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The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
Turbulent flows behind two side-by-side square cylinders with three different gap ratios, namely,
6 and 8 (
is the separation distance between two cylinders and
is the cylinder thickness) are investigated by using direct numerical simulations. Depending on the strength of the gap flow, the three cases can generally be characterized into two regimes, one being the weak gap flow regime and the other being the robust gap flow regime. The wake-interaction length scale can only be applied to characterize the spatial evolution of the dual-wake flow in the robust gap flow regime. And only in this regime can the so-called ‘extreme events’ (i.e. non-Gaussian velocity fluctuations with large flatness) be identified. For the case with
, two downstream locations, i.e.
and 26, at which the turbulent flows are highly non-Gaussian distributed and approximately Gaussian distributed, respectively, are analysed in detail. A well-defined
energy spectrum can be found in the near-field region (i.e.
), where the turbulent flow is still developing and highly intermittent and Kolmogorov’s universal equilibrium hypothesis does not hold. We confirm that the approximate
power law in the high-frequency range is closely related to the occurrences of the extreme events. As the downstream distance increases, the velocity fluctuations gradually adopt a Gaussian distribution, corresponding to a decrease in the strength of the extreme events. Consequently, the range of the
power law narrows. In the upstream region (i.e.
), the second-order structure function exhibits a power-law exponent close to
, whereas in the far downstream region (i.e.
) the expected
power-law exponent appears. The larger exponent at
is related to the fact that fluid motions in the intermediate range can directly ‘feel’ the large-scale vortex shedding.
The Tokoro Belt exposed in NE Hokkaido (Japan) represents part of a Late Cretaceous accretionary complex, which includes variously metamorphosed volcanic rocks that are interbedded with chert, lenticular limestone and some fore-arc sedimentary rocks. The Tokoro Belt is notably different from other Late Cretaceous accretionary complexes around the Pacific Rim because of widespread occurrence of basalts and volcaniclastic rocks in it. The Nikoro Group, characterized by widespread occurrence of volcanic rocks, is divided into western, eastern and southern sections based on the internal structure, geochemical affinities and metamorphic grades of their volcanic lithologies. OIB (ocean island basalt)-type volcanic rocks with low-grade metamorphic overprint predominate in the western and southern sections, whereas MORB (mid-ocean ridge basalt)- and OIA (ocean island alkaline basalt)-type rocks in the eastern section with partly high-pressure metamorphism make up the northern part of the eastern section. Trace element patterns display transitional trends from MORB to OIA geochemical affinities. OIB-type rocks display trace element characteristics similar to those of shield volcano lavas on Hawaii, rather than small and mainly alkaline, Polynesian hotspot lavas; furthermore, they show significant HREE (heavy rare earth element) enrichment probably caused by plume–ridge interaction. Widespread OIBs in the Tokoro Belt represents tectonic slices of a large (>80 km wide) Hawaiian-style, seamount shield volcano on the Izanagi oceanic plate that was accreted into the continental margin of Far East Asia in the Late Cretaceous.
We conducted a mass-balance study of debris-free Trambau Glacier in the Rolwaling region, Nepal Himalaya, which is accessible to 6000 m a.s.l., to better understand mass-balance processes and the effect of precipitation on these processes on high-elevation Himalayan glaciers. Continuous in situ meteorological and mass-balance observations that spanned the three melt seasons from May 2016 are reported. An energy- and mass-balance model is also applied to evaluate its performance and sensitivity to various climatic conditions. Glacier-wide mass balances ranging from −0.34 ± 0.38 m w.e. in 2016 to −0.82 ± 0.53 m w.e. in 2017/18 are obtained by combining the observations with model results for the areas above the highest stake. The estimated long-term glacier mass balance, which is reconstructed using the ERA-Interim data calibrated with in situ data, is −0.65 ± 0.39 m w.e. a−1 for the 1980–2018 period. A significant correlation with annual precipitation (r = 0.77, p < 0.001) is observed, whereas there is no discernible correlation with summer mean air temperature. The results indicate the continuous mass loss of Trambau Glacier over the last four decades, which contrasts with the neighbouring Mera Glacier in balance.
The large number of casualties during major or mega-disasters are a global problem.
The role of medicine against mega-disasters is analyzed from a worldwide perspective.
Chernobyl incident, the Tokyo Subway Sarin Attack, the 9-11 attack, the Indian Ocean earthquake/tsunami, Hurricane Katrina, the Flu pandemic, the Higashi Nihon Earthquake followed by the Fukushima nuclear plant incident, etc. are critically analyzed, based on the actual medical experiences.
These mega-disasters often have a wide, severe negative influence. Linked catastrophes often form catastrophic circulus vitiosus (CCV) or malignant cycles on a global scale. The typical example is the Chernobyl incident which caused not only many deaths by radiation exposure/thyroid cancer and world anxiety, but also is considered to have contributed to the end of the Eastern European Communism system in 1989 (East Germany) and 1991 (ESSR).
Many roles of medical doctors and staff were requested, including creating preventive life-saving systems, in addition to the prevention of mega-disaster measurement to minimize the unhappiness. Moreover, medical ethics and philosophy are important, which were often overlooked. It is necessary for medical care and support to have a broad perspective. Although the classical philosophy of utilitarianism is often accepted without suspicion, it comes with the risk of disregarding vulnerable/weak people. The concept of justice according to John Rawls (USA) and the Minimal Unhappiness Theory by Naoto Kan (Japanese politician) should be considered, too. From such viewpoints, it is our conclusion to urge the establishment of systematic disaster medicine or to compile a disaster medicine compendium. Although the tentative first version was compiled with 22 volumes in 2005, only one-fourth was available in English. The English part increased up to nearly three-fourths by adding several new versions in which the nuclear/biological/chemical hazard version, tsunami measurement, and psychological care version are included at the moment.
After five positive randomized controlled trials showed benefit of mechanical thrombectomy in the management of acute ischemic stroke with emergent large-vessel occlusion, a multi-society meeting was organized during the 17th Congress of the World Federation of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology in October 2017 in Budapest, Hungary. This multi-society meeting was dedicated to establish standards of practice in acute ischemic stroke intervention aiming for a consensus on the minimum requirements for centers providing such treatment. In an ideal situation, all patients would be treated at a center offering a full spectrum of neuroendovascular care (a level 1 center). However, for geographical reasons, some patients are unable to reach such a center in a reasonable period of time. With this in mind, the group paid special attention to define recommendations on the prerequisites of organizing stroke centers providing medical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke, but not for other neurovascular diseases (level 2 centers). Finally, some centers will have a stroke unit and offer intravenous thrombolysis, but not any endovascular stroke therapy (level 3 centers). Together, these level 1, 2, and 3 centers form a complete stroke system of care. The multi-society group provides recommendations and a framework for the development of medical thrombectomy services worldwide.
Oxygen K-V (Kα) X-ray fluorescence spectra of MgO, Cu2O, CuO, La2CuO4, La2-xSrxCuO4, YBa2Cu3O7-x , and GdBa2Cu3O7-x are measured. The local (oxygen) and partial (2p) electron density of states (DOS) of these compounds are calculated by the cluster approximation with the discrete variational (DV) Hartree-Fock-Slater (Xα) method. The calculated O 2p DOS are compared with the measured X-ray fluorescence spectra. It is found that the measured 0 K-V X-ray fluorescence line shapes are well reproduced by the O 2p DOS calculated by a cluster including the second nearest neighbor atoms (oxygen atoms) in the solids. This indicates that the oxygen K-V X-ray emission spectra reflect the oxygen-oxygen orbital hybridization in the solid as well as the oxygen-metal orbital hybridization.
This study investigated patient characteristics in paediatric hospitalisations for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We used Nationwide Inpatient Sample, which is the largest all-payer inpatient database in the United States, yielding nationally representative estimates, from 2001 to 2014. ICD-9-CM diagnostic codes identified hospitalisations for patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and <18 years. Outcomes included yearly rate of hospitalisation, death, admission via emergency department, and need for surgery. Predictors of interest were age groups (<1, 1–9, and ⩾10 y/o), sex, and race/ethnicity. Logistic regression modelled associations, adjusted by patient- and hospital-level variables. With 2302 weighted hospitalisations, hospitalisation rates were 0.22 per 100,000 children/year, with higher rates for <1 y/o (0.42) and ⩾10 y/o (0.31). Male-to-female ratios were more prominent in the oldest age group; 2.7:1 in ⩾10 y/o versus less than 1.7:1 for <10 y/o. In-hospital mortality was 1.5%, with highest mortality rates among the <1 y/o (6.3%). Children ⩾10 y/o had 5.59 times higher risk of admission from the emergency department than 1–9 y/o age group. Both ⩾10 and <1 y/o age groups had lower risk of surgical intervention compared to the 1–9 y/o group with odds ratio 0.56 and 0.26, respectively. Black children had higher risk of admission from the emergency department than White children with odds ratio 2.78. A relation between age group and sex was observed, with sex-based differences in prevalence and treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy becoming more pronounced with age. Further studies are needed to clarify mechanisms behind age and racial disparity in hospitalisation, especially admission source.
Cognitive scientists across disciplines have shown a vested interest in examining if and how the speech perception and production modalities are connected. The field of second language (L2) acquisition contributes to this discussion by investigating the effects of auditory training of L2 sounds on pronunciation. This meta-analysis offers a comprehensive view of the last 25 years of L2 perception training studies that test for effects in production. The results indicate that the two modalities are connected, insomuch as training the perception of L2 sounds can induce positive change in the productive mode as well. The data indicate that strictly controlled perception training led to medium-sized improvements in perception (d = 0.92, SD = 0.96) and small improvements in production (d = 0.54, SD = 0.45). A correlation analysis suggests a small- to medium-sized relationship between perception and production gains, although this relationship was not significant. The production of obstruents improved to a larger degree than sonorants or vowels, and an additional six moderating variables influenced the magnitude of the production effect sizes. We caution researchers to not equate the connection of the two modalities in long-term linguistic development to real-time neurological processing, and we end with five recommendations for the domain of L2 phonetic training research.
Safe exploration and transportation of natural energy resources in polar and subpolar seas such as the Sea of Okhotsk and the Arctic Ocean requires an understanding of the characteristics of ice-coupled wave propagation. Using a time-domain solution involving both the boundary element method and the finite-element method, a numerical procedure is developed to analyze the wave properties for arbitrary ice conditions. This is done by applying a distinction index to discrete nodes representing the dynamic boundary conditions. The numerical results agree well with experimental data for different floe lengths, thicknesses and elastic moduli, obtained by using model ice plates. The elastic deformation of the ice floe depends strongly on the flexural rigidity of individual ice plates.
Measurements of the chemical composition of the snow pits at Murododaira (2450m a.s.l.), Mount Tateyama, near the coast of the Japan Sea in central Japan, were performed each spring from 2005 through 2008. The mean concentrations of nssSO42– and NO3– are higher than those in snowpack in the 1990s. The pH and nssCa2+ were usually high in the upper parts of 2–3m of snow deposited in the spring, when Asian dust (Kosa) particles are frequently transported. High concentrations of nssSO42– were detected in both the spring and winter layers. The high-nssCa2+ layers usually contained high concentrations of nssSO42–. The results show that not only Kosa particles but also air pollutants might have been transported long-range from the continent of Asia. The concentrations of peroxides were high in the new snow (precipitation particles) and granular snow (coarse grain, melt forms) layers. The peroxide concentrations in the snow layers were negatively correlated with the nssCa2+ concentrations. High peroxide concentrations may be preserved in granular snow layers having low concentrations of nssCa2+.
Though solar radiation is important for glacier mass-balance simulation, solar radiation data are not always available. As a result of analyzing meteorological data measured in the Himalaya and the Tibetan Plateau, a favorable correlation between precipitation and atmospheric transmissivity of solar radiation is found in terms of monthly values. Monthly mean solar radiation is derived from the relationship between atmospheric transmissivity of solar radiation and precipitation with input of monthly precipitation, latitude, skyline and time. The differences between estimated and observed monthly mean solar radiation are <40Wm−2 in most cases. However, the differences at some sites are significantly large. The error in the estimated solar radiation during the monsoon season can be large when the monthly mean precipitation rate is about 5 mm d−1. Though the error in the estimated solar radiation during the non-monsoon season is generally small due to low precipitation in the Himalaya and the Tibetan Plateau during this season, it can exceed 100 W m−2.
Using satellite data, the longitudinal distribution of the ablation rate and flow velocity were estimated for the ablation area, where glacier ice is covered with supraglacial debris. The ablation rate, small around Everest Base Camp (EBC) just below the equilibrium line, increased down-glacier for about 3 km, then decreased gradually toward the apparent terminus, located about 10 km from EBC. The velocity decreased almost linearly from EBC to the terminus. The results allowed estimation of the recent change of ice thickness using the continuity equation. The glacier has thinned recently in the ablation area. The rate of thinning was large near EBC, where the surface is either bare ice or covered with very thin debris cover, but relatively small and rather uniform at lower sites, where the supraglacial debris layer was thick and supraglacial lakes and ice cliffs predominate. The general pattern is compatible with field observations.
Estimating soil-water flow during ground freezing is important for understanding factors affecting spring farming, soil microbial activity below the frozen soil, and permafrost thawing behavior. In this study, we performed a column freezing experiment using three different unsaturated soils (sand, loam and silt loam) to obtain a detailed dataset of temperature, water-content and pressure-head change under freezing conditions. The liquid water content and pressure head in the three soils decreased with decreasing temperature. Three soil temperature stages were found: unfrozen, stagnating near 0˚C and frozen. The temperature and duration of the stagnation stage differed among the soil types. The changes in liquid water content and pressure head during the freezing process were highly dependent on the soil-water retention curve. Water flowed through the frozen area in silt loam and sand, but no water flux was observed in the frozen loam. The freezing soil columns tended to contain more liquid water than estimated from retention curves measured at room temperature, especially at the early stage of freezing.
Field surveys of supraglacial ponds on debris-covered glaciers in the Nepal Himalaya clarify that ice-cliff calving occurs when the fetch exceeds ∼80 m. Thermal undercutting is important for calving processes in glacial lakes, and subaqueous ice melt rates during the melt and freeze seasons are therefore estimated under simple geomorphologic conditions. In particular, we focus on the differences between valley wind-driven water currents in various fetches during the melt season. Our results demonstrate that the subaqueous ice melt rate exceeds the ice-cliff melt rate when the fetch is >20 m and water temperature is 2–4°C. Calculations suggest the onset of calving due to thermal undercutting is controlled by water currents driven by winds at the surface of the lake, which develop with expanding water surface.
A survey of July 1st glacier, Qilian Shan, China, was carried out in 2002. Previously, the glacier’s boundary had been recorded in 1956, and further research had been carried out in the mid- 1970s and 1980s. Our survey reveals that area shrinkage and surface lowering have accelerated in the past 15 years. Surface elevation changes can result from changes in accumulation, surface melting and emergence velocity. The contributions of these elements to surface lowering are evaluated at the lower part of the glacier from observations of surface velocity, ice thickness and precipitation, and from temperature data near the glacier. Apart from the effect of glacier ice redistribution, our analysis reveals quantitatively that the recent accelerated glacier shrinkage has been caused by increasing temperature. Furthermore, it is established that meltwater discharge from the glacier in the past 17 years has increased due to glacier shrinkage, by about 50% over that from 1975 to 1985.
To assess the potential volume of a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) more precisely than in previous studies, we analyze ground survey data and remote-sensing digital elevation models (DEMs) around glacial lakes in the Lunana region, Bhutan. Based on a DEM generated from differential GPS ground surveys, we first evaluate the relative accuracies of DEMs produced by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Root-mean-square errors of the altitudinal difference between these DEMs and ground survey data were 11.0 m for ASTER and 11.3 m for SRTM. These errors are similar to those of previous studies. We show that a topographical classification allows a better estimate of elevation on lakes/ponds, riverbeds and glaciers due to their flat surfaces, while the relative accuracy is worse over moraines and hill slopes due to their narrow ridges and steep slopes. Using the optical satellite images and the ground survey data, we re-evaluate the GLOF volume in 1994 as (17.2 ± 5.3) × 106 m3. We show GLOF-related information such as distance, altitudinal difference and gradient at possible outburst points where the lake level is higher than the neighboring riverbed and/or glacial lake.
We have conducted astrometric observations toward a 22 GHz water maser source associated with the Sgr B2 complex in the Galactic center region with VERA (VLBI exploration of Radio Astrometry). We measured a trigonometric parallax and absolute proper motion of the Sgr B2 complex with respect to an extra-galactic source by observing the water maser source at 10 epochs from 2014 to 2017. The measured distance was 7.52+3.01−1.67 kpc for the Sgr B2M region.
We also succeeded to measure internal motions of maser spots in Sgr B2M, and N region. The number of spots which we could measure the internal motions is about 400. The distribution of the maser spots shows that the maser spots are associated with envelope of HII region seen in radio continuum image obtained with VLA and ALMA. We discuss relative motions between Sgr B2M, and N by using the internal motion.