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In the present work, mechanical, tribological, and electrochemical behaviors of Al Alloy 6061–(0–10) % B4C–(0.25–1.2) % graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) composites, prepared by a combination of solution mixing and powder metallurgy, were investigated. Properties such as hardness, compressive strength, wear rates, and coefficient of friction (COF) were used to investigate the effects of GNPs on mechanical and self-lubricating tribological behavior. The corrosion resistance of composites was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance techniques. Scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and EDS mapping were employed to study the distribution, the fracture profile, and wear mechanism. The AA 6061–10% B4C–0.6% GNPs composites exhibited sharp increase in hardness and compressive strength and significant decrease in wear rates and COF. However, for GNPs contents exceeding over 0.6 wt%, mechanical properties and wear performances deteriorated. Pulling out of sheared pultruded GNPs was observed during the fracture of composites. Worn surfaces of GNPs-containing composites showed the smeared graphene layer with some macro-cracks exhibiting delamination wear. It was found that the corrosion inhibition efficiency of GNPs was more pronounced in H3BO3 environment than in NaCl solution.
This chapter focuses on traditional cash welfare. It provides background on federal cash assistance to poor families, explains current TANF policy, and proposes that antipoverty scholars turn their attention to a fundamental precondition of democratic experimentalism: the presence of meaningful and well-functioning democracy that includes the poor. A democratic structure that operates nondemocratically by weakening the political voices of poor people is an insufficient environment for a just approach to welfare. Instead of laboratories of democracy, states in this domain often function as laboratories of suffering –political entities that experiment upon poor people without robust informed consent. While some democratic deficits are likely inevitable in any system, in welfare, we see a governance structure in which the sole direct beneficiaries of the regime are largely shut out of the democratic processes that structure that regime.
This paper examines the relationship between debt-oriented capital structure and economic growth by analysing a panel data of 16 European countries, based on the availability of data. We find that the corporate leverage in financial and non-financial corporations affects economic growth negatively. Furthermore, the results indicate that the leverage in non-financial corporations affects economic growth more than the leverage in financial corporations. This is due to the direct relationship between economic growth and the real sector and the fact that non-financial corporations in OECD countries hold more debt as compared with financial corporations.
We sought to retrospectively report our outcomes using post-operative stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS)/stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) in place of whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) following resection of brain metastases from our hospital-based community practice.
Materials and Methods:
A retrospective review of 23 patients who underwent post-operative SRS at our single institution from 2013 to 2017 was undertaken. Patient records, treatment plans and diagnostic images were reviewed. Local failure, distant intracranial failure and overall survival were studied. Categorical variables were analyzed using Fisher’s exact tests. Continuous variables were analyzed using Mann–Whitney tests. The Kaplan–Meier method was used to estimate survival times.
16 (70%) were single-fraction SRS, whereas the remaining 7 patients received a five-fraction treatment course. The median single-fraction dose was 16 Gy (range, 16–18). The median total dose for fractionated treatments was 25 Gy (range, 25–35). Overall survival at 6 and 12 months was 95 and 67%, respectively. Comparison of SRS versus SRT local control rates at 6 and 12 months revealed control rates of 92 and 78% versus 29 and 14%, respectively. Every patient with dural/pial involvement at the time of surgery had distant intracranial failure at the 12-month follow-up.
Single-fraction frameless SRS proved to be an effective modality with excellent local control rates. However, the five-fraction SRT course was associated with an increased rate of local recurrence. Dural/pial involvement may portend a high risk for distant intracranial disease; therefore, it may be prudent to consider alternative approaches in these cases.
The Thinking Healthy Programme (THP) is an evidence-based psychological intervention endorsed by the World Health Organization, tailored for non-specialist health workers in low- and middle-income countries. However, training and supervision of large numbers of health workers is a major challenge for the scale-up of THP. We developed a ‘Technology-Assisted Cascaded Training and Supervision system’ (TACTS) for THP consisting of a training application and cascaded supervision delivered from a distance.
A single-blind, non-inferiority, randomized controlled trial was conducted in District Swat, a post-conflict area of North Pakistan. Eighty community health workers (called Lady Health Workers or LHWs) were randomly assigned to either TACTS or conventional face-to-face training and supervision by a specialist. Competence of LHWs in delivering THP post-training was assessed by independent observers rating a therapeutic session using a standardized measure, the ‘Enhancing Assessment of Common Therapeutic factors’ (ENACT), immediately post-training and after 3 months. ENACT uses a Likert scale to score an observed interaction on 18 dimensions, with a total score of 54, and a higher score indicating greater competence.
Results indicated no significant differences between health workers trained using TACTS and supervised from distance v. those trained and supervised by a specialist face-to-face (mean ENACT score M = 24.97, s.d. = 5.95 v. M = 27.27, s.d. = 5.60, p = 0.079, 95% CI 4.87–0.27) and at 3 months follow-up assessment (M = 44.48, s.d. = 3.97 v. M = 43.63, s.d. = 6.34, p = 0.53, CI −1.88 to 3.59).
TACTS can provide a promising tool for training and supervision of front-line workers in areas where there is a shortage of specialist trainers and supervisors.
Innovation Concept: Medical students often face challenges when entering clerkship. The abundance of teaching tools and online resources make it difficult for learners to navigate and apply knowledge in a clinical setting. Although valuable study aids exist across Emergency Medicine (EM) clerkship curriculums, a convenient resource tailored to junior learners for on-shift use is lacking. We created an academic resource with the intent of assessing student engagement with the handbook. Methods: Ottawa's Clerkship Guide to Emergency Medicine was developed using information from a commonly used EM textbook and relevant literature. After a comprehensive peer-review by staff EM physicians, the resource was published online and made available to learners in March 2018. To assess utility of this resource, a national survey was administered followed by a Likert-type analysis. Website metrics and the survey results were used to guide a sustainable model for annual student-driven resource updates. Curriculum, Tool or Material: The handbook contains high-yield EM topics organized into one-page summaries. The main sections include resuscitation, symptoms-based approach, and medical emergencies. Students can access the handbook online, via mobile app, or use a printable version. Over 7300 unique downloads have occurred since launch. Our national survey revealed that of the total respondents (N = 171, 93.6% 3rd-year clerks, 31.6% uOttawa students), 97.1% (n = 166) had used the handbook on shift. A majority were able to find an answer to their clinical question either fully (53%, n = 88) or partially (46.4%, n = 77) and many would recommend this resource as-is (62.7%, n = 104) or with some modifications (34.3%, n = 57). Compared to the student's preferred clinical resource, mean Likert-type scores showed a significant (p < 0.01) positive difference in favor of the handbook regarding themes of organization (3.83 vs. 4.38), length (3.43 vs. 4.76) and ease in accessibility (3.46 vs. 4.79). Conclusion: The value of this handbook for junior learners entering their acute care rotation is evident. We demonstrated that student uptake of this handbook was robust. Compared to commonly used resources, students felt this handbook was more organized, concise in length, and easy to integrate into their clinical workflow. Implementation of this handbook across Canadian EM curriculums may bridge the EM knowledge gap in junior learners and off-service residents.
Childhood adversity is associated with mental disorder following military deployment. However, it is unclear how different childhood trauma profiles relate to developing a post-deployment disorder. We investigated childhood trauma prospectively in determining new post-deployment probable disorder.
In total, 1009 Regular male ADF personnel from the Australian Defence Force (ADF) Middle East Area of Operations (MEAO) Prospective Study provided pre- and post-deployment self-report data. Logistic regression and generalised structural equation modelling were utilised to examine associations between childhood trauma and new post-deployment probable disorder and possible mediator pathways through pre-deployment symptoms.
There were low rates of pre-deployment probable disorder. New post-deployment probable disorder was associated with childhood trauma, index deployment factors (combat role and deployment trauma) and pre-deployment symptoms but not with demographic, service or adult factors prior to the index deployment (including trauma, combat or previous deployment). Even after controlling for demographic, service and adult factors prior to the index deployment as well as index deployment trauma, childhood trauma was still a significant determinant of new post-deployment probable disorder. GSEM demonstrated that the association between interpersonal childhood trauma and new post-deployment probable disorder was fully mediated by pre-deployment symptoms. This was not the case for those who experienced childhood trauma that was not interpersonal in nature.
To determine the risk of developing a post-deployment disorder an understanding of the types of childhood trauma encountered is essential, and pre-deployment symptom screening alone is insufficient
In the current work, the effects of design (groove depth and groove width) and operational (temperature and velocity) parameters on aerodynamic performance parameters (coefficient of drag and coefficient of lift) of an isolated passenger car tire have been investigated. The study is conducted by using neural network-based Monte-Carlo analysis on computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The computer experiments are designed to obtain the causal relationship between tire design, operational, and aerodynamic performance parameters. The Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations-based Realizable K-ε model has been employed to analyze the variations in flow patterns around an isolated tire. The design parameters are varied over wide range and full factorial design, while considering temperature and velocity is completely explored to draw conclusive results. The multi-layer perceptron type neural network with the back-propagation algorithm is trained to map any non-linearity in causal relationships. The sensitivity analysis is performed to find the relationship between control variables and performance indicators. The importance of control variable is determined by both sensitivity and significance analyses and the paired interaction analysis is performed between selected control variables to find the interactive behavior of corresponding variables. The design parameter of groove width with 6.8% and 41% reduction in drag and lift coefficient, respectively, and conventionally overlooked operational parameter of velocity with 4% and 35% impact on drag and lift coefficient, respectively, are found to be the most significant variables. The air trapped between the longitudinal grooves and the road is found to follow the beam theory. The interaction of the groove depth and width is found to be significant with respect to coefficient of lift based on the air beam concept. The interaction of groove width and velocity is found to be significant with respect to both coefficients of lifts and drag.
Mixing of phosphate fertilizer with farmyard manure (FYM) is a simple technique for optimizing phosphorus (P) availability and then improving the productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown in alkaline calcareous soils. Diammonium phosphate (DAP) and phosphoric acid (PA) were applied to soil at 36 mg P kg−1, either as sole or after amending 1-g P fertilizer with 2-g FYM (1:2, w/w basis). After 45-day incubation, concentration of P ions in the soil solution (Cp) and exchangeable P present in soil solid (E-value) were determined to evaluate the amount of total plant-available pool. The FYM-amended fertilizers, i.e., PA+FYM and DAP+FYM, showed higher E-values, i.e., 114 and 97 mg kg−1 soil, respectively. Similarly, PA+FYM exhibited the highest proportion of P derived from fertilizer (Pdff = 51.5%) and induced the highest P uptake by wheat seedlings (L-value = 72.1 mg kg−1). Consequently, PA+FYM and DAP+FYM treatments caused higher grain yield and P-use efficiency. The regression analysis revealed strong and positive correlation between L-value and grain yield (r = 0.86), biomass production (r = 0.84) and P-use efficiency (r = 0.87) by wheat crop. Results suggested that FYM-amended inorganic P fertilizer can be a promising technique to optimize supply of P from soil, improve efficiency of inorganic P fertilizers, and improve wheat yield in alkaline calcareous soils.
The effect of laser fluence and nature of ambient environments on the sputtering yield, surface modifications, crater depth, UV-visible absorption spectra, chemical composition, and micro hardness of Zr has been investigated. Nd: YAG laser (532 nm, 10 Hz, 6 ns) at different fluences varying from 16 to 60.8 Jcm−2 was employed as an irradiation source. All measurements are performed under two ambient environments of Ar and O2 at a constant pressure of 10 Torr. Quartz crystal microbalance has been employed for the measurement of sputtering yield of laser irradiated Zr. It is revealed that sputtering yield increases monotonically with increasing fluence under both environments however, it is higher in Ar as compared to O2 environment. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) has been used to explore the surface morphology. SEM analysis exhibits the formation of cones, ridges, and cracks at the central ablated areas whereas, laser-induced periodic surface structures, periodic ridges and sharp cones are observed at inner boundaries in both environments of Ar and O2. Sharp spikes are observed in both environments, however, their height and distinctness are more pronounced in Ar as compared to O2. Cones are characteristic features in Ar, whereas, cavities and channels are dominant features in O2 environment at outer boundaries. The formation and growth of surface structures are dependent upon laser fluence and ambient gas nature. The depth profilometry has been used to measure the crater depth of irradiated Zr target by using an optical microscope. UV visible spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analyses reveal the oxide formation in the case of Zr irradiation in O2 environment. The Vicker Micro-hardness tester has been employed to measure the hardness. The higher observed values of sputtering yield, crater depth and hardness of laser ablated Zr in Ar as compared to O2 are well correlated with distinct surface structures.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To establish an effective team of researchers working towards developing and validating prognostic models employing use of image analyses and other numerical metadata to better understand pediatric undernutrition, and to learn how different approaches can be brought together collaboratively and efficiently. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Over the past 18 months we have established a transdisciplinary team spanning three countries and the Schools of Medicine, Engineering, Data Science and Global Health. We first identified two team leaders specifically a pediatric physician scientist (SS) and a data scientist/engineer (DB). The leaders worked together to recruit team members, with the understanding that different ideas are encouraged and will be used collaboratively to tackle the problem of pediatric undernutrition. The final data analytic and interpretative core team consisted of four data science students, two PhD students, an undergraduate biology major, a recent medical graduate, and a PhD research scientist. Additional collaborative members included faculty from Biomedical Engineering, the School of Medicine (Pediatrics and Pathology) along with international Global Health faculty from Pakistan and Zambia. We learned early on that it was important to understand what each of the member’s motivation for contributing to the project was along with aligning that motivation with the overall goals of the team. This made us help prioritize team member tasks and streamline ideas. We also incorporated a mechanism of weekly (monthly/bimonthly for global partners) meetings with informal oral presentations which consisted of each member’s current progress, thoughts and concerns, and next experimental goals. This method enabled team leaders to have a 3600 mechanism of feedback. Overall, we assessed the effectiveness of our team by two mechanisms: 1) ongoing team member feedback, including team leaders, and 2) progress of the research project. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Our feedback has shown that on initial development of the team there was hesitance in communication due to the background diversity of our various member along with different cultural/social expectations. We used ice-breaking methods such as dedicated time for brief introductions, career directions, and life goals for each team member. We subsequently found that with the exception of one, all other team members noted our working environment professional and conducive to productivity. We also learnt from our method of ongoing constant feedback that at times, due to the complexity of different disciplines, some information was lost due to the difference in educational backgrounds. We have now employed new methods to relay information more effectively, with the use of not just sharing literature but also by explaining the content. The progress of our research project has varied over the past 4-6 months. There was a steep learning curve for almost every member, for example all the data science students had never studied anything related to medicine during their education, including minimal if none exposure to the ethics of medical research. Conversely, team members with medical/biology backgrounds had minimal prior exposure to computational modeling, computer engineering and the verbage of communicating mathematical algorithms. While this may have slowed our progress we learned that by asking questions and engaging every member it was easier to delegate tasks effectively. Once our team reached an overall understanding of each member’s goals there was a steady progress in the project, with new results and new methods of analysis being tested every week. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: We expect that our on-going collaboration will result in the development of new and novel modalities to understand and diagnose pediatric undernutrition, and can be used as a model to tackle several other problems. As with many team science projects, credit and authorship are challenges that we are outlining creative strategies for as suggested by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) and other literature.
Prior to colonization by western powers, a form of rudimentary, tribal legal
system was said to exist on the Peninsula. Various aboriginal tribes had
been in occupation of the Peninsula as well as Borneo long before foreign
settlers arrived. Although their laws were primitive and unwritten, their
organizational abilities were adequate and served as a model for later Malay
villages or kampongs. For example, the head of the village
or penghulu was an organizational social structure derived
from the Negrito tribe. The penghulu of
any village or kampong usually had full civil and criminal
powers over his flock.
A point prevalence survey was conducted on May 11, 2017, among inpatients at 6 hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The overall point prevalence was 6.8% (114 of 1,666). The most common types of infections were pneumonia (27.2%), urinary tract infections (20.2%), and bloodstream infections (10.5%). Approximately 19.2% of healthcare-associated infections were device associated.