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This article argues that parliamentary debates over the access to and control of the crown jewels from 1641 to 1644 were intrinsic to the emergence and proliferation of revolutionary ideas about political sovereignty in the earliest stages of the English Civil Wars. In combining the methodologies of parliamentary history with theoretical scholarship on the material foundations of power, it demonstrates that shifting attitudes toward the royal regalia were indicative of more general developments in parliamentary thinking on the origins and limits of monarchical authority. In so doing, it contributes to recent scholarship on the problem of ‘ideological escalation’ at Westminster, demonstrating how quickly an initially radical proposal for access to the crown jewels became sufficiently popular in the House of Commons to authorize the melting down of the royal regalia only a year later. By emphasizing the centrality of the crown jewels to ongoing debates over the ‘ancient constitution’, it suggests that their destruction was understood as a step towards the abolition of monarchy per se.
Intermittent energy restriction (IER) involves short periods of severe energy restriction interspersed with periods of adequate energy intake, and can induce weight loss. Insulin sensitivity is impaired by short-term, complete energy restriction, but the effects of IER are not well known. In randomised order, fourteen lean men (age: 25 (sd 4) years; BMI: 24 (sd 2) kg/m2; body fat: 17 (4) %) consumed 24-h diets providing 100 % (10 441 (sd 812) kJ; energy balance (EB)) or 25 % (2622 (sd 204) kJ; energy restriction (ER)) of estimated energy requirements, followed by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; 75 g of glucose drink) after fasting overnight. Plasma/serum glucose, insulin, NEFA, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) were assessed before and after (0 h) each 24-h dietary intervention, and throughout the 2-h OGTT. Homoeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) assessed the fasted response and incremental AUC (iAUC) or total AUC (tAUC) were calculated during the OGTT. At 0 h, HOMA2-IR was 23 % lower after ER compared with EB (P<0·05). During the OGTT, serum glucose iAUC (P<0·001), serum insulin iAUC (P<0·05) and plasma NEFA tAUC (P<0·01) were greater during ER, but GLP-1 (P=0·161), GIP (P=0·473) and FGF21 (P=0·497) tAUC were similar between trials. These results demonstrate that severe energy restriction acutely impairs postprandial glycaemic control in lean men, despite reducing HOMA2-IR. Chronic intervention studies are required to elucidate the long-term effects of IER on indices of insulin sensitivity, particularly in the absence of weight loss.
Acupuncture has become increasingly popular in veterinary medicine. Within the scientific literature there is debate regarding its efficacy. Due to the complex nature of acupuncture, a scoping review was undertaken to identify and categorize the evidence related to acupuncture in companion animals (dogs, cats, and horses). Our search identified 843 relevant citations. Narrative reviews represented the largest proportion of studies (43%). We identified 179 experimental studies and 175 case reports/case series that examined the efficacy of acupuncture. Dogs were the most common subjects in the experimental trials. The most common indication for use was musculoskeletal conditions, and the most commonly evaluated outcome categories among experimental trials were pain and cardiovascular parameters. The limited number of controlled trials and the breadth of indications for use, outcome categories, and types of acupuncture evaluated present challenges for future systematic reviews or meta-analyses. There is a need for high-quality randomized controlled trials addressing the most common clinical uses of acupuncture, and using consistent and clinically relevant outcomes, to inform conclusions regarding the efficacy of acupuncture in companion animals.
There is a growing concern about the role of the environment in the dissemination of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARG). In this systematic review, we summarize evidence for increases of ARG in the natural environment associated with potential sources of ARB and ARG such as agricultural facilities and wastewater treatment plants. A total of 5247 citations were identified, including studies that ascertained both ARG and ARB outcomes. All studies were screened for relevance to the question and methodology. This paper summarizes the evidence only for those studies with ARG outcomes (n = 24). Sixteen studies were at high (n = 3) or at unclear (n = 13) risk of bias in the estimation of source effects due to lack of information or failure to control for confounders. Statistical methods were used in nine studies; three studies assessed the effect of multiple sources using modeling approaches, and none reported effect measures. Most studies reported higher ARG concentration downstream/near the source, but heterogeneous findings hindered making any sound conclusions. To quantify increases of ARG in the environment due to specific point sources, there is a need for studies that emphasize analytic or design control of confounding, and that provide effect measure estimates.
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 is a common cause of post-weaning scours in piglets. Supplementation of the post-weaning diet with pharmacological levels of zinc oxide reduces the incidence and severity of scours (Carlson et al 2004), in particular that caused by ETEC K88 (Owusu-Asiedu et al. 2003). Piglets reared outdoors pre-weaning also perform better post-weaning than those reared indoors, with an increased growth rate (Miller et al, 2007). The objective of this study was to identify genes that are differentially expressed in the small intestine of the ETEC-challenged piglet in response to dietary ZnO supplementation and outdoor rearing, to increase understanding of the mechanism by which these factors exert their effects.
The concern in this chapter is, first, the limits placed upon women in their career development as a result of stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination. We look at the ideas around the so-called glass ceiling for women and the possible means of overcoming this by looking at different country approaches to the issue of having a quota system. We also consider the linked issue of unequal pay and consider why the gender pay gap and the maternity pay gap continue in all countries. The gender pay gap exists in most countries and women tend to predominate in low-pay sectors or occupations. Amongst the reasons given are that women and men work in sex-segregated occupations, reward mechanisms affect female and male workers differently, women’s skills and work are undervalued, few women occupy leadership positions either in policymaking or in the labour force, gender roles and traditions shape educational choices and working patterns, women on average carry greater family responsibilities and so work fewer hours than men, and women are the victims of discrimination.
Occupational segregation is evident in both the United Kingdom and the United States. Occupational segregation by gender is linked closely to income inequality. Despite great changes in the labour market, including a significant increase in women entering paid work, many occupations continue to be occupied primarily by women or by men and there appears to be a negative relationship between the wages an occupation pays and the share of women who engage in that occupation.
Women workers are much more likely to be part-time than other forms of non-standard working. In the United Kingdom, for example, some 43 per cent of employed women work part-time compared with 13 per cent of working men, but this is a worldwide phenomenon. Part-time work is a costly work option for women limiting both their incomes and careers. We consider this and the potential issues associated with flexible working.
There is a historical assumption that it is women who have the dominant role in caring for children, the disabled, and the infirm, and certainly this is supported by statistics. Women are much more likely to be in unpaid and economically unvalued work compared to men. This includes a greater likelihood of taking on caring responsibilities. Women are more likely than men to take on these caregiving roles, and this chapter is concerned with looking at the picture when caregiving is given to the young, the elderly, and the infirm. We consider who gives this care and what the effect on careers and income can be and then examine some of the piecemeal legal responses available in the contrasting jurisdictions of the United Kingdom and the United States.
Two trends – an ageing population and increasing income inequality – complicate the task of meeting the needs of those approaching or in retirement. Crafting effective regulatory responses, however, requires considering the causes of unequal outcomes in later life, especially the gender and other dimensions of the problem. Women workers suffer multiple disadvantages during their working lives, which result in significantly poorer outcomes in old age in comparison to men. This book sets forth our model of lifetime disadvantage, which captures the way in which gender and other factors play out in the lives of girls and women. Law and policy in the United Kingdom and United States fail to neutralise this complex, cumulative, temporally amplified gender disadvantage. We hypothesise that solutions are hampered by regulatory efforts that are disjointed and incremental. Real retirement equality requires that the vulnerability-producing conditions confronting women workers be tackled in a comprehensive and context-sensitive manner. Legal and policy paradigms geared to women’s life course are necessary.
In this book we are concerned with the financial inequalities that affect women in later life and the reasons for those inequalities which pervade the life course. Here we consider further the position of older women in the labour market and the continuing financial penalties associated with work and marital status that result in lower incomes and lesser assets in later life.
Here we are concerned with gender and age discrimination and stereotyping. Gender stereotypes are the result of assumed male and female characteristics which influence not only people in choosing and developing their careers but also those that make decisions affecting male and female employees. Older age is also full of negative stereotyping, and there is some evidence that women suffer further disadvantages by being perceived to age earlier than men and being more likely to be affected by prejudice based on appearance rather than ability. We also consider what is meant by multiple discrimination and what the cumulative effect of being the subject of age and gender discrimination is.