To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The dynamical behaviour of weakly nonlinear, low-frequency sound waves are investigated in a plasma composed of only positive and negative ions incorporating the effects of a weak external uniform magnetic field. In the plasma model the mass (temperature) of the positive ions is smaller (larger) than that of the negative ions. The dynamics of the nonlinear wave is shown to be governed by a novel nonlinear equation. The stationary plane wave (analytical and numerical) nonlinear analysis on the basis of experimental parameters reveals that the nonlinear wave does have quasi-periodic and chaotic solutions. The Poincarè return map analysis confirms these observed complex structures.
This paper reviews our experience of potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser in transcanal totally endoscopic cholesteatoma surgery.
A prospective cohort study was conducted in a tertiary referral centre, involving a consecutive series of children with cholesteatoma who underwent totally endoscopic cholesteatoma surgery with a KTP laser.
The patients’ mean age was 10.5 years (range, 1.8–18 years). A KTP laser was used in 70 of the 83 cases (84 per cent). The laser was not used in 13 ‘clean’ cases, in which disease was removed more easily. Residual disease was detected in five cases (6 per cent), of which the KTP laser had been used in four (5 per cent). No complications were associated with KTP laser use.
The combination of KTP laser use with endoscopic visualisation is effective for minimising the risk of residual disease using a minimally invasive surgical approach. The thin, semi-flexible fibre carrier of the KTP laser is ideally suited to work alongside the endoscope within the narrow confines of the ear canal.
Introduction: There is an evidence-practice gap between guidelines for diagnosing pulmonary embolism (PE) and emergency physician practice. Computed tomography (CT) scanning is being overused to exclude PE in Canadian emergency departments (EDs) and current guidelines do not fit well with the ED model of patient care. There is a lack of research on patient opinions on PE testing, and a poor physician understanding of patient-specific goals in the ED. We are addressing this by conducting patient interviews to identify patient-specific values and opinions on PE testing in the ED. These will be used to develop patient-centered educational tools which physicians and patients can use to discuss the decision to order a CT PE scan. The aim of this study is to identify patient expectations and priorities on PE testing in the ED. Methods: This qualitative study uses constructivist grounded theory to analyze patient values and opinions on PE testing in ED patients from two hospitals. Participants are screened by monitoring the ED patient tracker. If a patient is being tested for PE, they are approached and consented by a researcher to take part in a 30-minute semi-structured interview. Each interview is transcribed verbatim and independently analyzed by four researchers using constant comparative coding. The researchers meet weekly to compare codes and agree on common coding terms. The codes are grouped into themes, and the interview script is modified to maximize information on emerging themes. From this, major themes with associated subthemes will be derived, each representing an opportunity, barrier or value which must be addressed in our new patient education tools. We have performed 23 interviews and expect to reach theme saturation at 30 interviews. Full results will be available by the 2019 CAEP conference. Results: From the patient interviews conducted so far, we have mapped four major themes: patient satisfaction comes from addressing their primary concern (for example, their pain); patients expect individualized care; patients prefer imaging over clinical examination when testing for PE; and patients expect 100% confidence from their ED physician when given a diagnosis. Conclusion: These four domains will be used to create a new patient-centered approach to PE testing in the ED which will include physician education, patient information and organizational changes to patient processing. This study incorporates evidence-based medicine with ethical and social implications to improve patient outcomes.
It is known that in the radio spertrum the limb of the quiet sun is brighter in the equatorial regions than near the pole. But most of the available theoretical calculations of the brightness distribution over the quiet sun have been made with the assumption of spherical symmetry. We have therefore calculated two-dimensional distributions at several decimetre and metre wavelengths, taking account of the observed asymmetry in the north-south direction. Newkirk’s method of ray-tracing was used, the calculations being made with a CDC 3600 computer. Some of the preliminary results (particularly for a sunspot minimum period) are presented here; they indicate that the electron temperature of the solar corona has a value of about 1 to 1.5 x 106 °K.
The nonlinear properties of the ion acoustic waves (IAWs) in a three-component quantum plasma comprising electrons, and positive and negative ions are investigated analytically and numerically by employing the quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model. The Sagdeev pseudopotential technique is applied to obtain the small-amplitude soliton solution. The effects of the quantum parameter
, positive to negative ion density ratio
and Mach number on the nonlinear structures are investigated. It is found that these factors can significantly modify the properties of the IAWs. The existence of quasi-periodic and chaotic oscillations in the system is established. Switching from quasi-periodic to chaotic is possible with the variation of Mach number or quantum parameter
Epistasis is an important feature of the genetic architecture of quantitative traits, but the dynamics of epistatic interactions in natural populations and the relationship between epistasis and pleiotropy remain poorly understood. Here, we studied the effects of epistatic modifiers that segregate in a wild-derived Drosophila melanogaster population on the mutational effects of P-element insertions in Semaphorin-5C (Sema-5c) and Calreticulin (Crc), pleiotropic genes that affect olfactory behaviour and startle behaviour and, in the case of Crc, sleep phenotypes. We introduced Canton-S B (CSB) third chromosomes with or without a P-element insertion at the Crc or Sema-5c locus in multiple wild-derived inbred lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) and assessed the effects of epistasis on the olfactory response to benzaldehyde and, for Crc, also on sleep. In each case, we found substantial epistasis and significant variation in the magnitude of epistasis. The predominant direction of epistatic effects was to suppress the mutant phenotype. These observations support a previous study on startle behaviour using the same D. melanogaster chromosome substitution lines, which concluded that suppressing epistasis may buffer the effects of new mutations. However, epistatic effects are not correlated among the different phenotypes. Thus, suppressing epistasis appears to be a pervasive general feature of natural populations to protect against the effects of new mutations, but different epistatic interactions modulate different phenotypes affected by mutations at the same pleiotropic gene.
The IAU Working Group on Historical Radio Astronomy (WGHRA) was formed at the 2003 General Assembly of the IAU as a Joint Working Group of Commissions 40 (Radio Astronomy) and 41 (History of Astronomy), in order to: a) assemble a master list of surviving historically-significant radio telescopes and associated instrumentation found worldwide; b) document the technical specifications and scientific achievements of these instruments; c) maintain an on-going bibliography of publications on the history of radio astronomy; and d) monitor other developments relating to the history of radio astronomy (including the deaths of pioneering radio astronomers).
During the Rio General Assembly we held the following meetings of the Working Group: a Business Meeting, a Science Meeting on “The Development of Aperture Synthesis Imaging in Radio Astronomy”, and a Science Meeting on “Recent Research”.
The Working Group was formed at the IAU XXV General Assembly in Sydney, 2003, as a joint initiative of Commissions 40 Radio Astronomy and Commission 41 History of Astronomy, in order to assemble a master list of surviving historically-significant radio telescopes and associated instrumentation found worldwide, and document the technical specifications and scientific achievements of these instruments. In addition, it would maintain an on-going bibliography of publications on the history of radio astronomy, and monitor other developments relating to the history of radio astronomy (including the deaths of pioneering radio astronomers).
Gyps vulture populations across the Indian subcontinent collapsed in the 1990s and continue to decline. Repeated population surveys showed that the rate of decline was so rapid that elevated mortality of adult birds must be a key demographic mechanism. Post mortem examination showed that the majority of dead vultures had visceral gout, due to kidney damage. The realisation that diclofenac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug potentially nephrotoxic to birds, had become a widely used veterinary medicine led to the identification of diclofenac poisoning as the cause of the decline. Surveys of diclofenac contamination of domestic ungulate carcasses, combined with vulture population modelling, show that the level of contamination is sufficient for it to be the sole cause of the decline. Testing on vultures of meloxicam, an alternative NSAID for livestock treatment, showed that it did not harm them at concentrations likely to be encountered by wild birds and would be a safe replacement for diclofenac. The manufacture of diclofenac for veterinary use has been banned, but its sale has not. Consequently, it may be some years before diclofenac is removed from the vultures' food supply. In the meantime, captive populations of three vulture species have been established to provide sources of birds for future reintroduction programmes.
The effect of 27 years of continuous cropping, fertilization and manuring on potassium (K) supplying capacity of a Typic Ustochrept soil profile from Delhi, India under a maize–wheat–cowpea (fodder) cropping system was investigated by employing the quantity/intensity (Q/I) approach. The predominant mineral suite of the <2 μm clay fraction was illite. The values of equilibrium activity ratio of K in solution in equilibrium with the soil (ARKE), labile pools of K (KL), immediately available K (ΔK0), K available with difficulty (KX) and water soluble+exchangeable K (1 M NH4OAc K) in different soil layers (0 to 105 cm) under different treatments were in the following order: 100% nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK)+farmyard manure (FYM) > 100% NPK > control (no fertilizer) > 100% N >100% NP. The ARKE value, a measure of availability or intensity of labile K in soil decreased with profile depth due to greater K fixation by specific sites in the lower layers. The quantity of specifically sorbed K (KX) and the potential buffering capacity of soil (PBCK) showed a increasing trend with soil depth. In soil without K fertilizer treatments (control, 100% N and 100% NP) about 100% of the total K uptake by crops was from non-exchangeable soil K reserve as compared to 49·5 and 32·2% when annually 84 kg K/ha and 84 kg K/ha+FYM at the rate of 15 t/ha were applied. The results showed the greatest depletion of non-exchangeable K reserves in the plots which did not receive K fertilization. To ensure sustained crop production under intensive cropping, application of recommended dose of NPK plus FYM is required.
Due to the very weak nature of signals from cosmic radio sources, the sensitivity of a radio telescope and receiver is about 40–60 dB higher than those of communications receivers. Hence, radio telescopes are generally located in relatively radio-quiet locations and operate in frequency bands that are protected against radio interference through frequency planning by national governments. Taking advantage of the much lower degree of radio interference in developing countries and the relatively labour-intensive nature of metre-wave radio telescopes, several such radio telescopes have been built and are planned in Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Mauritius and South Africa. Radio telescopes operating at cm-wavelengths are also planned in Egypt and Mexico.
A particularly severe problem arises for the radio astronomy service and other passive services below 2 GHz from the possibility of unacceptable emissions from satellites in unwanted bands (out-of-band and spurious emissions), due to the specific modulation schemes used in satellite transmitters. It is noted that this can be circumvented within the existing technologies if the satellite transmitters employ suitable bit-shaping or filtering techniques or use modulation schemes like Gaussian-filtered Minimum-Shift Keying (GMSK) which produce very little out-of-band emission. Although radio astronomy started in the western world at low frequencies, much low frequency radio astronomy is now planned or operational in developing countries. In order to protect the interests of these and other passive services within developing nations, it is important that suitable regulations be recommended to UNISPACE-III to provide appropriate protection.
The idea for a Working Group (WG) on “Future Large Scale Facilities in Astronomy” grew from the Joint Discussion on this topic held on 20 August 1994, during the IAU General Assembly in The Hague. The IAU Executive Committee approved its formation in August, 1995, and Harvey Butcher was chair until the XXIIIrd General Assembly in Kyoto in 1997.
A field experiment was conducted at the experimental farm of the Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal, India during 1992/93 to evaluate the effects of rates and methods of manganese application on the yield and nutrition of wheat on a reclaimed and intensively cropped Mn-deficient sodic soil (pH = 8·7, exchangeable sodium percentage = 18 and DTPA-extractable Mn = 2·7 mg kg-1). There were eight treatments which consisted of a control (no Mn application), three rates of 25, 50 and 100 kg MnSO4. H2O ha-1 each either as a basal or a top-dressing at first irrigation or a foliar spray of 1·0% MnSO4.H2O at crown root initiation (CRI), tillering and jointing stages. Grain and straw yield of wheat increased significantly with increasing rates of Mn application. A foliar spray of Mn produced a significantly higher yield than 25 and 50 kg MnSO4. H2O ha-1 applied either as a basal or a top-dressing but similar to that from 100 kg MnSO4.H2O ha-1. Efficiency of Mn was higher with a foliar spray (82·6 kg grain kg-1 Mn) than with soil application (4·4–6·4 kg grain kg-1 Mn). Application of Mn increased its concentration in the crop but decreased Fe and Cu crop concentrations. Grain yield had a significant positive correlation with the Mn content of the grain (r = 0·72) and straw (r = 0·78). Grain yield was positively correlated with 1000-grain weight (r = 0·90). Recovery of applied Mn ranged from 28·1 to 33·0%.
In a field experiment with transplanted rice (Oryza sativa L.) during the wet season of 1990 at the Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal, India, the effects of four rates of N application (0, 80, 120 and 160 kg N/ha), two methods of urea application (before puddling, M,, and after puddling, M2) and two presubmergence periods (none, S0, and 1 week, S1,) were evaluated on ammonia volatilization losses in a sodic soil (pH 9·0, exchangeable sodium 29%). Cumulative ammonia volatilization losses were 1·43, 18·00, 22·54 and 28·29 kg/ha following applications of 0, 80, 120 and 160 kg N/a respectively; 17·08 and 18·01 kg/ha for treatments M1, and M2 respectively; and 18·63 and 16·34 kg/ha for treatments S0 and S1 respectively. Flood-water NH4+ and pH increased during days 1–4 and then there was a sharp decline on days 4–9, followed by a gradual decline. The highest flood-water NH4+ and pH values were found for the treatments which received urea at the rate of 160 kg N/ha, after puddling (M2) and with no presubmergence period (S0).