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Berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) is an important forage legume and is the primary winter forage crop in Pakistan. There are significant gaps in yield potential among varieties of berseem clover, as well as yields obtained at research stations and on-farm. To address this problem a survey of farmers was undertaken in the districts of Kasur and Okara, Punjab, Pakistan to determine the level of knowledge and understanding of berseem forage cultivation and seed production. The study comprised 44% smallholder (<3 ha), 26% medium (3–5 ha) and 30% large farmers (>5 ha) with average age of 42 years. Most farmers had little or no knowledge of the role of seed quality, inoculation with rhizobium, pollination, fertiliser use, irrigation management and the importance of forage nutritional value in improving livestock productivity. Most farmers (56%) had received no input from the government or private sector to improve forage production, relying instead on traditional knowledge. Knowledge of the importance of land preparation (95%), sowing rate (98%) and insect and pest management (75%) was higher than seed selection and fertilisation. Adoption of improved varieties (3%) and production technologies (14%) was low due to various constraints including ignorance, high cost of inputs, lack of availability of inputs in the market and a perceived high level of financial risk. Almost 100% of the respondents agreed that seed of improved varieties was a pre-requisite for higher forage and seed production as well as essential to start village-based forage seed enterprises.
yourtown's Expressive Therapies Intervention (YETI) is a trauma and attachment informed creative arts and play therapy intervention developed for young children with emotional and behavioural problems stemming from traumatic exposure. YETI aims to improve participants’ emotional and social wellbeing; behavioural adjustment; quality of attachment relationships and self-concept. The intervention is integrated within holistic family support programmes, chiefly a domestic and family violence refuge and a young parents programme. This paper describes YETI's therapeutic model and presents findings of a two-year outcome evaluation. The findings suggest that the intervention can achieve significant positive outcomes for preschool-aged children associated with healing from developmental trauma and attachment difficulties. Analysis of pre/post assessments of participants’ social, emotional and behavioural functioning using the Child Behaviour Checklist revealed significant improvements from intake to exit in children's internalising, externalising and total problems. There were also marked decreases in the proportion of children with symptoms in the clinical or borderline clinical ranges. Thematic analyses of parent/carer surveys and therapists’ end-of-therapy reports similarly indicate widespread improvements in social, emotional and behavioural functioning as well as improvements in children's self-confidence and self-esteem, and in the quality of the parent–child attachment relationship.
Knowledge of spatial distribution is fundamental to ecological studies and crucial for conservation and management of species and biodiversity, but detailed, large-scale spatial data are lacking for most taxa. Although the Adélie penguin is one of the most intensively studied Antarctic vertebrates, spatial data that could aid in ecological study and conservation management are incomplete. We undertook a large-scale survey of the current breeding distribution of Adélie penguins along 3800 km of the East Antarctic coastline. The survey increased the number of known breeding locations by 50% and revealed that the breeding distribution has expanded in some parts of the survey region over the past two to three decades. The expanding breeding distribution may reflect underlying population dynamics of sustained growth and resultant density dependent effect on dispersal and movement from established breeding sites to new sites. The comprehensive, large-scale distribution data from this study will form a baseline for assessing any future changes in Adélie penguin breeding distribution, provide data for developing spatial models for predicting future changes in breeding distribution under plausible scenarios of environmental change, and contribute to the development of metapopulation models by providing estimates of local colonization and extinction probabilities under specific conditions of metapopulation change.
Scullin and Murray monoliths are thought to hold the largest concentration of breeding seabirds in East Antarctica. The monoliths were designated as an Antarctic Specially Protected Area (ASPA No. 164) in 2005 in recognition of the global importance of the seabird assemblages and to protect their outstanding ecological and scientific values. The management plan for the Scullin and Murray Monoliths ASPA encourages regular seabird population monitoring using methods such as aerial photography, but the complex logistics of accessing this remote site has until now limited quantitative assessment of the seabird populations to a single survey in 1986/87. In December 2010 we photographed the Adélie penguin population to provide the population counts presented here. We discuss the potential biases and uncertainties in estimating the breeding population from both the recent and 1980s population count data.
This research examines the effect of disgruntlement among primary and caucus voters who supported U.S. presidential nomination losers—a potentially divisive nomination process. I analyze the general election voting behavior of primary and caucus voters in the 2008 presidential election to determine if differences exist between supporters of the winning nominee in each party and backers of other candidates who also sought the nomination. A multivariate analysis of the determinants of “loyal party vote” suggests that Clinton and Edwards supporters showed a significantly higher degree of defection in the general election, although this behavior did not occur among people who voted for Romney or Huckabee in their state's primary or caucus.
Potential Adélie penguin Pygoscelis adeliae breeding habitat in the Australian Antarctic Territory (AAT: 45°E–136°E, 142°E–160°E) was mapped using a geographic information system (GIS), and the literature reviewed for evidence of the mapped habitat being searched for presence or absence of breeding Adélie penguins. It is concluded that incomplete search effort is a possible source of substantial negative bias of Adélie penguin breeding abundance derived from published count data in some regions of the AAT. The extent of search effort in other regions of Antarctica could be determined using the same approach applied here, because GIS data required for mapping potential habitat are available for the entire continent. We would expect that regions with more scientific and tourist activity, such as the Antarctic Peninsula, are likely to have greater search effort than the AAT.
The possible relationship between the results of a microbiological sampling programme and visual inspections carried out in local food-manufacturing premises was examined. Using five main parameters—overall appearance, personal hygiene, risk of contamination, temperature control, and training and education –a visual inspection rating score was established for each of the premises. A variety of high-risk processed foods, and specimens from hands, wiping cloths and environmental swabs were examined. The results from two study Periods indicated that there was an overall poor agreement between microbiological results and inspection ratings. On its own, neither sampling nor visual assessment reliably monitored the performance of the premises. A combined approach, using selective microbiological examination to support a system of standardized inspections, is suggested for monitoring food hygiene standards in premises selling high-risk foods
The Ross seal (Ommatophoca rossii) is the least studied of the Antarctic ice-breeding phocids. In particular, estimating the population status of the Ross seal has proved extremely difficult. The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty currently designates the Ross seal as a ‘Specially Protected Species’, contrasting with the IUCN's classification of ‘Least Concern’. As part of a review of the Ross seal's classification under the Protocol, a survey was undertaken in 1999/2000 to estimate the status of the Ross seal population in the pack ice off East Antarctica between 64–150°E. Shipboard and aerial sighting surveys were carried out along 9476 km of transect to estimate the density of Ross seals hauled out on the ice, and satellite dive recorders deployed on a sample of Ross seals to estimate the proportion of time spent on the ice. The survey design and analysis addressed the many sources of uncertainty in estimating the abundance of this species in an effort to provide a range of best and plausible estimates. Best estimates of abundance in the survey region ranged from 41 300–55 900 seals. Limits on plausible estimates ranged from 20 500 (lower 2.5 percentile) to 226 600 (upper 97.5 percentile).
In November 2005, the first comprehensive survey for Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) breeding sites in the Robinson Group of islands, situated 25 to 55 km east of Australia's Mawson station (67.602°S, 62.879°E) was conducted. Breeding Adélie penguins were found on 30 of the 149 islands, with the number of nests on each island ranging from fewer than 10 to several thousand. With the exception of those islands in the southeast, nesting Adélie penguins were found throughout the Robinson Group. In this paper, the spatial coordinates and presence/absence of breeding penguins for all 149 islands are reported so that researchers may interpret the results in relation to possible future survey work. All locations reported in this paper are in decimal degrees.
William C. Mitchell died January 2, 2006, at his home in Eugene,
Oregon. He had suffered from pulmonary fibrosis. He was 80. His wife since
1959, Joyce Mitchell, died in 1996; he is survived by a brother James W.
Mitchell, of Kingsford, Michigan, and two sisters, Jeanine Watt of Iron
River, Michigan and Waverly Jarvis of Withee, Wisconsin.
Data on the response behaviour of seals (crabeater, leopard and Ross) and penguins (Adélie and emperor) to helicopter surveys over the pack ice off East Antarctica are presented. The surveys involved Sikorsky S76 helicopters flying at altitude 130 m and speed 90 knots along straight-line transects. The relative frequency of alert and movement behaviours by seal and penguin groups decreased with distance out to 800 m from the flight path. Penguin groups were more likely to show a movement response than seals at all distances. The perpendicular distances moved relative to the flight path were small (maximum 20 m, mean ≤ 3 m, for both seal and penguin groups) relative to the width of the area searched (800 m), and there was no evidence that response movement resulted in a spiked detection histogram. Observers were more likely to feel confident in identifying seal and penguin species if the animals responded to the helicopter by changing the body posture or moving. In this application of aerial survey, the response behaviour elicited by the passing helicopter was considered to be beneficial from a technical perspective, and the disturbance caused to the surveyed populations negligible from an ethical perspective.
The Strategic Use of Referendums: Power, Legitimacy, and
Democracy. By Mark Clarence Walker. New York: Palgrave Macmillan,
2003. 166p. $49.95.
This book portrays the referendum as a consequence of elite
bargaining. Mark Walker describes this electoral device as one that
arises from an executive–legislative struggle where competing
groups attempt to gain political legitimacy from the masses, even in
nondemocratic states. Political elites thus use the referendum to
settle disputes that appear irresolvable in the traditional chambers of
the power, or, as E. E. Schattschneider indicated in The
Semi-Sovereign People (1960), to expand the scope of the conflict
to enhance one's political advantage. The referendum process is
thus subject to manipulation—by the choice of wording, the timing
of the vote, the subject matter, and even the interpretation of the
Insights into the reproductive strategies of crabeater seals Lobodon carcinophagus were obtained from satellite-linked dive recorders deployed during the breeding season. All of the three females and seven males on which instruments were deployed hauled out continuously for extended periods of up to 24 days. The duration of extended haulout is consistent with a lactation period of around 3 weeks. In two cases where dive recorders were deployed on a male and female in the same group, the two animals stayed together on the ice continuously and entered the water at exactly the same time when extended haulout ceased. In both cases the male and female became geographically separated within a short time after entering the water, indicating that the association did not last beyond the period on the ice. Some males had multiple periods of extended haulout, suggesting they may try to find more than one female with which to mate. An optimal reproductive strategy with regard to the time spent on the ice may balance the conflicting needs of a short time imposed by the availability of breeding habitat and a long time to increase the reproductive success of males and females by finding more, or choosing between, mates.
Accurate assessment of the abundance of pinnipeds from
visual surveys requires estimation of both the available
(hauled-out) and unavailable (in-water) components of the
population (Eberhardt et al. 1979). Continental estimates of
the abundance of the four Antarctic seals are based on
limited information on haul-out behaviour. In developing
continental estimates, Erickson & Hanson (1990) corrected
visual surveys of the hauled-out component of the species'
populations using data from observational studies of haulout
behaviour by Erickson et al. (1989). Erickson & Hanson
(1990) point out that, because the observational studies did
not account for an unknown fraction of seals that remained
in the water during the peak haul-out period, their
abundance estimates are minimum values. Further,
Erickson & Hanson (1990) corrected the visual surveys for
all four species using haul-out data for the crabeater seal
only, as observational data for the other species were not
available. This assumes that haul-out patterns are constant
across species, which is largely untested. Consequently,
there is potential for bias, in both a relative and absolute
sense, in the estimated abundance of Antarctic seals.
The special Senate election in Oregon, held during January 1996, was the first time in which a federal election was held using a vote-by-mail format. The purpose of this survey was to address most of the relevant issues and concerns involving vote-by-mail elections and to provide an assessment of this electoral method at a crucial time in the political process.
We present optical photometry of the eclipsing supersoft source, CAL 87. We find the eclipse structure to be stable over ~ 4 y, derive an improved ephemeris of To = HJD 2450111.5144(3)+0.442674(7)E, and see new structure in the light curve morphology.