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Background: The influence of psychotherapy on neurocognition in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has not been examined methodically. This is despite evidence that pre-treatment learning and memory has been associated with treatment success and that executive function theories emphasize weak executive functions (especially inhibition/switching) are associated with PTSD. Objectives: To determine (1) if higher pre-treatment learning/memory, inhibition/switching, or both predict treatment success; and (2) if treatment success is associated with specific improvement in inhibition/switching and not learning/memory or working memory, another aspect of executive function. Methods: Pre-treatment neurocognition and neurocognitive changes (inhibition/switching, learning/memory, working memory) were examined in female veterans with PTSD. They were evaluated before and after 16-weeks of group psychotherapy for PTSD that included three counterbalanced modules (cognitive restructuring therapy, exposure therapy, skills training) with fidelity checks for therapist adherence. Results: Only pre-treatment learning/memory predicted better treatment outcome. Treatment success was associated with improvement in inhibition/switching only, even after controlling for mild traumatic brain injury, and changes in depressive symptoms, working memory, and learning/memory. Conclusions: Our finding that learning/memory predicted treatment success is consistent with previous studies. We extended these studies by showing that the effect was restricted to learning/memory, which is contrary to the executive function theory of PTSD. In contrast, the fact that only inhibition/switching significantly improved with better treatment success is consistent with its potential importance in maintaining PTSD symptoms. Future research should determine whether inhibition/switching abilities are a risk for development and maintenance of PTSD or whether such abilities have a broader reciprocal relationship with PTSD symptom change. (JINS, 2016, 22, 643–651)
Increased temporal and frontal slow-wave delta (1–4 Hz) and theta (4–7
Hz) activities are the most consistent resting-state neural abnormalities
reported in schizophrenia. The frontal lobe is associated with negative
symptoms and cognitive abilities such as attention, with negative
symptoms and impaired attention associated with poor functional
To establish whether frontal dysfunction, as indexed by slowing, would be
associated with functional impairments.
Eyes-closed magnetoencephalography data were collected in 41 participants
with schizophrenia and 37 healthy controls, and frequency-domain source
imaging localised delta and theta activity.
Elevated delta and theta activity in right frontal and right
temporoparietal regions was observed in the schizophrenia
v. control group. In schizophrenia, right-frontal
delta activity was uniquely associated with negative but not positive
symptoms. In the full sample, increased right-frontal delta activity
predicted poorer attention and functional capacity.
Our findings suggest that treatment-associated decreases in slow-wave
activity could be accompanied by improved functional outcome and thus
Anxiety is common and problematic in dementia, yet there is a lack of
To develop a cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) manual for anxiety in
dementia and determine its feasibility through a randomised controlled
A ten-session CBT manual was developed. Participants with dementia and
anxiety (and their carers) were randomly allocated to CBT plus treatment
as usual (TAU) (n = 25) or TAU (n =
25). Outcome and cost measures were administered at baseline, 15 weeks
and 6 months.
At 15 weeks, there was an adjusted difference in anxiety (using the
Rating Anxiety in Dementia scale) of (–3.10, 95% CI −6.55 to 0.34) for
CBT compared with TAU, which just fell short of statistical significance.
There were significant improvements in depression at 15 weeks after
adjustment (–5.37, 95% CI −9.50 to −1.25). Improvements remained
significant at 6 months. CBT was cost neutral.
CBT was feasible (in terms of recruitment, acceptability and attrition)
and effective. A fully powered RCT is now required.
In this paper, we find a power series expansion of the invariant differential
of an elliptic curve
is described by certain families of Weierstrass equations. In addition, we derive several congruence relations satisfied by the trace of the Frobenius endomorphism of
In this paper, we present a near-field microwave microscopy method for the characterization of dielectric materials samples in the Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band. The system proposed is composed of a probe coupled to a dielectric resonator (DR) operating in the TE011 mode. Latter this is used to fix the resonance frequency of the resonator at 2.45 GHz. This system is used for the characterization of dielectric samples with accuracy and high spatial resolution, knowing that they do not have predetermined forms, but a small plane surface.The same device is used for a multi-frequency characterization (4–20 GHz) using resonance frequencies of the cavity instead of one resonance frequency of the DR.
In this paper, design, manufacture, and measurement of a wideband matching network for a broadband V-shaped square planar monopole antenna (V-SPMA) is presented. Matching network design is unavoidable in most cases even vital to facilitate a maximally flat power transfer gain for an antenna. In the work, a bandpass matching network (BPMN) design is done for a particular square monopole antenna with V-shaped coupling element that has essentially bandwidth increasing effect. Designed BPMN and the antenna forms a VSPMA–BPMN matched antenna structure. “real frequency technique” is employed in the BPMN design. BPMN prototype circuit has been constructed on an FR4 laminate with commercial microwave chip inductors and capacitors. Vector network analyzer gain and reflectance measurements of the matched antenna structure have shown highly compatible results to those of the theoretical design simulations along the passband (~0.8–4.7 GHz). Furthermore, newly proposed distributed capacitor–resistor lossy model for microstrip lines used in the BPMN circuit have exhibited that it can successfully mimic the measured gain and reflectance performance of the matched structure in passband and even in stopband upto 8 GHz. Designed structure can be utilized as a one single wideband broadcasting medium suitable for many communication standards such as GSM, 3G, and Wi-Fi.
In this paper, a low-power CMOS LC voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) with body-biasing and low-phase noise with Q-enhancement techniques is presented. A self-body biased circuit is introduced that can reduce power consumption. Some derivations of the Q-enhancement and how to improve the phase noise of the circuit are also discussed. This chip is implemented by the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacture Company 0.18 µm 1P6M process. The measurement results exhibit a tuning range of 14.7% from 4.92 to 5.7 GHz at a supply voltage of 1.4 V. The power consumption of the core circuit and figure of merit are 2.5 mW and −188.6 dBc/Hz. The phase noise is −118 dBc/Hz@1 MHz at an operation frequency of 4.94 GHz.
Three-dimensional compact volume internal antenna for universal serial bus (USB) dongle that covers hexa operating bands is proposed in this paper. The volume of the proposed USB dongle is 15×20×4 mm3; it is based on two connected monopoles, one of them is semi-circular monopole ended by three unit cells of meander-line and the other is a bent monopole with four unit cells of high-impedance wire. The proposed antenna is realized on a printed circuit board to reduce the fabrication costs. The coupling between the antenna elements broadens the operating bandwidth, which includes most of the wireless commercial service bands, GSM850/GSM900/UMTS/GSM1800/GSM1900/WCDMA2100/802.11b/g/LTE2600 (824–2690 MHz) as well as 802.11a/n (5150–5825 MHz). The antenna's simulated and experimental results are in good agreement.
An optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) under the influence of a weak interference has been investigated. The system equation of the OEO under the influence of interference has been derived. A novel technique for calculating the lock range of the oscillator using the harmonic balance method in presence of interference has been demonstrated. Theoretical analysis coupled with experimental results has been presented.
A comparative analysis of radiated power in relativistic magnetron is done using particle-in-cell simulations performed on Magic3d code developed by ATK Mission Systems. The Resonator with dielectric side-walls (DSW) is compared with no-side wall (NSW) configuration having same input parameters and resonator dimensions. Observations and comments have been made on the output power, obtained both axially and radially, taking into consideration π as well as 2π modes of operation for both configurations. The DSW assist in π-mode operation at 3.3 GHz and delivers radial peak power output of ~2.5 GW, which is more than ~1.5 GW, the radial peak power for the NSW case. The NSW case operates in dominant 2π mode (radially) at 5.68 GHz with axial power radiated at dominant π-mode frequency. The electron kinetic energies and their distribution in the cavity are discussed together with the dynamic behavior of particles, which result in spokes formation.
The paper proposes a new design for a single-arm, rectangular, spiral antenna (SARSA) with a wide azimuth space coverage. The antenna, operating at around 3.3 GHz, is capable of steering the beam in four separate directions in the azimuth plane. Only three DC signals are required to control the seven PIN diodes attached along the spiral arm. The antenna has a 200-MHz-bandwidth around 3.3 GHz with stable maximum beam directions that are defined by setting of the switches. Considerations required in selecting switch positions when designing such antennas for other frequencies, are presented. The measured return loss, radiation pattern and gain, all have close correlation with the simulation results. A detailed comparison of our design with those already proposed in the literature is given.
In this paper, four new wideband small antennas based on the composite right/left-handed transmission line (CRLH-TL) structures are designed, tooled, and made. The proposed antennas are introduced with best in size, bandwidth, and radiation patterns. The physical size and the operational frequency of the antennas depend on size of the unit cells and the equivalent transmission line model parameters of the CRLH-TLs, including series inductance, series capacitance, shunt inductance, and shunt capacitance. To define characteristics of the antennas, the engraved J- and I-formed voids on the radiation patches are used. The physical sizes of the CRLH antennas are 0.45λ0 × 0.175λ0 × 0.02λ0, 0.428λ0 × 0.179λ0 × 0.041λ0, 0. 564λ0 × 0.175λ0 × 0.02λ0, and 0.556λ0 × 0.179λ0 × 0.041λ0 in terms of free-space wavelengths at the 7.5, 7.7, 7.5, and 7.7 GHz, respectively. These metamaterial antennas can be used for frequency bands from 7.5–16.8 GHz, 7.7–18.6 GHz, 7.25–17.8 GHz, and 7.8–19.85 GHz for VSWR < 2, which correspond to 74.4, 82.88, 84.23, and 87.16% practical bandwidths, respectively. Also, the ranges of the measured gains and radiation efficiencies of the recommended antennas are 0.1 dBi < G < 2.1 dBi and 20% < eff < 44.3%, and 0.8 dBi < G < 2.35 dBi and 23% < eff < 48.2%, for J-shaped antennas, whereas 0.1.15 dBi < G < 3.11 dBi and 30.24% < eff < 58.6%, and 1.2 dBi < G < 3.4 dBi and 32.4% < eff < 68.1% for I-shaped antennas, respectively.
This paper presents an optimization circuit model of multiconductor transmission lines in the time domain. Several methods allow calculation of the currents and the tensions distributed on the uniform transmission line. Most of these methods are limited to lines with constant losses, and only for linear loads. The macro-model we propose, using Pade approximant, employs more variables and allows it to reduce the necessary cells' number in modelization than the traditional cells cascade method. This macro-model, using the Modified Nodal Analysis method (MNA), is suitable for an inclusion in circuit simulator, such as Esacap, Spice, and Saber. The MNA method offers an efficient means to discretize transmission lines on real and complex cells compared to the conventional lumped discretization. In addition, the model can directly handle frequency-dependent line parameters in the time domain. An example, with experimental measures taken from literature, is presented to validate the model we propose, and show its importance. It is necessary for assuring the results validity obtained from Pade macro-model to study its stability and passivity.
This paper presents power results of L-band packaged hybrid amplifiers using InAlN/GaN/SiC HEMT power dies. The high-power densities achieved both in pulsed and continuous wave (cw) modes confirm the interest of such technology for high-frequency, high-power, and high-temperature operation. We present here record RF power measurements for different versions of amplifiers. Up to 260 W, i.e. 3.6 W/mm, in pulsed (10 µs/10%) conditions, and 105 W, i.e. 2.9 W/mm, in cw conditions were achieved. Such results are made possible thanks to the impressive performances of InAlN/GaN transistors, even when operating at high temperatures. Unit cell transistors deliver output powers of 4.3 W/mm at Vds = 40 V in the cw mode of operation at the frequency of 2 GHz. The transistor process is described here, as well as the amplifiers design and measurements, with a particular focus to the thermal management aspects.