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The most significant recent development, a break with the past, in the study of sexual cultures has to do with the term ‘culture’ itself: that we think of sexuality (and sexualities) as having ‘cultures’. Historically, both in academic and popular thinking, the term ‘sexuality’ most frequently elicited responses that have to do with biology. That is, whether as an area of study or as a set of ideas people have about their intimate lives, sexuality was too easily detached from the social contexts where it belongs and presented as something of itself. There is a strong tendency to view our sexual lives as dictated by their own peculiar rules that
(a) are biologically derived,
(b) have been historically stable (that is, the same since the ‘dawn of time’),
(c) are ‘essentially’ about our ‘private’ lives, and
(d) are ‘basically’ the same across different cultures.
Ironically, while, on the one hand, we think of sexuality as a world-untoitself – such that it is regarded as a very narrowly confined domain that has nothing to do with, say, politics and economics, we also simultaneously think of it as something of very general significance that is absolutely fundamental to our being. We tend to both downplay its meanings as well as inflate its significance. So, for example, if one is a bad cook, it's a minor blemish, but being ‘bad’ at sex is seen as a major crisis which requires intervention (through seeking the help of ‘sexologists’, for example).
The sexuality-as-a-drive perspective which was, most famously, both problematized but also institutionalized by Sigmund Freud presents itself in the Indian context in peculiarly Indian ways. It was, for example, at the heart of many of the arguments that were made – and continue to be made – about the difference between Hindus and Muslims, those between ‘tribal’ and ‘nontribal’ populations, and between the middle-class and poorer populations. So, with respect to the last point, the rise of sexology and the family planning movements are directly linked to the early-twentieth-century perception of the different sexual drives that supposedly characterized the educated and the uneducated (Ahluwalia 2013; Srivastava 2007). Sexology was intended to cater to the more evolved sexual desires of the middle classes, whereas family planning was directed towards controlling the uncontrollable drives of the poor, one that threatened nation-building.
Conversion of forest land into different land use types is the primary cause of degradation of land resources, which in turn alters nutrient and carbon cycles, land productivity and diversity of species. There is scarcity of information about land-use changes (LUC) and their effect on relationship of soil quality and species diversity at landscape level in the Vindhyan dry tropical region. We evaluated the impact of land-use changes on soil physicochemical quality and the influence of these qualities on species diversity and organic matter accumulation. We also established the relationship between soil quality indicators and species diversity parameters. To examine impact of LUC, we did a detailed field survey and analysed selected soil quality indicators by standard methods. We examined species diversity parameters and established the relationship between soil quality and species diversity. We found that there is a marked decline in soil porosity, water-holding capacity and soil moisture due to LUC. Conversion from forest land (FL) to savanna land (SL) resulted in soil organic carbon decreasing by ∼40–50%. The decrease was more pronounced in cultivated land (CL) and degraded land (DL) (65–70% and 83–85%, respectively). In the case of total N, maximum decrease in total N of 83–87% was noted in DL as compared with FL. The poor soil quality indicators in degraded and agricultural land can be explained by the interaction between the soil organic carbon and nitrogen loss with diversity loss. This study recommends that for management/restoration of land resources, planning strategies should consider the current landscape structure, with land-use planning.
(Hi)Stories of Desire situates questions of sexuality in the larger domain where they are conditioned by and, in turn, also condition historically and culturally produced landscapes of being, doing and desiring. The book draws upon multi-disciplinary frameworks of analysis - including history, anthropology, literary studies, queer studies and psychoanalysis - to provide a pan-Indian account of the making of sexual cultures. Based on original research, the chapters foreground sexuality as a significant site for the making of regional, national and personal modernities. The volume addresses the modern paradox where sexuality is assigned a central significance in human life and yet its study tends to remain unconnected from the political, religious, social and economic contexts that produce human subjectivity. It will be of interest to a wide range of readership, opening up the topic to complex yet accessible ways of understanding the culture of sexualities and the sexuality of culture.
We study the asymptotic behaviour of the powers of a composition operator on various Banach spaces of holomorphic functions on the disc, namely, standard weighted Bergman spaces (finite and infinite order), Bloch space, little Bloch space, Bloch-type space and Dirichlet space. Moreover, we give a complete characterization of those composition operators that are similar to an isometry on these various Banach spaces. We conclude by studying the asymptotic behaviour of semigroups of composition operators on these various Banach spaces.
The learning hospital is distinguished by ceaseless evolution of erudition, enhancement, and implementation of clinical best practices. We describe a model for the learning hospital within the framework of a hospital infection prevention program and argue that a critical assessment of safety practices is possible without significant grant funding. We reviewed 121 peer-reviewed manuscripts published by the VCU Hospital Infection Prevention Program over 16 years. Publications included quasi-experimental studies, observational studies, surveys, interrupted time series analyses, and editorials. We summarized the articles based on their infection prevention focus, and we provide a brief summary of the findings. We also summarized the involvement of nonfaculty learners in these manuscripts as well as the contributions of grant funding. Despite the absence of significant grant funding, infection prevention programs can critically assess safety strategies under the learning hospital framework by leveraging a diverse collaboration of motivated nonfaculty learners. This model is a valuable adjunct to traditional grant-funded efforts in infection prevention science and is part of a successful horizontal infection control program.
In this paper, an electromagnetic band gap (EBG) metasurface (MS) superstrate-based circularly polarized antenna for the WiMAX (3.5 GHz) band is proposed. The proposed structure comprises a 2 × 2 slot-loaded rectangular patch MS array that can be perceived as a polarization-dependent EBG MS superstrate. Furthermore, to achieve circular polarization, the proposed antenna has an inclined coupling slot onto the ground with a conventional coplanar waveguide feed line. The proposed antenna has a compact structure with a low profile of 0.037λ0 (λ0 stands for the free-space wavelength at 3.48 GHz) and a ground size of 30 × 30 mm2. The measured results show that the −10 dB impedance bandwidth for the proposed antenna is 34.6% and the 3-dB axial ratio (AR) bandwidth is 6.8% with a peak gain of 3.91 dBi in the desired operating band. Good agreement between the simulated and the measured results verifies the performance of the proposed antenna.
Evidence on the impact of the quality of prenatal care on childhood mortality is limited in developing countries, including India. Therefore, using nationally representative data from the latest round of the National Family Health Survey (2015–16), this study examined the impact of the quality of prenatal care on neonatal and infant mortality in India using a multivariable binary logistic regression model. The effect of the essential components of prenatal care services on neonatal and infant mortality were also investigated. The results indicate that improvement in the quality of prenatal care is associated with a decrease in neonatal (OR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.91–0.97) and infant (OR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.92–0.96) mortality in India. Tetanus toxoid vaccination, consumption of iron–folic acid tablets during pregnancy and having been weighed during pregnancy were statistically associated with a lower risk of neonatal and infant mortality. Educating women on pregnancy complications was also associated with a lower risk of neonatal mortality. No effect of blood pressure examination, blood test and examination of the abdomen during pregnancy were found on either of the two indicators of childhood mortality. Although the coverage of prenatal care has increased dramatically in India, the quality of prenatal care is still an area of concern. There is therefore a need to ensure high-quality prenatal care in India.
This paper highlights unique sites in Ladakh, India, investigated during our 2016 multidisciplinary pathfinding expedition to the region. We summarize our scientific findings and the site's potential to support science exploration, testing of new technologies and science protocols within the framework of astrobiology research. Ladakh has several accessible, diverse, pristine and extreme environments at very high altitudes (3000–5700 m above sea level). These sites include glacial passes, sand dunes, hot springs and saline lake shorelines with periglacial features. We report geological observations and environmental characteristics (of astrobiological significance) along with the development of regolith-landform maps for cold high passes. The effects of the diurnal water cycle on salt deliquescence were studied using the ExoMars Mission instrument mockup: HabitAbility: Brines, Irradiance and Temperature (HABIT). It recorded the existence of an interaction between the diurnal water cycle in the atmosphere and salts in the soil (which can serve as habitable liquid water reservoirs). Life detection assays were also tested to establish the best protocols for biomass measurements in brines, periglacial ice-mud and permafrost melt water environments in the Tso-Kar region. This campaign helped confirm the relevance of clays and brines as interest targets of research on Mars for biomarker preservation and life detection.
There are few longitudinal studies about South Asians (SAs) and little information about recruitment and retention approaches for this ethnic group.
We followed 906 SAs enrolled in the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) cohort for 5 years. Surviving participants were invited for a second clinical exam from 2015 to 2018. A new wave of participants was recruited during 2017–2018. We assessed the yields from different methods of recruitment and retention.
A total of 759 (83%) completed the second clinical exam, and 258 new participants were enrolled. Providing a nearby community hospital location for the study exam, offering cab/shared ride reimbursement, and conducting home visits were the most effective methods for enhancing retention. New participant recruitment targeted women and individuals with lower socioeconomic status, and we found that participant referrals and active community engagement were most effective. Mailing invitational letters to those identified by electronic health records had very low yield.
Recruitment and retention strategies that address transportation barriers and increase community engagement will help increase the representation of SAs in health research.
We assessed the impact of an embedded electronic medical record decision-support matrix (Cerner software system) for the reduction of hospital-onset Clostridioides difficile. A critical review of 3,124 patients highlighted excessive testing frequency in an academic medical center and demonstrated the impact of decision support following a testing fidelity algorithm.
This is a prospective study to evaluate the dosimetric benefits of treatment plan adaptation for patients who had undergone repeat computed tomography (ReCT)and re-planning due to treatment-induced anatomical changes during radiotherapy.
Materials and Methods
This study involved five head and neck cancer patients who had their treatment plan modified, based on weekly thrice imaging protocol. Impact of mid-course imaging was assessed in patients using ReCT and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT)-based dose verification. Patients were imaged, apart from their initial CT, during the course of their radiation therapy with a ReCT and on board imager CBCT (Varian Medical Systems Inc., Palo Alto, CA, USA). Each CBCT/CT series was rigidly registered to the initial CT in the treatment planning system Eclipse (Varian Medical Systems Inc.) using bony landmarks. The structures were copied to the current CBCT/CT series and, where needed, manually edited slicewise. The dose distribution from the treatment plan was viewed as of the current anatomy by applying the treatment plan the CBCT/CT series, and studying the corresponding dose–volume histograms for organs at risk doses.
The reduction of parotid volumes due to weight loss was observed in all patients, which means an increase in predicted mean doses of parotid when initial CT plan was re-calculated on ReCT and CBCT (Table 1). This explains the necessity of adaptive planning. The predicted mean dose of parotid glands was increased and constraints to spinal cord and skin were exceeded, so re-planning was performed.
The CBCT is a useful tool to view anatomic changes in patients and get an estimate of their impact on dose distribution. Re-planning based on imaging in head and neck patients during the course of radiotherapy is mandatory to reduce side effects.