To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Car crash simulation analysis is an important phase within the vehicle development. It intends to analyse the crashworthiness of the vehicle model and examine the level of passive security. However, this activity is not trivial because of the considerable collaboration within the project, the large amount of analysed and exchanged data and a high exigency. Consequently, a solution to assist, ease and reduce the time of the process is desired.
To study the current practices followed in the car crash simulation analysis an empirical study has been conducted. This study has been applied within the simulation analysis team, in the development phase, within an automotive company. This paper describes a qualitative analysis of the industrial context and diagnoses the dysfunctions in the current practices. This paper also highlights the current challenges encountered in the car crash simulation analysis.
Construction projects are complex and subject to a lot of conflicts. The misunderstanding between actors is one cause of these conflicts. To understand actor's interrelation is fundamental.
In this paper, we used FAcT Miror method to analyse the relation between the two main actors, Owner and Contractor. Based on the method we built a survey about Fears, Attractiveness and Temptations of treason of each actor, The Miror effect of the method allows us to evaluate what is the thought of an actor about the other and to measure differences between actors' thought on a specific aspect of the relation. Our results allow us to have a better understanding of the relation between Owners and Contractors on a construction project. Moreover, we point out specific aspects of the relation which need to be studied to improve the understanding.
Disaster response demands a large workforce covering diverse professional sectors. Throughout this article, we illustrate the results of a systematic review of peer-reviewed studies to identify existing competency sets for disaster management and humanitarian assistance that would serve as guidance for the development of a common disaster curriculum. A systematic review of English-language articles was performed on PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, ERIC, and Cochrane Library. Studies were included if reporting competency domains, abilities, knowledge, skills, or attitudes for professionals involved disaster relief or humanitarian assistance. Exclusion criteria included abstracts, citations, case studies, and studies not dealing with disasters or humanitarian assistance. Thirty-eight papers were analyzed. Target audience was defined in all articles. Five references (13%) reported cross-sectorial competencies. Most of the articles (81.6%) were specific to health care. Eighteen (47%) papers included competencies for at least 2 different disciplines and 18 (47%) for different professional groups. Nursing was the most widely represented cadre. Eighteen papers (47%) defined competency domains and 36 (94%) reported list of competencies. Nineteen articles (50%) adopted consensus-building to define competencies, and 12 (31%) included competencies adapted to different professional responsibility levels. This systematic review revealed that the largest number of papers were mainly focused on the health care sector and presented a lack of agreement on the terminology used for competency-based definition. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2015;9:430–439)
Le développement au cours des deniers années des interventions neurochirurgicales sous anesthésie locale, en particulier dans le champ neuro-oncologique, rend possible la question d’une éventuelle révocation per opératoire du consentement du patient à la procédure chirurgicale.
Les auteurs décrivent la révocation de son consentement par un patient au cours de l’exérèse chirurgicale d’un gliome de bas grade fronto-temporo-insulaire droit.
Les aspects spécifiques aux conditions de révocation du consentement dans le contexte particulier de la chirurgie sous anesthésie locale sont discutés. La possibilité d’un pacte d’Ulysse est proposée et discutée.
Les interventions chirurgicales en condition éveillée créent un contexte particulier en ce qu’une révocation du consentement per opératoire devient possible. Dans ces conditions, l’information préopératoire pourrait aussi aborder avec le malade la question de la conduite à tenir au cas où il serait amené à solliciter un retrait de consentement lors de son réveil per opératoire.
A new method is presented to evaluate the resistance to electromigration (EM) of on-chip interconnects. The method is based on high resolution in-situ electrical measurements. In this way, the electrical resistance is measured with high accuracy during electromigration at high temperature. After careful analysis of the isothermal results, it was found that the metallization can be characterized by one parameter: the rate of resistance change (RRC). It is shown that the RRC is very sensistive to the electromigration performance. The performance level of the different metallizations can easily be detected and can be qualified in a quantitative way. The results are also compared with classic Mean Time To Failure (MTTF) results and it is found that there exists an almost linear relationship between the RRC results and the MTTF results. However, the in-situ technique offers the benifit that a metallization can be characterized on a time scale as short as a few days, which is certainly not the case for the classical techniques.
The space-charge-limited current mode in the post-transit time-of-flight method was used to determine the density of states (DOS) in the band gap of a-Si:H. SCLC conditions result in an enhancement of the occupancy of deep states, leading consequently to an improved sensitivity. In comparison with the small signal case, the emission time of deep traps changes as a function of the time dependent occupancy of traps. The change in the emission time of traps is explained by consideration of the deep defect relaxation concept.
A model for the texture evolution of a growing film was developed, where the tendency for the lowest possible surface energy was taken as the driving force. Two main directions were considered in the orientation distribution of the columns. An initially isotropic distribution was found to evolve to a bimodal one and finally to a distribution with a sharp peak around the orientation with the smallest surface energy. For specific initial conditions the texture turns over from one orientation to the other one. The calculated textures showed a continuous sharpening around orientations with a local or absolute minimum in the surface energy. Various calculated phenomena concerning the texture evolution could be observed on PVD deposited TiN coatings.
A high resolution resistometric measurement technique (HRRMT) is used to study electromigration (EM) in different Al-based metal lines. Instead of using a bridge-method, the high resolution is now obtained by performing experiments in a very stable temperature environment. The main advantage of this technique is that resistance variations are measured, due to processes that occur in the tested metal line only. During EM, both resistivity and geometrical variations can occur, both resulting in a resistance change. A new method is proposed in order to separate these two contributions on-line during the whole EM-experiment. It is shown that even at low current stress, geometrical changes are the main cause for the EM-induced resistance increase.
The Belgian data for foodborne norovirus (NoV) outbreaks became available for the first time with the introduction of an extraction and detection protocol for NoV in the National Reference Laboratory for foodborne outbreaks in September 2006. In 2007, 10 NoV foodborne outbreaks were reported affecting 392 persons in Belgium. NoV became the most detected agent in foodborne outbreaks followed by Salmonella (eight foodborne outbreaks). The major implicated foods were sandwiches (4/10), where food handlers reported a history of gastroenteritis in two outbreaks. A food handler was implicated in the limited number of Belgian NoV outbreaks which is in accord with internationally recorded data. Forty foodborne and waterborne outbreak events due to NoV, epidemiological and/or laboratory confirmed, from 2000 to 2007 revealed that in 42·5% of the cases the food handler was responsible for the outbreak, followed by water (27·5%), bivalve shellfish (17·5%) and raspberries (10·0%).
Three stochastic processes, the birth, death and birth-death processes, subject to immigration can be decomposed into the sum of each process in the absence of immigration and anindependent process. We examine these independent processes through their probability generating functions (pgfs) and derive their expectations.
The trophic interactions between primary consumers and the organic matter sources in a man-made intertidal ecosystem were investigated. The most representative invertebrates that occupied the different habitat types tend to use similar food sources, namely benthic diatoms and suspended particulate or sedimentary organic matter, although they do so in different proportions. Fucus vesiculosus was abundant on the rocky substrate but this macroalga nor its epiphytes contributed importantly to the diet of the primary consumers inhabiting these assemblages. In contrast, benthic diatoms from the nearby mudflat were directly used as a food source because of their re-suspension in the water and transport by the tide to the artificial rocky shore. The results suggested that the trophic pathways in this intertidal environment were relatively simple.
The excretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) by an axenic culture of the benthic diatom Cylindrotheca closterium was investigated. Two sequential extraction steps proved to be sufficient to remove the bulk of the EPS present. Soluble EPS was recovered by a simple centrifugation step and represented a fraction that was not or was only loosely associated with diatom cells. For the extraction of bound EPS, different procedures were compared. The best results were obtained using distilled water as extraction solvent (1 h, 30 °C). The sugars that were recovered using this procedure were typically associated with aggregates of diatoms. In addition to the distinct differences in localization of the different types of EPS, their temporal dynamics differed in relation to the light–dark cycle. Soluble EPS were continuously released into the medium at a rate of 1·6 pg cell−1 day−1. In contrast, the production of bound EPS was highly light-dependent. In the dark, this bound EPS rapidly disappeared, probably as the result of its utilization by the diatoms.
The fretting wear of sulphur-deficient MoSx coatings with different crystallographic orientations has been investigated in ambient air of controlled relative humidity. The coefficient of friction and the wear rate of MoSx coatings sliding against corundum depend not only on fretting parameters like contact stress, fretting frequency, and relative humidity, but also strongly on the crystallographic orientation of the coatings. For randomly oriented MoSx coatings, the coefficient of friction and the wear rate increased significantly with increasing relative humidity. In contrast, basal-oriented MoSx coatings were less sensitive to relative humidity. The coefficient of friction of both types of MoSx coatings decreased on sliding against corundum with increasing contact stress and decreasing fretting frequency. A correlation between dissipated energy and wear volume is proposed. This approach allows detection in a simple way of differences in fretting wear resistance between random- and basal-oriented MoSx coatings tested in ambient air of different relative humidity.
N2 fixation, measured as acetylene reduction, was studied in laboratory cultures and in natural assemblages (both
as a mixed population and as individually picked colonies) of the heterocystous cyanobacteria Aphanizomenon sp.
and Nodularia spp. from the Baltic Sea. During a diurnal cycle of alternating light and darkness, these organisms
reduced acetylene predominantly during the period of illumination, although considerable activity was also
observed during the dark period. In both laboratory cultures and natural populations N2 fixation was saturated
below a photon flux density of 600 μm−2 s−1. In cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea, nitrogenase activity was
mostly confined to the surface layers. Samples collected from greater depths did not possess the same capacity for
acetylene reduction as samples from the surface itself, even when incubated at the photon flux density prevailing
in surface waters. This suggests that, with respect to N2 fixation, Baltic cyanobacteria are adapted to the intensity
of illumination that they are currently experiencing.
Four human soft palate muscles, and palatopharyngeus, the uvula, the levator and tensor veli palatini were
examined using enzyme-histochemical, immunohistochemical and biochemical methods and compared with
human limb and facial muscles. Our results showed that each palate muscle had a distinct morphological
identity and that they generally shared more similarities with facial than limb muscles. The
palatopharyngeus and uvula muscles contained 2 of the highest proportions of type II fibres ever reported
for human muscles. In contrast, the levator and tensor veli palatini muscles contained predominantly type I
fibres. A fetal myosin heavy chain isoform (MyHC), not usually found in normal adult limb muscles, was
present in a small number of fibres in all palate muscles. The mean muscle fibre diameter was smaller than
in limb muscles and the individual and intramuscular variability in diameter and shape was considerable. All
palate muscles had a high capillary density and an unusually high mitochondrial enzyme activity in the type
II fibres, in comparison with limb muscles. No ordinary muscle spindles were observed. The fibre type and
MyHC composition indicate that the palatopharyngeus and uvula muscles are functionally involved in quick
movements whereas the levator and tensor veli palatini muscles perform slower and more continuous
contractions. The high aerobic capacity and the rich capillarisation suggest that the palate muscles are
relatively fatigue resistant. Absence of ordinary muscle spindles indicates a special proprioceptive control
system. The special morphology of the palate muscles may be partly related to the unique anatomy with
only one skeletal insertion, a feature consistent with muscle work at low load and tension and which may
influence the cytoarchitecture of these muscles. Other important factors determining the special
morphological characteristics might be specific functional requirements, distinct embryological origin and
Daily integrals of photosynthesis by a cyanobacterial bloom in the Baltic Sea, during the summer of 1993, were calculated from the
vertical distributions of light, temperature and the organisms in the water column and from photosynthesis/irradiance curves of
picoplanktonic and diazotrophic cyanobacteria isolated from the community. The distribution of chlorophyll a in size-classes < 20 μm and
> 20 μm was monitored over 9 days that included a deep mixing event followed by calm. Picocyanobacteria formed 70% of the
cyanobacterial biomass and contributed 56% of the total primary production. Of the filamentous diazotrophs that formed the other 30%,
Aphanizomenon contributed 28% and a Nodularia-containing fraction 16% of the primary production. For the whole population there was
little change in standardized photosynthetic O2 production, which remained at about 31 mmol m−2 before and after the mixing event.
There were differences, however, between the classes of cyanobacteria: in picocyanobacteria primary production hardly changed, while in
Aphanizomenon it increased by 2·6 and in Nodularia it fell below zero. Total phytoplankton photosynthesis was strongly dependent on
total daily insolation with the compensation point at a photon insolation of 22·7 mol m−2 d−1. Similar analyses of N2 fixation showed
much less dependence on depth distribution of light and biomass: Aphanizomenon fixed about twice as much N2 as Nodularia their; their
fixation exceeded their own N demand by about 12%. Together, these species contributed 49% of the total N demand of the
phytoplankton population. Computer models based on the measured light attenuation and photosynthetic coefficients indicate that growth
of the cyanobacterial population could occur only in the summer months when the critical depth of the cyanobacteria exceeds the depth
The production and composition of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in axenic batch cultures of the benthic marine epipelic
diatoms Navicula salinarum and Cylindrotheca closterium were investigated. EPS was secreted into the medium and the bulk was loosely
associated with the cells. Neither N. salinarum nor C. closterium formed a well-defined polysaccharide capsule. EPS of both N. salinarum
and C. closterium consisted predominantly of polysaccharide but small quantities of protein were present as well. EPS also contained uronic
acids and SO42− groups. Analysis of monosaccharides using gas chromatography showed that for both species glucose and xylose were
the main constituents, but several other monosaccharides were present in smaller quantities. Two fractions of EPS were distinguished: a
small amount was secreted into the medium and a second fraction was extracted in water at 30°C. For both species the two fractions
differed somewhat in composition, indicating that they represented two different types of EPS. The EPS produced by N. salinarum and by
C. closterium differed in their composition. The rate of EPS production in batch culture was highest during the transition from exponential
growth to stationary growth. Negatively charged groups such as uronic acids and sulphated sugars determine the adhesion capacity of
EPS and probably play an important role in the stabilization of intertidal sediments on which these diatoms grow and produce biofilms.
Measurements were made of the rates of nitrogenase activity
(acetylene reduction) by cyanobacteria collected from
the Baltic Sea at 2-h intervals, over a period of 24 h, and incubated
under natural light. By relating the chlorophyll-specific rate of
N2 fixation (PN) to the mean
photon irradiance (I) at different periods, a
PN/I curve was
constructed. A mathematical description of this relationship was used
in the calculation of rates of N2 fixation at
different depths and times of day from continuous measurements
of surface irradiance and light attenuation. By
relating these calculations to the vertical distribution of
chlorophyll due to Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, an estimate
of the daily integral of N2 fixation by the population of
this cyanobacterium was obtained: it varied from 0·39 to
0·71 mmol m−2 with a mean value of 0·53
over 9 d. Comparisons with similar calculations of the daily
integral of photosynthesis over the same period indicated the atomic
ratio of N/C fixed is about 0·22, not very
different from the N/C ratio expected for the elemental
composition of these cyanobacteria. It is demonstrated that
when buoyant gas-vacuolate colonies float up during calm periods
the increased irradiance that they experience
supports an increased rate of N2 fixation. This increase
is less than that seen for carbon fixation because
photosynthesis is negated by respiration at low irradiances and is
less inhibited at high irradiances.
The cyanobacterium Microcystis PCC7806, grown
under continuous light, fermented endogenously stored glycogen to equimolar
of acetate and ethanol when incubated anaerobically in the dark. In addition,
H2, CO2 and some L-lactate were produced.
fermentation pattern differed from that displayed by cells which had
been grown under an alternating light/dark (16/8 h) cycle. Such
produced much more ethanol than acetate, while no lactate was formed.
These differences could not be related to the levels of key
enzymes of fermentation, which were identical in the two cultures. The
cultures grown under continuous light contained twice as much
glycogen as the light/dark-grown cells and the former metabolized it
a rate approximately 3 times as fast as the latter culture.
Fermentation in the culture grown under continuous light showed low
carbon recovery (59–80%) and high oxidation/reduction balance
(approximately 1·5). On the basis of calculations of ATP yield it
concluded that this culture was capable of growth driven by
fermentation. The increase in structural cell material would account for
the missing carbon and reduction equivalents.