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We evaluate the claim that bottle size formats signal quality changes by performing a controlled laboratory experiment in which we simultaneously auction two different sweet wines: a pomegranate wine and a grape wine. We vary the size of the bottle from 500 mL to 750 mL between participants, but we keep the amount of wine constant across the bottle sizes. We also explore the effect of expectations for the wines, blind tasting, and information about wine attributes on people's willingness to pay (WTP). For both wines, we find evidence consistent with diminishing marginal utility; for the pomegranate wine, we find a premium for the smaller bottle size, which is consistent with changes in the wine's perceived quality. We also find that information is adequate in offsetting the negative effect of the tasting treatment. (JEL Classifications: C23, C24, C91, D12, M31)
Loneliness and social isolation are recognised, conceptually distinct threats to health and wellbeing in older age but limited evidence is available on their predictors in rural populations. This study performed logistical regression modelling to explore the predictors of loneliness, isolation from one's family and isolation from one's community in 884 British rural-living older adults (57.9% female; mean age = 71.5, standard deviation = 8.1 years) within the Grey and Pleasant Land data-set. While 13 per cent of participants reported feeling lonely, 49 per cent reported isolation from their family and 9 per cent reported isolation from their community. Minimal cross-over between groups was observed. Widowhood, financial difficulties, area deprivation, and self-reported impairments in physical and mental health predicted loneliness. Greater financial difficulty gave lower odds of isolation from one's family, and higher levels of community engagement gave lower odds of isolation from the community. Ageing in place (longer residency) was the only common predictor for all three dependent variables. Initiatives aimed at tackling loneliness and social isolation in rural-living older people must recognise that the two concepts are distinct, affecting different population sub-groups with mostly different risk factor profiles. Future interventions and policies should clearly identify whether their target is loneliness or social isolation and tailor their interventions appropriately.
This article attempts to enhance the interpretation of Μυθιστόρημα 6 by exploiting more fully the wide range of verse, music and extra-textual data that can be connected with it. This entails a reassessment of several aspects of the poem, including the role of Maurice Ravel, the identity of the garden with the fountains, the connotations of the dark glass, and the significance of the rain. The poem emerges as a demonstration of the fragility of human culture which sets the contest of competing Hellenisms underlying Μυθιστόρημα in a sobering context.
The wretched underworld… does not fail to have its songs and these are — for Greece — the rebetika.
Rebetis doesn’t mean underworld, nor is the rebetiko its song.
Contradictory statements such as the above are characteristic of the controversy which has surrounded the song tradition loosely called ‘rebetiko’, since it first became a cultural thème du jour in Greece in the late 1940s.
With their insalubrious social connotations, low-brow content and Ottoman musical features, rebetika songs appear unlikely candidates for connection with the revered culture of ancient Greece. Yet this seemingly sacrilegious nexus has repeatedly been contrived by exponents of the genre and by commentators, unlettered and educated alike. It has also exercised the ingenuity of literati, translators, stage directors and graphic artists. The examples surveyed in this article, whether earnest or whimsical, plausible or manifestly deluded, reflect both evolving perceptions of the genre and broader issues of Greek cultural politics. They further exemplify informal mechanisms for disseminating antiquarian knowledge – and misinformation.
I take advantage of political and geographic variation to explore the underlying dynamics of rebel governance during the Greek Civil War. Two key findings emerge from this analysis. First, the political identity of rebel groups appears to have had a clear impact on the form of governance implemented. Communist rebels set up expansive institutions of rule that stressed mass mobilization and were heavily bureaucratized. In contrast, non-communist rebels relied instead on traditional local structures. Whereas communist rebels sought to incorporate local groups and communities into a centralized system, non-communist rebels were content to just collaborate with them. Second, when holding the type of rebel group constant, I find that the temporal and spatial variation in levels of territorial control affected both the depth and character of rebel governance. The more extensive the geographical scope of control exercised by a rebel group, the fuller the expression of its political identity on the institutions of rebel rule. Conversely, limited and tenuous territorial control correlates with more openly coercive practices.
Surface modified L@SiO2 particles bearing covalently attached functional groups (L) have been tested as co-catalysts for H2 production from Formic Acid (FA) by the homogenous FeII/P(CH2CH2PPh2)3 catalyst. The L@SiO2 particles induce remarkable increase of catalytic H2 production i.e. by 710 %, when L=a basic functionality such as Imidazoles, or NH2-groups. This effect is attributed to a thermodynamic promotion of FA deprotonation facilitating coordination of HCOO- anion on the FeII atom of active catalyst during catalysis.
In order to investigate for possible differences between paediatric and adult invasive Streptococcus pyogenes (iGAS) infections, a total of 142 cases were identified in 17 Greek hospitals during 2003–2007, of which 96 were children and 46 adults. Bacteraemia, soft tissue infections, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS), and necrotizing fasciitis were the main clinical presentations (67·6%, 45·1%, 13·4%, and 12·0% of cases, respectively). Bacteraemia and lymphadenitis were significantly more frequent in children (P = 0·019 and 0·021, respectively), whereas STSS was more frequent in adults (P = 0·017). The main predisposing factors in children were varicella and streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis (25% and 19·8%, respectively), as opposed to malignancy, intravenous drug abuse and diabetes mellitus in adults (19·6%, 15·2% and 10·9%, respectively). Of the two dominant emm-types, 1 and 12 (28·2% and 8·5%, respectively), the proportion of emm-type 12 remained stable during the study period, whereas emm-type 1 rates fluctuated considerably. Strains of emm-type 1 from children were associated with erythromycin susceptibility, STSS and intensive-care-unit admission, whereas emm-type 12 isolates from adults were associated with erythromycin and clindamycin resistance. Finally, specific emm-types were detected exclusively in adults or in children. In conclusion, several clinical and epidemiological differences were detected, that could prove useful in designing age-focused strategies for prevention and treatment of iGAS infections.
This chapter distinguishes three sorts of ideas that play a role in visually guiding action. It argues that vision directly gives awareness concerning certain objects. Austen Clark has constructed a theory in which the content of visual experience consists of visual features attributed to places in a three-dimensional visual field. Clark' s visual features include colour, luminance, relative motion, size, texture, flicker and line orientation. Visual states are about individual things, and this creates a puzzle. Snowdon proposes that when one visually perceives something, he/she is thereby capable of making a demonstrative judgement about it. Neither recollection nor imaging is capable of guiding bodily motion. Snowdon endorses a view known as disjunctivism on the basis of his view about demonstratives. The chapter argues that on-line visual states assign seen objects egocentric locations. It is by means of these location assignments that perceivers act on these objects quickly and accurately.
This paper is concerned with the blowup of positive solutions of the semilinear heat equation
with zero boundary conditions. The domain Ω is supposed to be smooth, convex and bounded. We first show that, under the assumption that the initial data are uniformly monotone near the boundary, solutions that exist on the time interval (0, T form a compact family in a suitable topology. We then derive some localisation properties of these solutions. In particular, we discuss a general criterion, independent of the initial data, which in some cases ensures single-point blowup.
To investigate the food shopping habits of older adults in the UK and explore their potential associations with selected health-related indicators.
A cross-sectional study including objectively measured physical activity levels, BMI, physical function and self-reported health status and dietary intake.
A total of 240 older adults aged ≥70 years living independently.
Mean age was 78·1 (sd 5·7) years; 66·7 % were overweight or obese and 4 % were underweight. Most (80·0 %) carried out their own food shopping; 53·3 % shopped at least once weekly. Women were more likely to shop alone (P < 0·001) and men more likely to shop with their spouse (P < 0·001). Men were more likely than women to drive to food shopping (P < 0·001), with women more likely to take the bus or be driven (P < 0·001). Most reported ease in purchasing fruit and vegetables (72·9 %) and low-fat products (67·5 %); 19·2 % reported low fibre intakes and 16·2 % reported high fat intakes. Higher levels of physical function and physical activity and better general health were significantly correlated with the ease of purchasing fresh fruit, vegetables and low-fat products. Shopping more often was associated with higher fat intake (P = 0·03); higher levels of deprivation were associated with lower fibre intake (P = 0·019).
These findings suggest a pattern of food shopping carried out primarily by car at least once weekly at large supermarket chains, with most finding high-quality fruit, vegetables and low-fat products easily accessible. Higher levels of physical function and physical activity and better self-reported health are important in supporting food shopping and maintaining independence.
Several paramagnetic defects are created by exposure of amorphous SiO2 to sub-band-gap light. The spectra of the dominant centers can be isolated by using their annealing, microwave power, and excitation-photonenergy dependence. The results are discussed in terms of specific models for the intrinsic defects in a-SiO2.
The luminescent characteristics of porous silicon are affected by the preparation conditions as well as subsequent treatment. Oxidation, which easily occurs in ambient conditions under illumination, greatly reduces the luminescence efficiency. Vertical inhomogeneity, which is inherent from the preparation procedure, can complicate interpretation of results, especially following treatments which non-uniformly affect the porous material. These results point out the need to pay careful attention to the sample's structure and history, as well as the necessity of controlling this degradation in order to realize practical luminescent devices.
Defects in thermal oxides were investigated by a photoluminescence technique. Thermal oxides with a thickness of 100 nm grown either by dry or wet oxidation were studied. A broad PL band at 2-4 eV was observed for both dry and wet oxides. Effects of annealing under vacuum or in atmospheres of Ar or N2 on the PL were also examined. The PL intensity was enhanced for the case of wet oxide by vacuum annealing at 700 °C. High-temperature anneal above 750 °C without O2 further generated PL centers for both dry and wet oxides. The formation mechanism of the PL centers will be discussed in terms of the decomposition of oxide at Si/SiO2 interface.