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This study aimed to describe the viability of domestic feline spermatozoa after epididymal tail vitrification. For this, 10 pairs of testis–epididymis complexes were used. The epididymal tails were vitrified using the solid-surface vitrification (SSV) method, in which two vitrification media containing ethylene glycol (EG) 40% or glycerol (GLY) 40% were tested. Vitrification with the presence of EG resulted in better results for all sperm motility parameters (motility, vigour and CASA) compared with GLY (P < 0.05). There were no statistical differences for sperm viability and acrosome integrity, plasma membrane integrity, or overall health of morphologically normal sperm before or after vitrification among experimental groups. In conclusion, epididymal tail vitrification appears to be a suitable method for long-term storage of cat sperm, especially if the procedure is performed with EG as the cryoprotectant.
Triploidization plays an important role in aquaculture and surrogate technologies. In this study, we induced triploidy in the matrinxã fish (Brycon amazonicus) using a heat-shock technique. Embryos at 2 min post fertilization (mpf) were heat shocked at 38°C, 40°C, or 42°C for 2 min. Untreated, intact embryos were used as a control. Survival rates during early development were monitored and ploidy status was confirmed using flow cytometry and nuclear diameter analysis of erythrocytes. The hatching rate reduced with heat-shock treatment, and heat-shock treatments at 42°C resulted in no hatching events. Optimal results were obtained at 40°C with 95% of larvae exhibiting triploidy. Therefore, we report that heat-shock treatments of embryos (2 mpf) at 40°C for 2 min is an effective way to induce triploid individuals in B. amazonicus.
Nicotine is the main psychoactive substance present in cigarette smoke that is transferred to the baby by breast milk. In rats, maternal nicotine exposure during breastfeeding induces obesogenesis and hormone dysfunctions in adult male offspring. As glucocorticoid (GC), insulin, and vitamin D change both adipogenesis and lipogenesis processes, we assessed parameters related to metabolism and action of these hormones in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues (VAT and SAT) of adult male and female rats in a model of neonatal nicotine exposure. At postnatal (PN) day 2, dams were kept with six pups (three per sex) and divided into nicotine and control groups for implantation of osmotic minipumps that released 6 mg/kg nicotine or saline, respectively. At PN180, fat mass, hormone levels, and protein contents of biomarkers of the GC activation and receptor (11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and glucocorticoid receptor alpha), insulin signaling pathway [insulin receptor beta (IRβ), phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), phosphorylated serine/threonine kinase (pAKT), serine/threonine kinase, glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4)], and vitamin D activation and receptor (1α-hydroxylase and vitamin D receptor) were evaluated. While nicotine-exposed males showed increased fat mass, hypercorticosteronemia, hyperinsulinemia, and higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D, these alterations were not observed in nicotine-exposed females. Nicotine-exposed males only showed lower IRS1 in VAT, while the females had hyperglycemia, higher pAKT in VAT, while lower IRβ, IRS1, and GLUT4 in SAT. Parameters related to metabolism and action of GC and vitamin D were unaltered in both sexes. We evidence that exposure exclusively to nicotine during breastfeeding affects the hormone status and fat depots of the adult progeny in a sex-dependent manner.
Accumulating evidence indicates that dietary phenolic compounds can prevent obesity-related disorders. We investigated whether the consumption of polyphenol-rich jabuticaba peel and seed powder (JPSP) could ameliorates the progression of diet-induced obesity in mice. Male mice were fed a control diet or a high-fat (HF) diet for 9 weeks. After this period, mice were fed control, HF or HF diets supplemented with 5% (HF-J5), 10% (HF-J10) or 15% (HF-J15) of JPSP, for 4 additional weeks. Supplementation with JPSP not only attenuated HF-induced weight gain and fat accumulation but also ameliorated the pro-inflammatory response associated with obesity, as evidenced by the absence of mast cells in the visceral depot accompanied by lower IL-6 and TNF-α at the tissue and circulating levels. JPSP-supplemented mice also exhibited smaller-sized adipocytes, reduced levels of leptin and higher levels of adiponectin, concomitant with improved glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. The magnitude of the observed effects was dependent on JPSP concentration with HF-J10 and HF-J15-fed mice showing metabolic profiles similar to control. This study reveals that the consumption of JPSP protects against the dysfunction of the adipose tissue and metabolic disturbances in obese mice. Thus, these findings indicate the therapeutic potential of the phenolic-rich jabuticaba peel and seed powder in preventing obesity-related disorders.
Ilex paraguariensis, commonly known as yerba mate, is a tree species native to South America. Its commercial value is due to the manufacturing of teas, with potential also in the pharmacological and cosmetic industries. Vegetative propagation of yerba mate is considered an innovation to the traditional production systems based on sexual propagation. The present study aimed to evaluate the rhizogenic potential and chemical attributes of mini-cuttings from 15 yerba mate genotypes, as well as to verify the correlation between phytochemical and rooting-related variables. Mini-cuttings were collected from a pre-existing mini-clonal hedge and the experimental design was completely randomized, with 15 treatments (genotypes), four replications and 10 mini-cuttings per plot. After 120 days, mini-cuttings were assessed regarding rooting, mortality, callogenesis and leaf retention percentages, percentage of mini-cuttings with both calluses and roots, number of roots and average root length. At the time of collection, subsamples from each plot were used for phytochemical analyses including total phenolic compounds, protein, caffeine and theobromine contents and antioxidant activity. Rooting percentages ranged from 5 to 72.5%, with significant variation among genotypes. Adventitious rooting and phytochemical profile of yerba mate mini-cuttings are genotype-dependent. Leaf retention is a relevant factor in the rooting of yerba mate mini-cuttings and the levels of total phenolic compounds, antioxidants and theobromine present in mini-cuttings are negatively correlated components to Ilex paraguariensis adventitious rooting.
Early weaning (EW) is associated with obesity later in life. Here, using an EW model in rats, we investigated changes in feeding behavior and the dopaminergic and endocannabinoid systems (ECS) in the adult offspring. Lactating Wistar rats were divided into two groups: EW, dams were wrapped with a bandage to interrupt suckling during the last 3 days of breastfeeding; CONT; dams fed the pups throughout the period without hindrances. EW animals were compared with CONT animals of the same sex. At PN175, male and female offspring of both groups could freely self-select between high-fat and high-sugar diets (food challenge test). EW males preferred the high-fat diet at 30 min and more of the high-sugar diet after 12 h compared to CONT males. EW females did not show differences in their preference for the palatable diets compared to CONT females. Total intake of standard diet from PN30-PN180 was higher in both male and female EW animals, indicating hyperphagia. At PN180, EW males showed lower type 2 dopamine receptor (D2r) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and dorsal striatum, while EW females had lower tyrosine hydroxylase in the ventral tegmental area and NAc, D1r in the NAc, and D2r in the prefrontal cortex. In the lateral hypothalamus, EW males had lower fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase, whereas EW females showed lower N-arachidonoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase-D and increased FAAH. Early weaning altered both the dopaminergic and ECS parameters at adulthood, contributing to the eating behavior changes of the progeny in a sex-dependent manner.
Mood disorders are the most common mental illnesses with a lifetime prevalence of up to 20% worldwide (1). Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are significant health problems in the United States and worldwide (2). In the United States alone, the lifetime prevalence of MDD is up to 17%, and that of BD about 2.1% (2) that can go up to 4% of individuals with mood episodes not meeting episodic criteria included. Both are chronic illnesses characterized by recurrent episodes of depression and mania and depression in MDD and BD, respectively. Severe and disabling forms of BD and MDD are associated with increased risk of suicide, decline of physical health, and reduced productivity, and both conditions are associated with high rates of completed suicide of up to 8% (3).
Mood disorders such as depression and bipolar disorder are common mental illnesses, affecting millions of patients worldwide. The application of newly available brain imaging methods to the study of mood disorders holds substantial promise in uncovering the brain mechanisms affected in these illnesses. This comprehensive and authoritative text features contributions from leading international experts, providing easily accessible information on the study of the brain mechanisms involved in the causation of mood disorders and the available treatments. Topics covered include the potential of magnetoencephalography (MEG), neuroimaging brain inflammation in depression, electrophysiology studies in mood disorders, and the applications of machine learning, filling an important gap in available neuropsychiatric literature and highlighting new developments. An invaluable resource for practitioners in the fields of psychiatry, neurology, primary care medicine, and related mental health professions, as well as researchers, students, graduate and post-graduate trainees.
The continuous use of synthetic anthelmintics against gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) has resulted in the increased resistance, which is why alternative methods are being sought, such as the use of natural products. Plant essential oils (EOs) have been considered as potential products for the control of GINs. However, the chemical composition and, consequently, the biological activity of EOs vary in different plant cultivars. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of EOs from cultivars of Ocimum basilicum L. and that of their major constituents against Haemonchus contortus. The EOs from 16 cultivars as well the pure compound linalool, methyl chavicol, citral and eugenol were used in the assessment of the inhibition of H. contortus egg hatch. In addition, the composition of three cultivars was simulated using a combination of the two major compounds from each. The EOs from different cultivars showed mean Inhibition Concentration (IC50) varying from 0.56 to 2.22 mg/mL. The cultivar with the highest egg-hatch inhibition, Napoletano, is constituted mainly of linalool and methyl chavicol. Among the individual compounds tested, citral was the most effective (IC50 0.30 mg/mL). The best combination of compounds was obtained with 11% eugenol plus 64% linalool (IC50 0.44 mg/mL), simulating the Italian Large Leaf (Richters) cultivar. We conclude that different cultivars of O. basilicum show different anthelmintic potential, with cultivars containing linalool and methyl chavicol being the most promising; and that citral or methyl chavicol isolated should also be considered for the development of new anthelmintic formulations.