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A multitude of processes in hydrology and environmental engineering are either random or entail random components which are characterized by random variables. These variables are described by frequency distributions. This book provides an overview of different systems of frequency distributions, their properties, and applications to the fields of water resources and environmental engineering. A variety of systems are covered, including the Pearson system, Burr system, and systems commonly applied in economics, such as the D'Addario, Dagum, Stoppa, and Esteban systems. The latter chapters focus on the Singh system and the frequency distributions deduced from Bessel functions, maximum entropy theory, and the transformations of random variables. The final chapter introduces the genetic theory of frequency distributions. Using real-world data, this book provides a valuable reference for researchers, graduate students, and professionals interested in frequency analysis.
Happiness economics as advocated by Frijters et al. makes three assumptions: that policy should be based on facts about the net effect of a factor on happiness; that wellbeing policy should be technocratic and centralized; and that the only credible objections come from critics who do not value happiness. We argue that all three should be rejected and that the science and policy of wellbeing should instead be pluralistic, context-sensitive and participatory.
The transition from child and adolescent to adult mental health services for young people with mental health problems is of international concern. Despite the high prevalence of mental disorders during adolescence and their tendency to continue during adulthood, the majority of young people do not experience continuity of care. The aim of this review paper is to unravel the complexity of transitional mental healthcare to clinicians, policy makers and mental health service managers, and to address challenges to a smooth transition process at all levels.
Concurrent chemoradiation is the definitive treatment for advanced cervical cancer. Pelvic radiation is known to damage the adjacent normal tissues thereby causing acute toxicities. The modern conformal radiation techniques like three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy are known to reduce the toxicities and improve clinical outcomes.
To retrospectively evaluate the frequency and severity of acute toxicities encountered during concurrent chemoradiation of locally advanced cancer cervix treated with 3D-CRT.
The medical case records of 174 cervical cancer patients treated between November 2015 and November 2018 were studied. One hundred and thirteen histologically proven locally advanced cancer cervix patients (Stage IIB–IIIB) treated with concurrent 3D conformal chemoradiation between were included in the study. Patients received 46 Gy in 23 fractions with concurrent weekly cisplatin (40 mg/m2) on days 1, 8, 15 and 22 of radiation. The study endpoints were treatment-related toxicities which were graded according to CTCAE version 5.0.
One hundred and thirteen patients were analysed for the study. Gastrointestinal toxicity was the predominant toxicity observed followed by haematological toxicity. 31·7% patients reported grade 1–2 diarrhoea and 39·7% reported grade 1–2 leucopenia. None of the patients reported grade 3 or higher toxicities. Treatment interruptions were noted due to these toxicities.
Concurrent chemoradiation is the definitive treatment for locally advanced carcinoma cervix with acceptable toxicities. Proper management measures should be undertaken for these toxicities to avoid treatment interruptions and ensure better treatment compliance.
Fragrant rice is an important export commodity of Thailand and obtaining seasonal production estimates well in advance is important for marketing and stock management. Rice4cast is a software platform that has been developed to forecast rice yield several months prior to harvesting; it links a rice model with a Minimum Data Set (MDS) and Weather Research Forecast (WRF) data. The current study aimed to parameterize and evaluate the model and to demonstrate the use of the Rice4cast platform in forecasting seasonal KDML 105 rice yield and production with local data set. The study area encompassed 77 districts in Thailand, covering 0.94 of the total area of KDML 105 in the country. Minimum Data Sets for the 2013–2015 growing seasons were used for model parameterization and evaluation. The annual statistics from the Office of Agricultural Economics (OAE) were used as a reference basis and planted areas from the Geo-Informatics and Space Technology Development Agency (GISTDA) was used for production estimation. Model evaluation showed good to fairly good agreement between the predicted and reported OAE yield. Production forecasts, however, over-estimated the OAE values considerably, primarily because of the use of GISTDA planted areas that were larger than the harvested areas in the production estimates. Adjustment of the planted areas to account for damaged areas need to be explored further. Nevertheless, the results demonstrated the capability of yield predictions with the Rice4cast, making it a valuable tool for in-season estimates for fragrant rice yield and production.
Post-processing imaging techniques allow high-resolution computed tomography and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the temporal bone to be superimposed and viewed simultaneously (fusion imaging). This study aimed to highlight the practical utility of fusion imaging for disease localisation and evaluation in a UK case series of primary and post-operative cholesteatoma.
Fusion of computed tomography and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance b1000 images was performed using specific software. Axial computed tomography images and coronal b1000 images were selected for fusion.
A case series of primary and post-operative cholesteatoma in which computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging fusion assisted the management of both the patient pathway and surgical approach is reviewed.
Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging fusion can assist in pre-operative surgical planning and patient counselling through assessment of disease in both primary and revision scenarios. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging fusion can assist the operative surgeon through accurate localisation that can influence both the operative technique and optimise operation theatre utilisation.
Anemia affects ~69% of Indian children aged 6–12 months, with iron deficiency (ID) being a common cause. The effectiveness of micronutrient-fortified infant cereal in improving iron status and neurodevelopment was evaluated in non-anemic and mildly anemic Indian infants. An intervention group (IC) enrolled at age 6 months consumed 50 g/d of rice-based cereal providing 3·75 mg iron/d as ferrous fumarate for 6 months (n 80) and was compared with a matched static cross-sectional control group (CG) without intervention enrolled at age 12 months (n 80). Mean hemoglobin was higher in IC (118·1 g/l (SD 10·2)) vs. CG (109·5 g/l (SD 16·4)) at age 12 months (adjusted mean difference: 9·7 g/l; 95% CI 5·1, 14·3; P<0·001), while geometric mean serum ferritin tended to be higher (27·0 (-1 SD 13·4, +1 SD 54·4) vs. 20·3 (-1 SD 7·5, +1 SD 55·0) ng/ml); P=0·085) and soluble transferrin receptor was lower (1·70 (-1 SD 1·15, +1 SD 2·41) vs. 2·07 (-1 SD 1·29, +1 SD 3·30) mg/l; P=0·014). Anemia (23% vs. 45%; P=0·007) and ID (17% vs. 40%; P=0·003) were lower in the IC vs. CG. Bayley-III scores for language (P=0·003), motor development (P=0·018), social-emotional (P=0·004), and adaptive behavior (P<0·001), but not cognitive development (P=0·980) were higher in IC vs. CG. No significant difference in anthropometric Z-scores was observed between the groups. Consuming a micronutrient-fortified infant cereal daily for 6 months during complementary feeding promoted better iron status while reducing the risk for anemia and ID, and was associated with superior neurodevelopmental scores.
− ESG-Agency scholarship most commonly focuses on the global arena as well as Asia and Europe, with critical geographic gaps in Africa and the Middle East.− Climate change is the dominant issue studied in ESG-Agency research, followed by forests and fresh water. − To address the geographic imbalance in ESG-Agency research, scholars need to develop research projects and collaborations in understudied regions while also recruiting and supporting scholars in those regions to engage with this research agenda.
This book derives from research and fieldwork in the rural and tribal hinterland of India, particularly in the mineral rich states. It looks at the nuances of land and resource politics and summarizes the long-standing land acquisition and mining debate. It discusses the relevant theoretical arguments from inter-disciplinary perspectives and develops an argument through the case study of Singrauli, a region in Madhya Pradesh in India, that has seen various 'regimes of dispossession' in the last six decades in India. It looks at the legal and policy arguments around right to property, 'fair' compensation, public purpose and the resource curse debate, and at contested 'spaces' (left wing extremism) and resource-capital relationships.
Deep learning using convolutional neural networks represents a form of artificial intelligence where computers recognise patterns and make predictions based upon provided datasets. This study aimed to determine if a convolutional neural network could be trained to differentiate the location of the anterior ethmoidal artery as either adhered to the skull base or within a bone ‘mesentery’ on sinus computed tomography scans.
Coronal sinus computed tomography scans were reviewed by two otolaryngology residents for anterior ethmoidal artery location and used as data for the Google Inception-V3 convolutional neural network base. The classification layer of Inception-V3 was retrained in Python (programming language software) using a transfer learning method to interpret the computed tomography images.
A total of 675 images from 388 patients were used to train the convolutional neural network. A further 197 unique images were used to test the algorithm; this yielded a total accuracy of 82.7 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval = 77.7–87.8), kappa statistic of 0.62 and area under the curve of 0.86.
Convolutional neural networks demonstrate promise in identifying clinically important structures in functional endoscopic sinus surgery, such as anterior ethmoidal artery location on pre-operative sinus computed tomography.
This article presents a geomorphological and micromorphological study of the locational context of four Indus civilisation archaeological sites—Alamgirpur, Masudpur I and VII, and Burj—all situated on the Sutlej-Yamuna interfluve in northwest India. The analysis indicates a strong correlation between settlement foundation and particular landscape positions on an extensive alluvial floodplain. Each of the analysed sites was located on sandy levees and/or riverbank deposits associated with former channels. These landscape positions would have situated settlements above the level of seasonal floodwater resulting from the Indian summer monsoon. In addition, the sandy soils on the margins of these elevated landscape positions would have been seasonally replenished with water, silt, clay, and fine organic matter, considerably enhancing their capacity for water retention and fertility and making them particularly suitable for agriculture. These former landscapes are obscured by recent modification and extensive agricultural practices. These geoarchaeological evaluations indicate that there is a hidden landscape context for each Indus settlement. This specific type of interaction between humans and their local context is an important aspect of Indus cultural adaptations to diverse, variable, and changing environments.
A small-disturbance asymptotic model is derived to describe the complex nature of a pure water vapour flow with non-equilibrium and homogeneous condensation around a thin airfoil operating at transonic speed and small angle of attack. The van der Waals equation of state provides real-gas relationships among the thermodynamic properties of water vapour. Classical nucleation and droplet growth theory is used to model the condensation process. The similarity parameters which determine the flow and condensation physics are identified. The flow may be described by a nonlinear and non-homogeneous partial differential equation coupled with a set of four ordinary differential equations to model the condensation process. The model problem is used to study the effects of independent variation of the upstream flow and thermodynamic conditions, airfoil geometry and angle of attack on the pressure and condensate mass fraction distributions along the airfoil surfaces and the consequent effect on the wave drag and lift coefficients. Increasing the upstream temperature at fixed values of upstream supersaturation ratio and Mach number results in increased condensation and higher wave drag coefficient. Increasing the upstream supersaturation ratio at fixed values of upstream temperature and Mach number also results in increased condensation and the wave drag coefficient increases nonlinearly. In addition, the effects of varying airfoil geometry with a fixed thickness ratio and chord on flow properties and condensation region are studied. The computed results confirm the similarity law of Zierep & Lin (Forsch. Ing. Wes. A, vol. 33 (6), 1967, pp. 169–172), relating the onset condensation Mach number to upstream stagnation relative humidity, when an effective specific heat ratio is used. The small-disturbance model is a useful tool to analyse the physics of high-speed condensing steam flows around airfoils operating at high pressures and temperatures.
Self-focusing of Gaussian laser beam has been investigated in quantum plasma under the effect of applied axial magnetic field. The nonlinear differential equation has been derived for studying the variations in the beam-width parameter. The effect of initial plasma electron temperature and the axial magnetic field on self-focusing and normalized intensity are studied. Our investigation reveals that normalized intensity increases to tenfolds where quantum effects are dominant. The normalized intensity further increases to twelvefolds on increasing the magnetic field.
Second-harmonic generation of the relativistic self-focused chirped laser pulse in plasma has been studied with the exponential plasma density ramp profile in the presence of a planar magnetostatic wiggler. It is evident that the exponential plasma density ramp is helpful in enhancing second-harmonic generation as, with the introduction of the exponential plasma density ramp, self-focusing becomes stronger and hence, it leads to enhance the harmonic generation of the second order in the plasma. Also, it is observed that the efficiency of second-harmonic generation enhances significantly with an increase in the value of the chirp parameter. Further, the magnetostatic wiggler helps in enhancing the harmonic generation of the second order. This is due to the fact that dynamics of the oscillating electrons is altered due to the Lorentz force which, in turn, modifies the plasma wave and, hence, results in the efficient second-harmonic generation.
In this chapter, we shall study the role of institutions in clean energy transitions in developing countries. Renewable energy (RE) for electricity generation has been proposed as a way to bridge the gap between affordable and clean-energy infrastructure. We shall examine the drivers of past and planned solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity-capacity expansion in eight African countries during a period of rapidly falling technology costs. The countries in our sample that experienced RE expansion do not have liberalized market-oriented electricity sectors, and many provide only limited policy support. Careful cross-case comparisons point to a set of financing, political/regulatory, value capture and technical capabilities that may help to explain RE outcomes. Although these findings are specific to the group of African countries we studied, they may hold lessons for other settings in the ‘second wave’ of RE development.
Annual sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.) is a broadleaf weed that is increasing in prevalence in the northern cropping regions of Australia. Being a member of Asteraceae family, this weed possesses many biological attributes needed to thrive in varying environments and under differing weed management pressures. Interference of this weed in a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop was examined through field studies in 2016 and 2017. Different densities of S. oleraceus were evaluated for their potential to cause yield loss in wheat: 0.0 (weed-free), low (9 to 15 plants m−2), medium (29 to 38 plants m−2), and high (62 to 63 plants m−2). Based on the exponential decay model, 43 and 52 plants m−2 caused a yield reduction of 50% in 2016 and 2017, respectively. Yield components such as panicles per square meter and grains per panicle were affected by weed density. At the high weed infestation level, S. oleraceus produced a maximum of 182,940 and 192,657 seeds m−2 in 2016 and 2017, respectively. Sonchus oleraceus exhibited poor seed retention at harvest, as more than 95% of seeds were blown away by wind. Adverse effects on crop, high seed production, and wind-blown dispersal may lead to an increased prevalence of this weed in the absence of an integrated weed management strategy utilizing both herbicides and nonchemical options.
To investigate clinical outcomes and unmet needs in individuals at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis presenting with Brief and Limited Intermittent Psychotic Symptoms (BLIPS).
Prospective naturalistic long-term (up to 9 years) cohort study in individuals meeting BLIPS criteria at the Outreach And Support In South-London (OASIS) up to April 2016. Baseline sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, specific BLIPS features, preventive treatments received and clinical outcomes (psychotic and non-psychotic) were measured. Analyses included Kaplan Meier survival estimates and Cox regression methods.
One hundred and two BLIPS individuals were followed up to 9 years. Across BLIPS cases, 35% had an abrupt onset; 32% were associated with acute stress, 45% with lifetime trauma and 20% with concurrent illicit substance use. The vast majority (80%) of BLIPS individuals, despite being systematically offered cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis, did not fully engage with it and did not receive the minimum effective dose. Only 3% of BLIPS individuals received the appropriate dose of cognitive behavioural therapy. At 4-year follow-up, 52% of the BLIPS individuals developed a psychotic disorder, 34% were admitted to hospital and 16% received a compulsory admission. At 3-year follow-up, 52% of them received an antipsychotic treatment; at 4-year follow-up, 26% of them received an antidepressant treatment. The presence of seriously disorganising and dangerous features was a strong poor prognostic factor.
BLIPS individuals display severe clinical outcomes beyond their very high risk of developing psychosis and show poor compliance with preventive cognitive behavioural therapy. BLIPS individuals have severe needs for treatment that are not met by current preventive strategies.
Genetic diversity is a valuable asset for crop improvement. In this study, a total of 50 rice genotypes were screened for salinity tolerance at the reproductive stage using gravel-based hydroponics, soil, controlled mini-field and field methods. Different morpho-agronomic, physiological markers and tolerance indices were used to classify tolerant and susceptible genotypes. Our results showed high genetic variability in response of rice genotypes to salinity using different screening methods. The significant effect (P < 0.01) of salinity include increased Na+ sequestration in the flag leaf, increased unfilled grains (except for the field method) and reduced pollen fertility, total yield, panicle length and the average number of filled grains per panicle. Plant height (except for the soil method) and K+ ion concentration in the flag leaf were not significantly affected by salinity (P > 0.05). Genetic diversity analysis indicated that the germplasm evaluated exhibits moderate diversity (PIC
= 0.2085). Cluster analysis using single nucleotide polymorphisms showed that the genetic make-up of rice germplasm somehow did not necessarily indicate their over-all tolerance or susceptibility to salinity. This study proved that the controlled mini-field method is the most advantageous among the screening methods while geometric mean productivity, stress tolerance index and yield index are the tolerance indices that can be classified as better predictors of salinity tolerance considering the yield potentials of the genotypes. The genotypes Nona Bokra and Mushkan 41 can be used for breeding in the future through low Na+:K+ ratio while Damodar and Bhura Rata 4-10 for breeding salt-tolerant cultivars with higher yield potentials.
The eastern Arabian Sea is influenced by both the advection of upwelled water from the western Arabian Sea and winter convective mixing. Therefore, sediments collected from the eastern Arabian Sea can help to understand the long-term seasonal hydrographic changes. We used the planktonic foraminifera census and stable isotopic ratio (δ18O) from sediments drilled during the International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 355 to reconstruct surface hydrographic changes in the eastern Arabian Sea during the last 350 kyr. The increased abundance of Globigerina bulloides suggests enhanced advection of upwelled water during the latter half of MIS7 and the beginning of MIS6, as a result of a strengthened summer monsoon. A large drop in upwelling and/or advection of upwelled water from the western Arabian Sea is inferred during the subsequent interval of MIS6, based on the rare presence of G. bulloides. The comparable relative abundance of Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, G. bulloides and Globigerinoides ruber suggests that during the early part of MIS5, hydrographic conditions were similar to today. The upwelling decreased and winter convection increased with the progress of the glacial interval. A good coherence between planktonic foraminiferal assemblage-based monsoon stacks from both the eastern and western Arabian Sea suggests a coeval response of the entire northern Arabian Sea to the glacial–interglacial changes. The glacial–interglacial difference in δ18Osw-ivc was at a maximum with 4–5 psu change in salinity during Termination 2 and 3, and a minimum during Termination 4. The significantly reduced regional contribution to the glacial–interglacial change in δ18Osw-ivc during Termination 4 suggests a lesser change in the monsoon.
The aim of this study was to compare volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with dynamic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (dIMRT) and step-and-shoot IMRT (ssIMRT) for different treatment sites.
Materials and methods:
Twelve patients were selected for the planning comparison study. This included three head and neck, three brain, three rectal and three cervical cancer patients. Total dose of 50 Gy was given for all the plans. Plans were done for Elekta synergy with Monaco treatment planning system. All plans were generated with 6 MV photons beam. Plan evaluation was based on the ability to meet the dose volume histogram, dose homogeneity index, conformity index and radiation delivery time, and monitor unit needs to deliver the prescribed dose.
The VMAT and dIMRT plans achieved the better conformity (CI98% = 0·965 ± 0·023) and (CI98% = 0·939 ± 0·01), respectively, while ssIMRT plans were slightly inferior (CI98% = 0·901 ± 0·038). The inhomogeneity in the planning target volume (PTV) was highest with ssIMRT with HI equal to 0·097 ± 0·015 when compared to VMAT with HI equal to 0·092 ± 0·0369 and 0·095 ± 0·023 with dIMRT. The integral dose is found to be inferior with VMAT 105·31 ± 53·6 (Gy L) when compared with dIMRT 110·75 ± 52·9 (Gy L) and ssIMRT 115 38 ± 55·1(Gy L). All the techniques respected the planning objective for all organs at risk. The delivery time per fraction for VMAT was much lower than dIMRT and ssIMRT.
Our results indicate that dIMRT and VMAT provide better sparing of normal tissue, homogeneity and conformity than ssIMRT with reduced treatment delivery time.