To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
New dietary-based concepts are needed for treatment and effective prevention of overweight and obesity. The primary objective was to investigate if reduction in appetite is associated with improved weight loss maintenance. This cohort study was nested within the European Commission project Satiety Innovation (SATIN). Participants achieving ≥8% weight loss during an initial 8-week low-energy formula diet were included in a 12-week randomised double-blind parallel weight loss maintenance intervention. The intervention included food products designed to reduce appetite or matching controls along with instructions to follow national dietary guidelines. Appetite was assessed by ad libitum energy intake and self-reported appetite evaluations using visual analogue scales during standardised appetite probe days. These were evaluated at the first day of the maintenance period compared with baseline (acute effects after a single exposure of intervention products) and post-maintenance compared with baseline (sustained effects after repeated exposures of intervention products) regardless of randomisation. A total of 181 participants (forty-seven men and 134 women) completed the study. Sustained reduction in 24-h energy intake was associated with improved weight loss maintenance (R 0·37; P = 0·001), whereas the association was not found acutely (P = 0·91). Suppression in self-reported appetite was associated with improved weight loss maintenance both acutely (R −0·32; P = 0·033) and sustained (R −0·33; P = 0·042). Reduction in appetite seems to be associated with improved body weight management, making appetite-reducing food products an interesting strategy for dietary-based concepts.
The authors have shown recently that the neurite extension by neuronal PC12 cells is greatly impacted by aerogel topography. Indeed, the average neurite length of PC-12 cells grown on aerogels is greater than that in cells cultured on control substrates. Here, the authors report on the first experimental study focused on the design and development of a plasmonic photo-patterning technique for collagen-coated mesoporous aerogel biomaterials. Herein, the authors have produced specific patterns on silica aerogels by performing precise plasmonic photo-patterning on liquid crystal-coated aerogels. The authors report the methodology employed to create a collagen–liquid crystal gel mixture imprinted with precise plasmonic photo-patterns. PC12 cells plated on these patterns did attach and survive and followed the spatial cues of the pattern to align themselves in a similar pattern.
Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS™) is a tested strategy for improving communication and climate in hospitals. It is a promising but untested tool among school-based mental health teams. We examined the psychometric properties of the TeamSTEPPS Teamwork Perceptions Questionnaire (T-TPQ) and Teamwork Attitudes Questionnaire (T-TAQ) among 167 school mental health team members. Team members worked for one of five agencies in 33 K-8 urban public schools. Exploratory factor analyses and descriptive data are presented. For both the T-TPQ and T-TAQ, a unitary factor structure best fit the data for this sample. The T-TPQ and T-TAQ were not significantly correlated with one another and total scores did not significantly differ by staff role. Agencies differed in T-TAQ results, and one agency had lower T-TAQ total scores relative to other agencies. Results suggest that the factor structures are different among school mental health teams than among other healthcare providers.
In the tropics, limestone caves in karstic areas are known for their unique biodiversity. However, many caves remain unstudied and little is known about underlying gradients that determine diversity and biomass in aquatic microhabitats. Here, we sampled zooplankton and benthos in a set of 12 aquatic caves, locally called closed cenotes in Yucatán, Mexico. Our aim was to explain diversity patterns and differences in biomass with particular attention for correlations between bat colony characteristics and other biota. Compared with caves that support photosynthesis, diversity was low with an average of four planktonic and two benthic species in these dark caves. Undetectable phosphorus concentrations in the water suggest this nutrient is limiting. Several associations hint at a potential link between bat abundance and functional guild composition, water quality and aquatic biota. As such, more bats were linked to higher nitrate concentrations. Yet this was not translated to higher invertebrate biomass, probably since phosphorus is limiting. Overall, the trends found in this survey suggest that bats could be important as fertilizers of the caves although mechanistic links that mediate the flux of nutrients need to be confirmed experimentally.
A low-energy diet (LED) is an effective approach to induce a rapid weight loss in individuals with overweight. However, reported disproportionally large losses of fat-free mass (FFM) after an LED trigger the question of adequate protein content. Additionally, not all individuals have the same degree of weight loss success. After an 8-week LED providing 5020 kJ/d for men and 4184 kJ/d for women (84/70 g protein/d) among overweight and obese adults, we aimed to investigate the relationship between protein intake relative to initial FFM and proportion of weight lost as FFM as well as the individual characteristics associated with weight loss success. We assessed all outcomes baseline and after the LED. A total of 286 participants (sixty-four men and 222 women) initiated the LED of which 82 % completed and 70 % achieved a substantial weight loss (defined as ≥8 %). Protein intake in the range 1·0–1·6 g protein/d per kg FFM at baseline for men and 1·1–2·2 g protein/d per kg FFM at baseline for women was not associated with loss of FFM (P = 0·632). Higher Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) hunger at baseline and reductions in TFEQ disinhibition and hunger during the LED were associated with larger weight loss (all P ≤ 0·020); whereas lower sleep quality at baseline predicted less successful weight loss using intention to treat analysis (P = 0·021), possibly driven by those dropping out (n 81, P = 0·067 v. completers: n 198, P = 0·659). Thus, the protein intakes relative to initial FFM were sufficient for maintenance of FFM and specific eating behaviour characteristics were associated with weight loss success.
In 2013, the national surveillance case definition for West Nile virus (WNV) disease was revised to remove fever as a criterion for neuroinvasive disease and require at most subjective fever for non-neuroinvasive disease. The aims of this project were to determine how often afebrile WNV disease occurs and assess differences among patients with and without fever. We included cases with laboratory evidence of WNV disease reported from four states in 2014. We compared demographics, clinical symptoms and laboratory evidence for patients with and without fever and stratified the analysis by neuroinvasive and non-neuroinvasive presentations. Among 956 included patients, 39 (4%) had no fever; this proportion was similar among patients with and without neuroinvasive disease symptoms. For neuroinvasive and non-neuroinvasive patients, there were no differences in age, sex, or laboratory evidence between febrile and afebrile patients, but hospitalisations were more common among patients with fever (P < 0.01). The only significant difference in symptoms was for ataxia, which was more common in neuroinvasive patients without fever (P = 0.04). Only 5% of non-neuroinvasive patients did not meet the WNV case definition due to lack of fever. The evidence presented here supports the changes made to the national case definition in 2013.
Adélie penguins are renowned for their natal philopatry on land-based colonies, requiring small pebbles to be used for nests. We report on an opportunistic observation via aerial survey, where hundreds of Adélie penguins were documented displaying nesting behaviours on fast ice ~3 km off the coast of Cape Crozier, which is one of the largest colonies in the world. We counted 426 Adélie penguins engaging in behaviours of pair formation, spacing similarly to normal nest distributions and lying in divots in the ice that looked like nests. On our first visit, it was noticed that the guano stain was bright pink, consistent with krill consumption, but had shifted to green over the course of ~2 weeks, indicating that the birds were fasting (a behaviour consistent with egg incubation). However, eggs were not observed. We posit four hypotheses that may explain the proximate causes of this behaviour and caution against future high-resolution satellite imagery interpretation due to the potential for confusing ice-nesting Adélie penguins with the presence of emperor penguin colonies.
Dona Joana Ribeiro enjoyed extensive access to land and agricultural production in late eighteenth-century Catumbela – on the bank of the Catumbela River, some three miles from the Atlantic coast and some 10 miles north of Benguela (see Map 4 ‘West Central Africa, 1850’). She had four plots of land and three farms, where she produced 98 cazongueis – totalling around 3,234 lb (pounds) – of maize (corn) and beans in 1798. These numbers surpassed the average of 2,515 lb of crops generated per farmer in Catumbela in the same year. Dona Joana belonged to a group of elite African women – one-third of the landowners – who accumulated wealth through access to land, control of dependants and agricultural production in the presídio (interior administrative outpost) of Catumbela. Yet the ability of African women to control land or food production did not constitute their main economic role in Catumbela: more important was their participation as labourers in agricultural production. Most of them were in a situation of economic dependency, often including slavery. Women represented two-thirds of the total number of free and enslaved dependants – i.e. either free or enslaved people whose labour was controlled by people with access to land. The higher number of women than men in this central economic activity supports the thesis that villages like Catumbela were immersed in the supply of enslaved people, mostly men, for the transatlantic slave trade, despite the fact that they were located in coastal areas. In addition, this chapter shows that access to land consolidated rights and the accumulation of dependent labour, despite the lack of land titles. Some African women were able to benefit from land distribution.
Scholars interested in women's agency in pre-colonial and colonial Africa have paid attention to agricultural and other types of production in the private and public spheres. Scholars have tended to generalise the predominant role of women in agricultural production, blurring the power distinctions entailed in the different activities involved. This chapter examines women's and men's control of dependents, access to land and agricultural production in Catumbela, as well as their personal connections in Benguela. I distinguish between women who were dependants and women who had access to land and labourers and controlled food production. Women did not constitute a homogeneous group in Catumbela and, moreover, there was a disparity between women's and men's opportunities to accumulate wealth.
The aim of the study was to determine the main factors (sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle and health status) associated with high Na excretion in a representative population of Chile.
Na excretion (g/d), a valid marker of Na intake, was determined by urine analysis and Tanaka’s formulas. Blood pressure was measured by trained staff and derived from the mean of three readings recorded after 15 min rest. The associations of Na excretion with blood pressure and the primary correlates of high Na excretion were determined using logistic regression.
Chileans aged ≥15 years.
Participants (n 2913) from the Chilean National Health Survey 2009–2010.
Individuals aged 25 years or over, those who were obese and those who had hypertension, diabetes or metabolic syndrome were more likely to have higher Na excretion. The odds for hypertension increased by 10·2 % per 0·4 g/d increment in Na excretion (OR=1·10; 95 % CI 1·06, 1·14; P < 0·0001). These findings were independent of major confounding factors.
Age, sex, adiposity, sitting behaviours and existing co-morbidities such as diabetes were associated with higher Na excretion levels in the Chilean population. These findings could help policy makers to implement public health strategies tailored towards individuals who are more likely to consume high levels of dietary salt.
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of Hurricane Maria on internalizing and posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) among Puerto Ricans who moved to Florida after the storm versus those who stayed on the island.
In March through April 2018 (6 months after Hurricane Maria), an online survey was used to assess the effects of the storm on mental health. A sample of 213 displaced Puerto Ricans living in urban and rural/suburban areas in Florida, as well as urban and rural areas of Puerto Rico, participated in the study.
Rates of PTSD were high in both sites (Florida, 65.7%; Puerto Rico, 43.6%); however, participants in Florida were far more likely than those in Puerto Rico to meet diagnostic criteria for PTSD (OR, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.67-5.26). Among participants in both Florida and Puerto Rico, those living in urban areas were more likely than those in rural/suburban areas to meet criteria for PTSD and generalized anxiety disorder.
Results suggest that post-Hurricane Maria adjustment and adaptation may have been more psychologically taxing for Puerto Ricans who moved to Florida than it was for those who remained on the island, and more difficult for those in urban areas than it was for those in suburban or rural areas. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:24–27)
Insect-borne plant viruses usually alter the interactions between host plant and insect vector in ways conducive to their transmission (‘host manipulation hypothesis’). Most studies have tested this hypothesis with persistently and non-persistently transmitted viruses, while few have examined semi-persistently transmitted viruses. The crinivirus Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) is semi-persistently transmitted virus by whiteflies, and has been recently reported infecting potato plants in Brazil, where Bemisia tabaci Middle East Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) is a competent vector. We investigated how ToCV infection modifies the interaction between potato plants and B. tabaci in ways that increase the likelihood of ToCV transmission, in two clones, one susceptible (‘Agata’) and the other moderately resistant (Bach-4) to B. tabaci. Whiteflies alighted and laid more eggs on ToCV-infected plants than mock-inoculated plants of Bach-4. When non-viruliferous whiteflies were released on ToCV-infected plants near mock-inoculated plants, adults moved more intensely towards non-infected plants than in the reverse condition for both clones. Feeding on ToCV-infected plants reduced egg-incubation period in both clones, but the egg–adult cycle was similar for whiteflies fed on ToCV-infected and mock-inoculated plants. Our results demonstrated that ToCV infection in potato plants alters B. tabaci behaviour and development in distinct ways depending on the host clone, with potential implications for ToCV spread.
New therapeutic strategies have been established in chronic wound healing procedures, such as the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP). There is currently still uncertainty about the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and real safety of PRP in promoting chronic wound healing and what specific types of chronic wounds can benefit most from its use.
We conducted a systematic review of available scientific literature on the effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of PRP compared to placebo, standard care or alternative topical therapies for the treatment of chronic wounds in adults. Overall effect size was estimated through a meta-analysis. A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted using a Markov model which simulates the costs and health outcomes of individuals for a 5-year horizon, from the perspective of the Spanish National Health Service (NHS) for the PRP versus standard treatment in patients with diabetic foot ulcers. The effectiveness measure was quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). We ran extensive sensitivity analyses, including a probabilistic sensitivity analysis.
Sixteen RCTs and four observational studies were included for the effectiveness and safety meta-analysis. The primary outcome was the proportion of chronic wounds completely healed: 143 patients out of 334 (42.8 percent) were cured in the standard treatment arm and 251 patients out of 375 (66.9 percent) in the PRP arm, relative risk (RR) 1.68 (95% CI: 1.22–2.31). It was unclear whether there was a difference in the risk of infection (RR 0.53, 95% CI: 0.10–2.71) or adverse events (RR 1.05, 95% CI: 0.29–3.88) between PRP and standard care. Three studies were considered for the cost-effectiveness analysis. In the base case analysis, PRP led to higher QALYs and healthcare costs with an estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of EUR 41,767 (USD 48,323)/QALY.
PRP treatment is more expensive and more effective than standard treatment. The estimated ICER is above the acceptability threshold in Spain.
Electrically conducting substrates have shown much promise as neuronal scaffolds and in other biologic and biomedical applications where a smart and electrically interactive material is needed. Most materials that are inherently conducting are not suitable for biomedical applications and lack biocompatibility or biostability. On the other hand, biologically stable and compatible materials must first be manipulated, modified, and treated in order to impart the necessary electrical conductivity to the material. Here, the authors have investigated the response of PC-12 cells to two types of conducting carbon-based aerogels with different surface roughness. Results show that carbon-based aerogels support cell adhesion, proliferation, and neurite extension. The effects of surface roughness have also been investigated.
This study finds a positive, economically meaningful impact of generalist chief executive officers (CEOs) on shareholder value using 164 sudden deaths and 345 non-sudden exogenous turnovers. The higher a departing CEO’s general ability index (GAI), independently and relative to her successor, the lower is the abnormal stock return to turnover announcements. Returns reflect post-turnover changes in operating performance. Further, CEOs’ and successors’ GAIs are significantly positively related, but only for non-sudden turnovers. Consistently, for sudden deaths, we find positive stock returns to appointments of generalist successors. The results provide a market-based explanation for the generalist pay premium.
Corn poppy (Papaver rhoeas L.) is the most widespread broadleaf weed species infesting winter cereals in Europe. Biotypes that are resistant to both 2,4-D and tribenuron-methyl, an acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor, have evolved in recent decades, thus narrowing the options for effective chemical control. Though the effectiveness of several integrated weed management (IWM) strategies have been confirmed, none of these strategies have been tested to manage multiple herbicide–resistant P. rhoeas under no-till planting. With the expansion of no-till systems, it is important to prove the effectiveness of such strategies. In this study, a field experiment over three consecutive seasons was conducted to evaluate and compare the effects of different weed management strategies, under either direct drilling (i.e., no-till) or intensive tillage, on a multiple herbicide–resistant P. rhoeas population. Moreover, evaluations were carried out as to whether the proportions of ALS inhibitor–resistant individuals were affected by the tillage systems for each IWM strategy at the end of the 3-yr period. The IWM strategies tested in this research included crop rotation, delayed sowing, and different herbicide programs such as PRE plus POST or POST. All IWM strategies greatly reduced the initial density of P. rhoeas each season (≥ 95%) under either direct drilling or intensive tillage. After 3 yr, the IWM strategies were very effective in both tillage systems, though the effects were stronger under direct drilling (~95%) compared with intensive tillage (~86%). At the end of the study, the proportion of ALS inhibitor–resistant plants was not different between the IWM strategies in both tillage systems (94% on average). Therefore, crop rotation (with sunflower [Helianthus annuus L.]), delayed sowing, or a variation in the herbicide application timing are effective under direct drilling to manage herbicide-resistant P. rhoeas. Adoption of IWM strategies is necessary to mitigate the evolution of resistance in both conventional and no-till systems.
As a famous centre of tailoring expertise, Hong Kong is well versed in cutting our coats to suit our cloth. Family mediation provides a process option which is both tailored and responsive for Hong Kong families experiencing the transition through family separation. Hong Kong family mediation practice to help parents construct new realities for their children has evolved to take into account the cultural context in Hong Kong and the legal parameters of family law.
In Hong Kong, a family mediator may work with married parties as they divorce or separate to make arrangements in respect of their children and finances (asset division, spousal maintenance (if any) and children's maintenance). For unmarried parties, it is not unusual for family mediators to work with parents in relation to their children and any joint assets/child maintenance arrangements. In either case, the court will consider the arrangements for children and, if approved, these will be converted into consent orders both in relation to custody/access and also maintenance. For married parties the financial arrangements (asset division/spousal maintenance (if any)) will also be turned into a separate consent order in respect of finances. Therefore, the legal framework in Hong Kong informs and delineates the parameters for the work of family mediators.
How does the legal and cultural landscape in Hong Kong shape the experience of parties in family mediation when seeking to resolve arrangements for their children? Although society and family life is changing, Hong Kong's legislation regarding custody and access remains the same, and recent attempts to modernise the regime in respect of children have met with resistance (section 1). This has led to stasis in the law affecting children in Hong Kong and has directly impacted the way in which family mediators must work with parties.
The peculiar circumstances of Hong Kong's history and population, and the existing legal framework have produced a unique blend of modernity and anachronism (section 2). What do mediators need to take into account when supporting families through transition, and how do these considerations impact the practice of family mediation in Hong Kong in relation to arrangements for children? (section 3).
We conducted a greenhouse study to evaluate the differential response of Palmer amaranth to glyphosate and mesotrione and to quantify the level of tolerance to mesotrione in recalcitrant (difficult-to-control) accessions and their offspring. Seeds were collected from 174 crop fields (corn, cotton, and soybean) across Arkansas between 2008 and 2016. Palmer amaranth seedlings (7 to 10 cm tall) were treated with glyphosate at 840 g ae ha–1 or mesotrione at 105 g ha–1. Overall, 47% of the accessions (172) were resistant to glyphosate with 68% survivors. Almost 35% of accessions were highly resistant, with 90% survivors. The majority of survivors from glyphosate application incurred between 31% and 60% injury. Mesotrione killed 66% of the accessions (174); the remaining accessions had survivors with injury ranging from 61% to 90%. Accessions with the least response to mesotrione were selected to determine tolerance level. Dose–response assays were conducted with four recalcitrant populations and their F1 progeny. The average effective doses (ED50) for the parent accessions and F1 progeny of survivors were 21.5 g ha–1 and 27.5 g ha–1, respectively. The recalcitrant parent populations were three- to five-fold more tolerant to mesotrione than the known susceptible population, as were the F1 progeny.