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The propagation of dust-acoustic (DA) shock waves (SWs) is studied in a four-component dusty plasma system containing viscous dust fluids of opposite polarity, Schamel distributed ions and Boltzmann distributed electrons. The reductive perturbation method is employed to derive a modified Burgers equation which gives rise to the DA shock waves with stronger nonlinearity. The viscous force acting in the dust fluids is identified as a source of dissipation, and is responsible for the formation of the DA shock waves. The basic characteristics (viz., speed, amplitude, width) of the DA shock waves are found to be significantly modified by the combined effects of opposite polarity dust fluids and trapped ions. The applications of this investigation in different space plasma environments and laboratory devices are pinpointed.
Many patients with advanced serious illness or at the end of life experience delirium, a potentially reversible form of acute brain dysfunction, which may impair ability to participate in medical decision-making and to engage with their loved ones. Screening for delirium provides an opportunity to address modifiable causes. Unfortunately, delirium remains underrecognized. The main objective of this pilot was to validate the brief Confusion Assessment Method (bCAM), a two-minute delirium-screening tool, in a veteran palliative care sample.
This was a pilot prospective, observational study that included hospitalized patients evaluated by the palliative care service at a single Veterans’ Administration Medical Center. The bCAM was compared against the reference standard, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition. Both assessments were blinded and conducted within 30 minutes of each other.
We enrolled 36 patients who were a median of 67 years (interquartile range 63–73). The primary reasons for admission to the hospital were sepsis or severe infection (33%), severe cardiac disease (including heart failure, cardiogenic shock, and myocardial infarction) (17%), or gastrointestinal/liver disease (17%). The bCAM performed well against the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, for detecting delirium, with a sensitivity (95% confidence interval) of 0.80 (0.4, 0.96) and specificity of 0.87 (0.67, 0.96).
Significance of Results
Delirium was present in 27% of patients enrolled and never recognized by the palliative care service in routine clinical care. The bCAM provided good sensitivity and specificity in a pilot of palliative care patients, providing a method for nonpsychiatrically trained personnel to detect delirium.
This study explores how learning English among one subset of English learners, Asian female international students at US colleges, contributes to the larger project of advancing gender equality. Using their narratives, we ask why Asian female international students invest so much of their identities and effort into learning English. We discuss the ways in which their endeavours may even silently promote the development of English as a gender-neutral language. The population of Asian students offers a compelling case of how the English language is potentially transformed via its spread to this English learner population and how it presents new avenues for identity formation for the growing number of female English users worldwide (cf. Brutt-Griffler, 2010: 232).
The purpose of this study was to clarify the association between hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) epidemics and meteorological conditions. We used HFMD surveillance data of all 47 prefectures in Japan from January 2000 to December 2015. Spectral analysis was performed using the maximum entropy method (MEM) for temperature-, relative humidity-, and total rainfall-dependent incidence data. Using MEM-estimated periods, long-term oscillatory trends were calculated using the least squares fitting (LSF) method. The temperature and relative humidity thresholds of HFMD data were estimated from the LSF curves. The average temperature data indicated a lower threshold at 12 °C and a higher threshold at 30 °C for risk of HFMD infection. Maximum and minimum temperature data indicated a lower threshold at 6 °C and a higher threshold at 35 °C, suggesting a need for HFMD control measures at temperatures between 6 and 35 °C. Based on our findings, we recommend the use of maximum and minimum temperatures rather than the average temperature, to estimate the temperature threshold of HFMD infections. The results obtained might aid in the prediction of epidemics and preparation for the effect of climatic changes on HFMD epidemiology.
In this paper, we consider diffeomorphisms on a closed manifold
preserving a hyperbolic Sinaĭ–Ruelle–Bowen probability measure
having intersections for almost every pair of stable and unstable manifolds. In this context, we show the ergodicity of
when the dimension of
is at most three. If
is smooth, then it is ergodic when the dimension of
is at most four. As a byproduct of our arguments, we obtain sufficient (topological) conditions which guarantee that there exists at most one hyperbolic ergodic Sinaĭ–Ruelle–Bowen probability measure. Even in higher dimensional cases, we show that every transitive topological Anosov diffeomorphism admits at most one hyperbolic Sinaĭ–Ruelle–Bowen probability measure.
Dengue fever (DF) and leptospirosis are serious public problems in tropical regions, especially in Manila, the Philippines. In attempting to understand the causes of DF and leptospirosis seasonality, meteorological factors have been suspected, but quantitative correlation between seasonality and meteorological factors has not been fully investigated. In this study, we investigated correlation of temporal patterns of reported numbers of laboratory-confirmed cases of both DF and leptospirosis with meteorological conditions (temperature, relative humidity, rainfall) in Manila. We used time-series analysis combined with spectral analysis and the least squares method. A 1-year cycle explained underlying variations of DF, leptospirosis and meteorological data. There was a peak of the 1-year cycle in temperature during May, followed by maxima in rainfall, relative humidity and number of laboratory-confirmed DF and leptospirosis cases. This result suggests that DF and leptospirosis epidemics are correlated not only with rainfall but also relative humidity and temperature in the Philippines. Quantifying the correlation of DF and leptospirosis infections with meteorological conditions may prove useful in predicting DF and leptospirosis epidemics, and health services should plan accordingly.
We investigated the seasonality of age-specific tuberculosis (TB) in Japan. To allow the development of TB control strategies for different age groups we used a time-series analysis, including a spectral analysis and least squares method, to analyse the monthly age-specific numbers of newly registered cases of all forms of active TB in Japan from January 1998 to December 2013. The time-series data are reported in 10-year age groups: 0–9, 10–19, …, 70–79, and ⩾80 years. We defined the contribution ratio of the 1-year cycle, Q1, as the contribution of the amplitude of a 1-year cycle to the whole amplitude of the time-series data. The Q1 values in the age groups corresponding to adolescence and middle life (10–39 years) and old age (⩾70 years) were high. The peaks in the active TB epidemics for the ⩾70 years age group occurred in August and September, 1–2 months behind the peaks for the 10–39 years age group (June and July). An active TB epidemic might be attributable to travel by public transport and irregular employment in the 10–39 years age group and immune system suppression by low winter temperatures in the ⩾70 years age group.
Shear bond strength (SBS) and the interfacial adaptation (IA) of self-adhesive resin (SAR) composites to dentin were evaluated. Two SARs [Vertise Flow (VTF) and Fusio Liquid Dentin (FLD)] were evaluated and compared with a conventional restorative system [adhesive: OptiBond FL and composite: Herculite Précis (OBF/HP)]. Human third molars were used for SBS testing and IA imaging (n=7) using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Flattened dentin disks were prepared and the composites were applied into molds (2.4 mm diameter) that were positioned on dentin. Samples were subjected to SBS testing and OCT analysis, which considered an increase in signal intensity at the bonded interface as evidence of internal gaps. SBS data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s test and IA data (% distribution of high brightness values) by Kruskal–Wallis and Dunn’s test (p≤0.05). No statistically significant difference in SBS was observed between VTF (13.9±3.6 MPa) and FLD (11.3±3.2 MPa), whereas OBF/HP showed higher average strength (27.3±6.1 MPa). However, there was a statistically significant difference in IA when VTF (33.3%) was compared with FLD (1.2%) and OBF/HP (1.5%). The conventional restorative system exhibited superior SBS performance compared with SARs. However, the IA of FLD to dentin had values that were not significantly different from OBF/HP.
In this paper we consider diffeomorphisms preserving hyperbolic Sinaĭ–Ruelle–Bowen (SRB) probability measures
having intersections for almost every pair of the stable and unstable manifolds. In this context, when the dimension of the unstable manifold is constant almost everywhere, we show the ergodicity of
. As an application we obtain another proof of the ergodicity of a hyperbolic SRB measure for transitive surface diffeomorphisms, which is shown by Rodriguez Hertz, Rodriguez Hertz, Tahzibi and Ures [Uniqueness of SRB measures for transitive diffeomorphisms on surfaces. Comm. Math. Phys.306(1) (2011), 35–49].
Annual periodicities of reported chickenpox cases have been observed in several countries. Of these, Japan has reported a two-peaked, bimodal annual cycle of reported chickenpox cases. This study investigated the possible underlying association of the bimodal cycle observed in the surveillance data of reported chickenpox cases with the meteorological factors of temperature, relative humidity and rainfall. A time-series analysis consisting of the maximum entropy method spectral analysis and the least squares method was applied to the chickenpox data and meteorological data of 47 prefectures in Japan. In all of the power spectral densities for the 47 prefectures, the spectral lines were observed at the frequency positions corresponding to the 1-year and 6-month cycles. The optimum least squares fitting (LSF) curves calculated with the 1-year and 6-month cycles explained the underlying variation of the chickenpox data. The LSF curves reproduced the bimodal and unimodal cycles that were clearly observed in northern and southern Japan, respectively. The data suggest that the second peaks in the bimodal cycles in the reported chickenpox cases in Japan occurred at a temperature of approximately 8·5 °C.
The catastrophic Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011 created a crisis in a university-affiliated hospital by disrupting the water supply for 10 days. In response, this study was conducted to analyze water use and prioritize water consumption in each department of the hospital by applying a business impact analysis (BIA). Identifying the minimum amount of water necessary for continuing operations during a disaster was an additional goal.
Water is essential for many hospital operations and disaster-ready policies must be in place for the safety and continued care of patients.
A team of doctors, nurses, and office workers in the hospital devised a BIA questionnaire to examine all operations using water. The questionnaire included department name, operation name, suggested substitutes for water, and the estimated daily amount of water consumption. Operations were placed in one of three ranks (S, A, or B) depending on the impact on patients and the need for operational continuity. Recovery time objective (RTO), which is equivalent to the maximum tolerable period of disruption, was determined. Furthermore, the actual use of water and the efficiency of substitute methods, practiced during the water-disrupted periods, were verified in each operation.
There were 24 activities using water in eight departments, and the estimated water consumption in the hospital was 326 (SD = 17) m3 per day: 64 (SD = 3) m3 for S (20%), 167 (SD = 8) m3 for A (51%), and 95 (SD = 5) m3 for B operations (29%). During the disruption, the hospital had about 520 m3 of available water. When the RTO was set to four days, the amount of water available would have been 130 m3 per day. During the crisis, 81% of the substitute methods were used for the S and A operations.
This is the first study to identify and prioritize hospital operations necessary for the efficient continuation of medical treatment during suspension of the water supply by applying a BIA. Understanding the priority of operations and the minimum daily water requirement for each operation is important for a hospital in the event of an unexpected adverse situation, such as a major disaster.
Electrochemical ceramic cells such as solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are typically operated at 700–800°C in order to realize practical performances that, in turn, result in higher efficiencies compared to that of other types of electrochemical cells. High-temperature operation, on the other hand, leads to increased system cost and limits application. Thus, lowering the operating temperature is expected to solve such problems. This article shows the effectiveness of redesigning the cell structure for reduction of the operating temperature to 650°C or lower using conventional SOFC materials. A microtubular cell design is found to be one means of lowering the operating temperature of SOFCs. Such developments in fabrication technology are key to realizing high-performance cells with a thin electrolyte and controlled electrode microstructures.
We investigated the seasonality of tuberculosis (TB) in Wuhan, China, to evaluate the increased risk of disease transmission during each season and to develop an effective TB control strategy. We applied spectral analysis to the weekly prevalence data of sputum smear positive (SSP) and sputum smear negative (SSN) pulmonary TB reported from 2006 to 2010. Cases of both SSP and SSN feature 1·0- and 0·5-year periodic modes. The least squares method was used to fit curves to the two periodic modes for SSP and SSN data. The curves demonstrated dominant peaks in spring similar to cases reported previously for other locations. Notably for SSP, dominant peaks were also observed in summer. The spring peaks of SSP and SSN were explained in terms of poorly ventilated and humid rooms and vitamin D deficiency. For the summer peaks of SSP, summer influenza epidemics in Wuhan may contribute to the increase in TB prevalence.
Although intersectionality analysis originates in a critique of legal doctrine and its confining approach to subject formation, intersectionality has been adopted widely outside of legal scholarship—nationally and internationally—to explain how fields of power operate and interact to produce hierarchy for any limitless combination of identities. Yet, within law, some scholars have raised questions precisely about the capacity of intersectionality to grapple with subjects who occupy multiple social positions and those with “partially privileged” identities in particular. Thus, over roughly a decade, a critique took shape about the theoretical capacity and normative commitment of intersectionality theory to address particular subgroups.
This essay tells part of the curious story about how a race-sexuality critique of intersectionality emerged, what may have motivated it, and how it has facilitated an emerging progressive masculinities literature that is “post-intersectional,” i.e., positioned over and against intersectionality. Like other post-intersectionality approaches, multidimensionality theorists decidedly seek to ‘get beyond’ something, and that ‘something’ that underwrites the turn away from intersectionality appears not as substantive theoretical or analytical content, or as political strategy, but rather, as identity-driven and engendered.
There are faint contaminants near primary stars in the direct imaging of exoplanets. Our goal is to estimate statistically the ratio of exoplanets in the detected batch of point sources by calculating the fraction of contamination. In this study, we compared the detected number of stars with the number of contaminants predicted by our model. We found that the observed number of faint stars were fewer than the predicted results towards the Pleiades and GOODS-South field when the parameters of the conventional stellar distribution models were employed. We thus estimated new model parameters in correspondence to the results of the observations.
Large-area fast lithium ion conducting ceramic thin freestanding sheets was successfully prepared using a sheet forming technique. This ceramic sheet contains the crystalline phase of Li1+x+yAlxTi2-xSiyP3-yO12 with the NASICON type structure. The ceramic sheet showed maximum overall conductivity over 10−3 S cm−1 at room temperature. And, the developed thin ceramic sheet has sufficient flexibility against bending stress. Because a thin large-area ceramic electrolyte sheet was prepared using less energy compared with a conventional glass casting method, it is suitable for practical use.
For any finite group G, we impose an algebraic condition, the Gnil-coset condition, and prove that any finite Oliver group G satisfying the Gnil-coset condition has a smooth action on some sphere with isolated fixed points at which the tangent G-modules are not isomorphic to each other. Moreover, we prove that, for any finite non-solvable group G not isomorphic to Aut(A6) or PΣL(2, 27), the Gnil-coset condition holds if and only if rG ≥ 2, where rG is the number of real conjugacy classes of elements of G not of prime power order. As a conclusion, the Laitinen Conjecture holds for any finite non-solvable group not isomorphic to Aut(A6).
Rotavirus is a common viral cause of severe diarrhoea. For the underlying cause of rotavirus seasonality, the meteorological factor has been suspected, whereas quantitative correlation between seasonality and meteorological factor has not been fully investigated. In this study, we investigated the correlation of temporal patterns of the isolation rate of rotavirus with meteorological condition (temperature, relative humidity, rainfall) in Kolkata, India. We used time-series analysis combined with spectral analysis and least squares method. A 1-year cycle explained underlying variations of rotavirus and meteorological data. The 1-year cycle for rotavirus data was correlated with an opposite phase to that for meteorological data. Relatively high temperature could be associated with a low value of isolation rate of rotavirus in the monsoon season. Quantifying a correlation of rotavirus infections with meteorological conditions might prove useful in predicting rotavirus epidemics and health services could plan accordingly.