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Training and development serve as important mechanisms through which organizations can prepare employees for the future of work. This chapter outlines implications for training, including how extant research can inform future interventions and how these approaches might adapt to account for technological, demographic, and behavioral shifts in the workplace.
We characterize, using commuting zero-flux homologies, those volume-preserving vector fields on a 3-manifold that are steady solutions of the Euler equations for some Riemannian metric. This result extends Sullivan’s homological characterization of geodesible flows in the volume-preserving case. As an application, we show that steady Euler flows cannot be constructed using plugs (as in Wilson’s or Kuperberg’s constructions). Analogous results in higher dimensions are also proved.
We present the description of a new species of genus Timea and the re-description of T. hechteli from cryptic habitats in the Gulf of Mexico. Timea alcoladoi sp. nov. is an encrusting, pale orange sponge, with megascleres ranging from styles to subtylostyles (185–990 μm long) and a single category of microscleres, spherostrongilaster characterized by a prominent rounded centre (5–15 μm in diameter). Timea hechteli was established by Lehnert & Heimler, based on the description of a very small specimen, previously recorded as Halicometes stellata by Little, and transferred to the genus Timea by Hechtel. However, because the name ‘stellata’ was preoccupied by the type species, T. stellata, the species was renamed T. hechteli, to honour George Hechtel. After the revision of Little's material and new material, we present the re-description of T. hechteli. For both species, partial sequences of COI mtDNA and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA region were obtained in order to complement our morphological taxonomy and establish their molecular systematic position among tethyids. Tree topologies for both loci were congruent by grouping together our species as a sister group of the main Tethyida clade, which is according to the current systematics of the group. The COI fragment showed Timea as polyphyletic due to two sequences of Timea (from GenBank) that were clustered with other sponge groups. The species described here are the first record of the genus Timea from the Mexican coast of the Gulf of Mexico. A taxonomic key for West Atlantic Timea species is also presented.
The goal of this study is to test an implementation and examine users’ perceptions about the usefulness of telemedicine in mass casualty and disaster settings and to provide recommendations for using telemedicine in these settings.
Ninety-two US Army Forward Surgical Team (FST) members participated in a high-fidelity mass casualty simulation at the Army Trauma Training Center (ATTC). Telemedicine was implemented into this simulation.
Only 10.9% of participants chose to use telemedicine. The most common users were surgeons and nurses. Participants believed it somewhat improved patient care, attainment of expert resources, decision-making, and adaptation, but not the timeliness of patient care. Participants reported several barriers to using telemedicine in the mass casualty setting, including (1) confusion around team roles, (2) time constraints, and (3) difficultly using in the mass casualty setting (eg, due to noise and other conditions).
There appear to be barriers to the use and usefulness of telemedicine in mass casualty and disaster contexts. Recommendations include designating a member to lead the use of telemedicine, providing telemedical resources whose benefits outweigh the perceived cost in lost time, and ensuring telemedicine systems are designed for the conditions inherent to mass casualty and disaster settings.
The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is one of the most important agricultural pests and virus vectors worldwide. Bemisia tabaci is considered a complex of cryptic species with at least 44 species. Among them, the species Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1, formerly B biotype) and Mediterranean (MED, formerly Q biotype) are the most important, and they have attained global status. In Brazil, MEAM1 was first reported in the 1990s and is currently the predominant species in the country, meanwhile, MED was recently reported in the South and Southeast regions and was found to be mainly associated with ornamental plants. Currently, an increasing problem in the management of whitefly infestations in greenhouses associated with bell pepper was observed in São Paulo State, Brazil. The whiteflies were collected and identified based on a microsatellite locus (primer pair BEM23F and BEM23R) and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing. We observed that MED was the predominant species collected on bell pepper, but it was also found on tomato, cucumber, eggplant, and weeds grown in greenhouses. In open field, we found MED on tomatoes, bell peppers, and eggplants. In addition, MED was identified in Goiás State in association with ornamental plants. The begomovirus Tomato severe rugose virus and the crinivirus Tomato chlorosis virus was detected on bell pepper and tomato, respectively. Only MED specimens were found associated with the virus-infected plants. Moreover, we also investigated the endosymbionts present in the MED whiteflies. The collected populations of B. tabaci MED harbored a diversity of secondary endosymbionts, with Hamiltonella (H) found predominantly in 89 specimens of the 129 tested. These results represent a new concern for Brazilian agriculture, especially for the management of the newly introduced whitefly MED species, which must be implemented to limit the spreading and establishment of this pest in different crops in this country.
A cross-sectional survey was carried out to estimate the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in extensively grazed cattle and sheep from central Italy and to identify the related risk factors. Data on notified human Q fever cases in the area were also collected and described. A two-stage cluster sampling was performed. A total of 5083 animals (2210 cattle; 2873 sheep) belonging to 186 farms (92 herds; 94 flocks) were tested for the presence of antibodies against C. burnetii using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The prevalence at the animal-level resulted three times higher in sheep compared to cattle (37.8% vs. 12.0%; χ2 = 270.10, P < 0.001). The prevalence at the herd-level was also higher in sheep than in cattle (87.2% vs. 68.5%; χ2 = 9.52, P < 0.01). The multivariate analysis showed a higher risk of seropositivity for cattle aged 67–107 months (OR 2.79, 95% CI 1.86–4.18), cattle >107 months of age (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.36–3.14) and mixed breed cattle (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.11–2.72). A herd size >92 animals was recognized as herd-level risk factor in cattle (OR 6.88, 95% CI 1.67–28.37). The risk of being seropositive was double in sheep belonging to flocks >600 animals (odds ratio (OR) 2.04, 95% CI 1.63–2.56). Sheep were confirmed to be the most exposed species. Nevertheless, the prevalence observed in cattle also suggests the potential involvement of this species in the circulation of the pathogen in the area. Seven confirmed human Q fever cases were reported. In five out of seven cases there was at least one exposed herd within a 5 km buffer. Even though the source of the infection was not identified, the possibility of C. burnetii circulating in the livestock and human population in the study area cannot be overlooked. The integration between veterinary and human surveillance will be crucial to understand the spread of this zoonosis and to support the adoption of appropriate control measures.
New dietary-based concepts are needed for treatment and effective prevention of overweight and obesity. The primary objective was to investigate if reduction in appetite is associated with improved weight loss maintenance. This cohort study was nested within the European Commission project Satiety Innovation (SATIN). Participants achieving ≥8% weight loss during an initial 8-week low-energy formula diet were included in a 12-week randomised double-blind parallel weight loss maintenance intervention. The intervention included food products designed to reduce appetite or matching controls along with instructions to follow national dietary guidelines. Appetite was assessed by ad libitum energy intake and self-reported appetite evaluations using visual analogue scales during standardised appetite probe days. These were evaluated at the first day of the maintenance period compared with baseline (acute effects after a single exposure of intervention products) and post-maintenance compared with baseline (sustained effects after repeated exposures of intervention products) regardless of randomisation. A total of 181 participants (forty-seven men and 134 women) completed the study. Sustained reduction in 24-h energy intake was associated with improved weight loss maintenance (R 0·37; P = 0·001), whereas the association was not found acutely (P = 0·91). Suppression in self-reported appetite was associated with improved weight loss maintenance both acutely (R −0·32; P = 0·033) and sustained (R −0·33; P = 0·042). Reduction in appetite seems to be associated with improved body weight management, making appetite-reducing food products an interesting strategy for dietary-based concepts.
The authors have shown recently that the neurite extension by neuronal PC12 cells is greatly impacted by aerogel topography. Indeed, the average neurite length of PC-12 cells grown on aerogels is greater than that in cells cultured on control substrates. Here, the authors report on the first experimental study focused on the design and development of a plasmonic photo-patterning technique for collagen-coated mesoporous aerogel biomaterials. Herein, the authors have produced specific patterns on silica aerogels by performing precise plasmonic photo-patterning on liquid crystal-coated aerogels. The authors report the methodology employed to create a collagen–liquid crystal gel mixture imprinted with precise plasmonic photo-patterns. PC12 cells plated on these patterns did attach and survive and followed the spatial cues of the pattern to align themselves in a similar pattern.
Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS™) is a tested strategy for improving communication and climate in hospitals. It is a promising but untested tool among school-based mental health teams. We examined the psychometric properties of the TeamSTEPPS Teamwork Perceptions Questionnaire (T-TPQ) and Teamwork Attitudes Questionnaire (T-TAQ) among 167 school mental health team members. Team members worked for one of five agencies in 33 K-8 urban public schools. Exploratory factor analyses and descriptive data are presented. For both the T-TPQ and T-TAQ, a unitary factor structure best fit the data for this sample. The T-TPQ and T-TAQ were not significantly correlated with one another and total scores did not significantly differ by staff role. Agencies differed in T-TAQ results, and one agency had lower T-TAQ total scores relative to other agencies. Results suggest that the factor structures are different among school mental health teams than among other healthcare providers.
In the tropics, limestone caves in karstic areas are known for their unique biodiversity. However, many caves remain unstudied and little is known about underlying gradients that determine diversity and biomass in aquatic microhabitats. Here, we sampled zooplankton and benthos in a set of 12 aquatic caves, locally called closed cenotes in Yucatán, Mexico. Our aim was to explain diversity patterns and differences in biomass with particular attention for correlations between bat colony characteristics and other biota. Compared with caves that support photosynthesis, diversity was low with an average of four planktonic and two benthic species in these dark caves. Undetectable phosphorus concentrations in the water suggest this nutrient is limiting. Several associations hint at a potential link between bat abundance and functional guild composition, water quality and aquatic biota. As such, more bats were linked to higher nitrate concentrations. Yet this was not translated to higher invertebrate biomass, probably since phosphorus is limiting. Overall, the trends found in this survey suggest that bats could be important as fertilizers of the caves although mechanistic links that mediate the flux of nutrients need to be confirmed experimentally.
A low-energy diet (LED) is an effective approach to induce a rapid weight loss in individuals with overweight. However, reported disproportionally large losses of fat-free mass (FFM) after an LED trigger the question of adequate protein content. Additionally, not all individuals have the same degree of weight loss success. After an 8-week LED providing 5020 kJ/d for men and 4184 kJ/d for women (84/70 g protein/d) among overweight and obese adults, we aimed to investigate the relationship between protein intake relative to initial FFM and proportion of weight lost as FFM as well as the individual characteristics associated with weight loss success. We assessed all outcomes baseline and after the LED. A total of 286 participants (sixty-four men and 222 women) initiated the LED of which 82 % completed and 70 % achieved a substantial weight loss (defined as ≥8 %). Protein intake in the range 1·0–1·6 g protein/d per kg FFM at baseline for men and 1·1–2·2 g protein/d per kg FFM at baseline for women was not associated with loss of FFM (P = 0·632). Higher Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) hunger at baseline and reductions in TFEQ disinhibition and hunger during the LED were associated with larger weight loss (all P ≤ 0·020); whereas lower sleep quality at baseline predicted less successful weight loss using intention to treat analysis (P = 0·021), possibly driven by those dropping out (n 81, P = 0·067 v. completers: n 198, P = 0·659). Thus, the protein intakes relative to initial FFM were sufficient for maintenance of FFM and specific eating behaviour characteristics were associated with weight loss success.
In 2013, the national surveillance case definition for West Nile virus (WNV) disease was revised to remove fever as a criterion for neuroinvasive disease and require at most subjective fever for non-neuroinvasive disease. The aims of this project were to determine how often afebrile WNV disease occurs and assess differences among patients with and without fever. We included cases with laboratory evidence of WNV disease reported from four states in 2014. We compared demographics, clinical symptoms and laboratory evidence for patients with and without fever and stratified the analysis by neuroinvasive and non-neuroinvasive presentations. Among 956 included patients, 39 (4%) had no fever; this proportion was similar among patients with and without neuroinvasive disease symptoms. For neuroinvasive and non-neuroinvasive patients, there were no differences in age, sex, or laboratory evidence between febrile and afebrile patients, but hospitalisations were more common among patients with fever (P < 0.01). The only significant difference in symptoms was for ataxia, which was more common in neuroinvasive patients without fever (P = 0.04). Only 5% of non-neuroinvasive patients did not meet the WNV case definition due to lack of fever. The evidence presented here supports the changes made to the national case definition in 2013.
Adélie penguins are renowned for their natal philopatry on land-based colonies, requiring small pebbles to be used for nests. We report on an opportunistic observation via aerial survey, where hundreds of Adélie penguins were documented displaying nesting behaviours on fast ice ~3 km off the coast of Cape Crozier, which is one of the largest colonies in the world. We counted 426 Adélie penguins engaging in behaviours of pair formation, spacing similarly to normal nest distributions and lying in divots in the ice that looked like nests. On our first visit, it was noticed that the guano stain was bright pink, consistent with krill consumption, but had shifted to green over the course of ~2 weeks, indicating that the birds were fasting (a behaviour consistent with egg incubation). However, eggs were not observed. We posit four hypotheses that may explain the proximate causes of this behaviour and caution against future high-resolution satellite imagery interpretation due to the potential for confusing ice-nesting Adélie penguins with the presence of emperor penguin colonies.
Dona Joana Ribeiro enjoyed extensive access to land and agricultural production in late eighteenth-century Catumbela – on the bank of the Catumbela River, some three miles from the Atlantic coast and some 10 miles north of Benguela (see Map 4 ‘West Central Africa, 1850’). She had four plots of land and three farms, where she produced 98 cazongueis – totalling around 3,234 lb (pounds) – of maize (corn) and beans in 1798. These numbers surpassed the average of 2,515 lb of crops generated per farmer in Catumbela in the same year. Dona Joana belonged to a group of elite African women – one-third of the landowners – who accumulated wealth through access to land, control of dependants and agricultural production in the presídio (interior administrative outpost) of Catumbela. Yet the ability of African women to control land or food production did not constitute their main economic role in Catumbela: more important was their participation as labourers in agricultural production. Most of them were in a situation of economic dependency, often including slavery. Women represented two-thirds of the total number of free and enslaved dependants – i.e. either free or enslaved people whose labour was controlled by people with access to land. The higher number of women than men in this central economic activity supports the thesis that villages like Catumbela were immersed in the supply of enslaved people, mostly men, for the transatlantic slave trade, despite the fact that they were located in coastal areas. In addition, this chapter shows that access to land consolidated rights and the accumulation of dependent labour, despite the lack of land titles. Some African women were able to benefit from land distribution.
Scholars interested in women's agency in pre-colonial and colonial Africa have paid attention to agricultural and other types of production in the private and public spheres. Scholars have tended to generalise the predominant role of women in agricultural production, blurring the power distinctions entailed in the different activities involved. This chapter examines women's and men's control of dependents, access to land and agricultural production in Catumbela, as well as their personal connections in Benguela. I distinguish between women who were dependants and women who had access to land and labourers and controlled food production. Women did not constitute a homogeneous group in Catumbela and, moreover, there was a disparity between women's and men's opportunities to accumulate wealth.
The aim of the study was to determine the main factors (sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle and health status) associated with high Na excretion in a representative population of Chile.
Na excretion (g/d), a valid marker of Na intake, was determined by urine analysis and Tanaka’s formulas. Blood pressure was measured by trained staff and derived from the mean of three readings recorded after 15 min rest. The associations of Na excretion with blood pressure and the primary correlates of high Na excretion were determined using logistic regression.
Chileans aged ≥15 years.
Participants (n 2913) from the Chilean National Health Survey 2009–2010.
Individuals aged 25 years or over, those who were obese and those who had hypertension, diabetes or metabolic syndrome were more likely to have higher Na excretion. The odds for hypertension increased by 10·2 % per 0·4 g/d increment in Na excretion (OR=1·10; 95 % CI 1·06, 1·14; P < 0·0001). These findings were independent of major confounding factors.
Age, sex, adiposity, sitting behaviours and existing co-morbidities such as diabetes were associated with higher Na excretion levels in the Chilean population. These findings could help policy makers to implement public health strategies tailored towards individuals who are more likely to consume high levels of dietary salt.
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of Hurricane Maria on internalizing and posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) among Puerto Ricans who moved to Florida after the storm versus those who stayed on the island.
In March through April 2018 (6 months after Hurricane Maria), an online survey was used to assess the effects of the storm on mental health. A sample of 213 displaced Puerto Ricans living in urban and rural/suburban areas in Florida, as well as urban and rural areas of Puerto Rico, participated in the study.
Rates of PTSD were high in both sites (Florida, 65.7%; Puerto Rico, 43.6%); however, participants in Florida were far more likely than those in Puerto Rico to meet diagnostic criteria for PTSD (OR, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.67-5.26). Among participants in both Florida and Puerto Rico, those living in urban areas were more likely than those in rural/suburban areas to meet criteria for PTSD and generalized anxiety disorder.
Results suggest that post-Hurricane Maria adjustment and adaptation may have been more psychologically taxing for Puerto Ricans who moved to Florida than it was for those who remained on the island, and more difficult for those in urban areas than it was for those in suburban or rural areas. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:24–27)
Insect-borne plant viruses usually alter the interactions between host plant and insect vector in ways conducive to their transmission (‘host manipulation hypothesis’). Most studies have tested this hypothesis with persistently and non-persistently transmitted viruses, while few have examined semi-persistently transmitted viruses. The crinivirus Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) is semi-persistently transmitted virus by whiteflies, and has been recently reported infecting potato plants in Brazil, where Bemisia tabaci Middle East Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) is a competent vector. We investigated how ToCV infection modifies the interaction between potato plants and B. tabaci in ways that increase the likelihood of ToCV transmission, in two clones, one susceptible (‘Agata’) and the other moderately resistant (Bach-4) to B. tabaci. Whiteflies alighted and laid more eggs on ToCV-infected plants than mock-inoculated plants of Bach-4. When non-viruliferous whiteflies were released on ToCV-infected plants near mock-inoculated plants, adults moved more intensely towards non-infected plants than in the reverse condition for both clones. Feeding on ToCV-infected plants reduced egg-incubation period in both clones, but the egg–adult cycle was similar for whiteflies fed on ToCV-infected and mock-inoculated plants. Our results demonstrated that ToCV infection in potato plants alters B. tabaci behaviour and development in distinct ways depending on the host clone, with potential implications for ToCV spread.
Malnutrition, specifically protein-energy wasting (PEW), is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and its prevalence increases as CKD progresses. Oral nutritional supplementation (ONS) with complete formulas specific to this pathology, is a strategy aimed at meeting energy and protein requirements that are not possible with dietary recommendations and advice alone. This study systematically reviewed the available scientific literature on the safety and effectiveness of nutritional therapy with complete formulas specially designed for adults with CKD who have PEW that is not reversible through ordinary food consumption.
We systematically searched for articles published up to May 2018 in several electronic databases. We included comparative studies that evaluated the safety and effectiveness of complete nutritional formulas for malnourished adults with CKD. Relevant outcomes included rates of death, hospitalization, and adverse effects, and changes in nutritional status, anthropometrics, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL).
Three systematic reviews and 22 primary studies were identified. The primary studies comprised nine randomized controlled trials, nine non-randomized comparative studies, and four before-after studies (the latter were only included in the safety review). The majority of studies were conducted in patients on hemodialysis. The studies exhibited methodological heterogeneity in terms of the methods used to measure nutritional status and the interventions and comparators evaluated. There was also inconsistency among the results. Adherence to ONS, especially in the long term, can be affected by taste fatigue produced by repeatedly taking the same formula. Some studies recommend supplementation during hemodialysis sessions.
The studies with less risk of bias indicated a trend toward improvements in rates of death and hospitalization, HRQoL and, to a lesser extent, some anthropometric variables and serum markers, such as albumin, when ONS was given to patients with CKD. High quality comparative studies are needed to make conclusive statements about the effectiveness of this intervention.