To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Textile production and the introduction of wool and woolen textiles represented a great revolution in Bronze Age Europe at the dawn of the second millennium BC. The available contemporary written sources from the Mediterranean and Near East suggest that textile production had a strong impact on the cultural, social, and economic life. In most parts of continental Europe, however, archaeological material alone can help us understand the details relating to textile production and its wider importance to early societies. This book provides new insights on patterns of production, specialization, and consumption of textiles in Europe throughout the Bronze Age. Assembling a diverse array of studies on various aspect of the textile production and economy, the essays, specially written for this volume, provide a wide range of scientific data as well as archaeological evidence. They also show the great potential of examining early textile production through the use of innovative methodologies and diverse perspectives.
The influence of the nozzle-exit boundary-layer profile on high-subsonic jets is investigated by performing compressible large-eddy simulations (LES) for three isothermal jets at a Mach number of 0.9 and a diameter-based Reynolds number of
, and by conducting linear stability analyses from the mean-flow fields. At the exit section of a pipe nozzle, the jets exhibit boundary layers of momentum thickness of approximately 2.8 % of the nozzle radius and a peak value of turbulence intensity of 6 %. The boundary-layer shape factors, however, vary and are equal to 2.29, 1.96 and 1.71. The LES flow and sound fields differ significantly between the first jet with a laminar mean exit velocity profile and the two others with transitional profiles. They are close to each other in these two cases, suggesting that similar results would also be obtained for a jet with a turbulent profile. For the two jets with non-laminar profiles, the instability waves in the near-nozzle region emerge at higher frequencies, the mixing layers spread more slowly and contain weaker low-frequency velocity fluctuations and the noise levels in the acoustic field are lower by 2–3 dB compared to the laminar case. These trends can be explained by the linear stability analyses. For the laminar boundary-layer profile, the initial shear-layer instability waves are most strongly amplified at a momentum-thickness-based Strouhal number
, which is very similar to the value obtained downstream in the mixing-layer velocity profiles. For the transitional profiles, on the contrary, they predominantly grow at higher Strouhal numbers, around
and 0.032, respectively. As a consequence, the instability waves rapidly vanish during the boundary-layer/shear-layer transition in the latter cases, but continue to grow over a large distance from the nozzle in the former case, leading to persistent large-scale coherent structures in the mixing layers for the jet with a laminar exit velocity profile.
We develop an overlapping generations model to study how the interplay between social and human capital affects fertility. In a framework where families face a trade-off between the quantity and quality of children, we incorporate the assumption that social capital plays a key role in the accumulation of human capital. We show how the erosion of social capital can trigger a chain of reactions leading households to base their childbearing decisions on quantity, instead of quality, resulting in higher fertility.
A direct numerical simulation of the three-dimensional unsteady compressible Navier–Stokes equations is performed to investigate the infrasonic field generated in a realistic atmosphere by an explosive source placed at ground level. To this end, a high-order finite-difference method originally developed for aeroacoustic applications is employed. The maximum overpressure and the main frequency of the signal recorded at 4 km distance from the source location are about 4000 Pa and 0.2 Hz, respectively. The atmosphere is parametrized as a vertically stratified medium, constructed by specifying vertical profiles of the temperature and the horizontal wind which reproduce measurements. The computation is carried out up to 140 km altitude and 450 km range. The goal of the present paper is twofold. On the one hand, the feasibility of using a direct numerical simulation of the three-dimensional fluid dynamic equations for the detailed description of long-range propagation in the atmosphere is proven. On the other hand, a physical analysis of the infrasonic field is realized. In particular, great attention is directed towards some important phenomena which are not taken into account or not well predicted by classical propagation models. To begin with, the present study clearly demonstrates that the weakly nonlinear ray theory may lead to an incorrect evaluation of the waveform distortion of high-amplitude waves propagating towards the lower thermosphere. In addition, signals recorded in the shadow zones are investigated. In this regard, the influence on the acoustic field of temperature and wind inhomogeneities of length scale comparable with the acoustic wavelength is analysed. The role of diffraction at the thermospheric caustic is finally examined and it is pointed out that the amplitude of the source may have a strong impact on the length of the shadow zone.
At the onset of the 2nd millennium bc, a wool economy emerged across continental Europe. Archaeological, iconographical, and written sources from the Near East and the Aegean show that a Bronze Age wool economy involved considerable specialised labour and large scale animal husbandry. Resting only on archaeological evidence, detailed knowledge of wool economies in Bronze Age Europe has been limited, but recent investigations at the Terramare site of Montale, in northern Italy, document a high density of spindle whorls that strongly supports the existence of village-level specialised manufacture of yarn. Production does not appear to have been attached to an emerging elite nor was it fully independent of social constraints. We propose that, although probably managed by local elites, wool production was a community-based endeavour oriented towards exports aimed at obtaining locally unavailable raw materials and goods.
The varying dwarf galaxy populations in different environments pose a problem for Cold Dark Matter (CDM) hierarchical clustering models. in this paper we present results from a survey conducted in different environments to search for low surface brightness (LSB) dwarf galaxies.
The gastropod Buccinanops globulosus is commonly used as a bioindicator of tributyltin (TBT) contamination due to its high imposex incidence in maritime traffic areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate both oxidative stress in B. globulosus at three sites with different maritime activity, and imposex incidence in Nuevo Gulf, Argentina. Oxidative stress parameters in digestive glands, like superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities, reduced glutathione levels (GSH), and oxidative damage to lipids, estimated as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) as well as imposex parameters (% imposex and female penis length (FPL)) were measured in females. Gastropods from the harbour area showed 100% imposex, the highest FPL and TBARs content, as well as GSH levels and SOD activity.
The different oxidative stress responses and high imposex incidence at the harbour site may indicate a negative effect on the organism's physiological state due to environmental pollution.
This paper contributes to the literature by conducting the first empirical investigation into the determinants of prosocial behaviour in the Palestinian Territories, with a focus on the role of trust and institutions. Drawing on a unique dataset collected through the administration of a questionnaire to a representative sample of the population of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, we have found that institutional trust is the strongest predictor of prosociality. This result suggests that, in collectivist societies with low levels of generalized trust, the lack of citizens’ confidence in the fairness and efficiency of public institutions may compromise social order. The strengthening of institutional trust may also reinforce prosocial behaviour in individualist societies, where a decline in generalized trust has been documented by empirical studies.
In this paper I have tried to determine some essential points regarding the evolution of the Neapolitan public debt in the early modern age. In brief, these are:
1. The Kingdom of Naples had recourse to the public debt from the beginning of the early modern age, in line with the development of the public debt in the most economically dynamic areas of Europe;
2. Until the beginning of the eighteenth century, recourse to the public debt was closely connected to the political and financial demands of the Spanish monarchy of which Naples was part; at the same time, the public debt, especially that part ascribable to the communities, not only fed a flourishing domestic financial market, but was also an important point of contact and equilibrium between the classes that were most active economically and between these classes and the state;
3. The recovery of the Kingdom of Naples' political independence in the eighteenth century can be seen in the adoption of an independent financial policy regarding both the public debt and the regulation of the financial market;
4. The changes which took place during the eighteenth century, and especially from the beginning of the nineteenth century with the vast operation of consolidating the public debt during the decade of French rule, mark important moments in the modernization of the Neapolitan financial market, in its links with the network of big European finance and in the emergence of new operators.
In the Spanish Imperial System
The concept of the ‘Spanish Imperial’ system – a definition used more by early modern historians than by economic historians – embodies the idea that between the sixteenth and the eighteenth centuries a multiplicity of institutional, political, military, religious and economic-financial ties united the lands of the Spanish monarchy, surmounting its inherent differences and giving rise to a single body with a fair degree of cohesion. However, historians interpret this concept in very different ways, ranging from the classical interpretations of the polisinodiale monarchy by Jaime Vicens Vives and the composite monarchy by John Elliot to other more recent publications.
An extensive survey of helminth parasites in fish and shellfish species from Santa Gilla, a brackish water lagoon in southern Sardinia (western Mediterranean), resulted in the identification of 69 helminth parasite taxa and/or species from 13 fish species (n= 515) and seven bivalve species (n= 2322) examined between September 2001 and July 2011. The list summarizes information on the helminth parasites harboured by fish and molluscs contained in the available literature. Digenea species (37), both adults and larvae, dominated the parasite fauna, whereas Cestoda were the least represented class (three species). Monogenea, Nematoda and Acanthocephala were present with 17, 6 and 6 species, respectively, which were mainly adults. The most widespread parasite species was the generalist Contracaecum rudolphii A (Nematoda). Other species, such as the Haploporidae and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) spp. 1 and 2 (Digenea), showed a high family specificity in Mugilidae. Importantly, the study recorded the occurrence of potential zoonotic agents, such as Heterophyes heterophyes, Ascocotyle (Phagicola) spp. and C. rudolphii A, the latter two reaching the highest indices of infection in the highly marketed fish grey mullet and sea bass, respectively. The highest parasite richness was detected in Dicentrarchus labrax, which harboured 17 helminth species, whereas the lowest value was observed in Atherina boyeri, infected by only three species. The list includes the first geographical record in Italian coastal waters of Robinia aurata and Stictodora sawakinensis, and 30 reports of new host–parasite complexes, including the larval stages of Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) sp. and Southwellina hispida in D. labrax.
This paper presents the second part of the research activities carried out to develop a novel Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Avionics-Based Integrity Augmentation (ABIA) system for manned and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) applications. The ABIA system's architecture was developed to allow real-time avoidance of safety-critical flight conditions and fast recovery of the required navigation performance in case of GNSS data losses. In more detail, our novel ABIA system addresses all four cornerstones of GNSS integrity augmentation in mission- and safety-critical avionics applications: prediction (caution flags), avoidance (optimal flight path guidance), reaction (warning flags) and correction (recovery flight path guidance). Part 1 (Sabatini et al., 2012) presented the ABIA concept, architecture and key mathematical models used to describe GNSS integrity issues in aircraft applications. This second part addresses the ABIA caution and warning integrity flags criteria and presents the results of a simulation case study performed on the TORNADO Interdiction and Strike (IDS) aircraft.
It has been amply demonstrated that trawl fishing affects overall biomass, size and species structure of demersal fish communities, and an increasing number of studies are proving that this could have even greater unexpected effects on biological diversity. The aims of this study are: (1) to examine the temporal trends of several ecological diversity indices for middle-slope communities in specific locations within the Sardinian seas, which have been recently subject to increasing fishing capacity; and (2) to simulate the Shannon's entropy (H′) temporal trend, using a multiple linear regression, in order to investigate about the relationships between fishing effort and species diversity. The data come from 11 MEDITS trawl surveys (1994 to 2004). Temporal trends in fishing effort were analysed and ecological diversity indices were measured. Analysis was conducted for four areas (NW, NE, SE, SSW). Significant variations over time in both fishing pressure and ecological diversity indices were found for the southern zones. More precisely, the SE zone showed an increase in fishing effort (+120% in 2004), and a decrease of Shannon–Weiner's diversity. The SSW zone exhibited a 22.6% increase of fishing effort and a decrease of species richness. The best model of H′ incorporates species richness and fishing effort expressed as number of boats per trawling area. Our results seem to indicate that fishing pressure affected the species richness and the abundance of middle-slope species and that variation in ecological diversity indices differed with different levels of fishing effort.
The aviation community has very stringent navigation integrity requirements that apply to a variety of manned and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operational tasks. This paper presents the results of the research activities carried out by the Italian Air Force Flight Test Centre (CSV-RSV) in collaboration with the Nottingham Geospatial Institute (NGI) and Cranfield University (CU) in the area of Avionics-Based Integrity Augmentation (ABIA) for mission- and safety-critical Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) applications. Based on these activities, suitable models were developed to describe the main causes of GNSS signal outage and degradation in flight, namely: antenna obscuration, multipath, fading due to adverse geometry and Doppler shift. Adopting these models in association with suitable integrity thresholds and guidance algorithms, the ABIA system delivers integrity caution (predictive) and warning (reactive) flags, as well as steering information to the pilot and electronic commands to the aircraft/UAV flight control system. These features allow real-time avoidance of safety-critical flight conditions and fast recovery of the required navigation performance in case of GNSS data losses. This paper presents the key ABIA concepts, architecture and mathematical models. A successive paper will address the ABIA integrity thresholds criteria and detailed results of a TORNADO simulation case-study.
Low luminosity (dwarf) galaxies play a crucial role in our current theories of galaxy and large scale structure formation. In the hierarchical picture they are the building blocks from which other structures form. These theories in their basic form overpredict the numbers of small dark matter halos (dwarf galaxies?) unless some form of star formation supression is invoked. In this paper we describe observations of dwarf galaxies in a range of different environments. We find that there are far too few dwarf galaxies in low density environments to be compatible with the theories. These observations are not consistent with an environment-independent mechanism suppressing dwarf galaxy formation. It is also not clear how these mechanisms can supress star formation if dwarf galaxies have large mass-to-light ratios (≈100). Either the whole idea of hierarchical galaxy formation has to be rejected or other environmentally dependent physical processes have to be invoked. We suggest that small, gas-rich dI galaxies have their evolution rapidly advanced as they move into the dense cluster environment.
The NGVS is mapping the Virgo Cluster with a depth making possible to detect very low surface brightness (LSB) structures, such as faint dwarf galaxies. To extract these from just above the sky noise and make statistical studies of their properties, we use the software MARSIAA (MARkovian Software for Image Analysis in Astronomy). This segmentation software uses a Markovian approach to classify pixels and identify low-surface brightness structures.
Polycrystalline samples of tetragonal YBa2Cu3O6.25 were transformed into the superconducting orthorhombic phase by annealing in an oxygen atmosphere at temperatures ranging from 400–850°C and then slowly cooled to room temperature (15°C/h). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of these samples and samples prepared in the usual way show layers of amorphous or highly disordered material, several 100 nm thick, at a large fraction of the grain boundaries. Also all samples contain 10–100 nm thick sheets of disordered material which lie in the a-b planes and tend to run through the entire crystal grain. In the a-b planes we also observe dislocation loops, particularly in the as-quenched tetragonal samples and stacking faults in the heat-treated samples. We also frequently observe set of twins with orthogonal habit planes within a crystal grain. We attribute the low critical current density in YBa2Cu3O7 to these planar faults and the disordered grain boundary regions, and discuss the TEM observations with reference to resistivity and inductive measurements.
A series of polycrystalline YBa2(Cu1‐xMx)3O7‐δ (1:2:3) samples with a typical grain size > 10μm was prepared using well controlled and reproducible precedures. This relatively large grain size allowed microprobe studies of individual grains to determine M content of the 1:2:3 phase. Solubility limits of substitutions for Cu in these samples are estimated. Superconducting transition temperatures and lattice parameters are presented. In the case of Ga, microprobe studies show no evidence for Ga content of 1:2:3 above x=0.01. Preliminary studies show no evidence for solid solution above x=0.01 when substituting Mn, Cr, Zr, and Ti for Cu in 1:2:3.
The corrosion behavior of TiCode-12 (Ti-0.3 Mo-0.8 Ni) high level nuclear waste container alloy has been studied for a simulated WIPP brine at a temperature of 150°C or below. Crevice corrosion was identified as a potentially important failure mode for this material. Within a mechanical crevice, a thick oxide film was found and shown to be the rutile form of TiO2, with a trace of lower oxide also present. Acidic conditions were found to cause a breakdown of the passive oxide layer. Solution aeration and increased acidity accelerate the corrosion rate. In hydrogen embrittlement studies, it was found that hydrogen causes a significant decrease in the apparent stress intensity level in fracture mechanics samples. Hydride formation is thought to be responsible for crack initiation. Stress corrosion cracking under static loads was not observed. Attention has also been given to methods for extrapolating short term uniform corrosion rate data to extended times.
Boron-doped microcrystalline (μc) silicon films produced by rf glow discharge from dilute (1%) mixtures of SiH4 in H2 show a critical dependence of conductivity on deposition conditions. The dark conductivity was related to the microscopic features using electron microscopy. The μc−Si:H films contain clusters of crystallites embedded in an amorphous matrix. The size of the crystalline clusters is typically 0.2 μm in diameter, and the size of the individual crystallites is about 2.5 nm. Electron micrographs of samples prepared at substrate temperatures Ts=135°C, 150°C, 165°C, and 180°C show that the number of crystalline clusters increases with Tsup to 165°C. At Ts=180°C, the crystallites completely disappear. When the concentration of SiH4 in H2 is decreased to 0.25%, the microstructure shows a high density of crystallites with no apparent clustering.
By analyzing the modernity of Woolf's experimental narrative in To The Lighthouse (1927), as well as her depiction of different temporalities operating within a single perceptual experience, Erich Auerbach famously referred to a kind of “omnitemporality” that permeates the writer's style and poetics (Vogler 39–52). Similar to this, and very close to the constant ambivalence between time of the clock and time of the consciousness, one could also refer to a sort of “omnispatiality” enacted in Woolf's writing, and to the constant ambivalence and mutual influence of two main concepts of space. Firstly, a space which is portrayed as a measurable and scientific entity, a Cartesian frame of reference that pre-exists the movements, actions, and thoughts of the subjects; secondly, a kind of space that is traversed, interpreted or even recreated and metamorphosed by the consciousness of the characters and by their mutable perceptions, so as to mime the artist's arbitrary recreation of it. Within this main distinction, which in Woolf must not be seen as a dichotomy but rather as an ambivalence of two spatial configurations always overlapping, one can note a number of different implications, representations and stylistic treatments that directly connect to the multifaceted and multilayered nature of Woolf's experimental narratives and to her belief in the multifariousness of human nature and of human consciousness. Hence, the choice in my title of the term prismatic, which is meant to comprehend all of its meanings: “formed by a transparent prism,” “spectral and yet vivid and brilliant in colour,” “highly varied or faceted” (OED “ prismatic”).
Virginia Woolf mentions a “lustre,” an ornamental device similar to a prism, in the short story “Blue and Green” (1921) where “all day long the ten fingers of a lustre drop green upon the marble” (The Mark 33, my emphasis). The short piece continues by describing the nuances of the color green created by the beams of light reflected from the lustre onto the marble, until, in the end, as time passes, darkness descends upon it and makes it disappear, in a passage endowed with a highly metaphorical language: “Evening comes, and the shadow sweeps the green over the mantelpiece; the ruffled surface of the ocean.