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Potential effectiveness of harvest weed seed control (HWSC) systems depends upon seed shatter of the target weed species at crop maturity, enabling its collection and processing at crop harvest. However, seed retention likely is influenced by agroecological and environmental factors. In 2016 and 2017, we assessed seed shatter phenology in thirteen economically important broadleaf weed species in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] from crop physiological maturity to four weeks after physiological maturity at multiple sites spread across fourteen states in the southern, northern, and mid-Atlantic U.S. Greater proportions of seeds were retained by weeds in southern latitudes and shatter rate increased at northern latitudes. Amaranthus species seed shatter was low (0 to 2%), whereas shatter varied widely in common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) (2 to 90%) over the weeks following soybean physiological maturity. Overall, the broadleaf species studied shattered less than ten percent of their seeds by soybean harvest. Our results suggest that some of the broadleaf species with greater seed retention rates in the weeks following soybean physiological maturity may be good candidates for HWSC.
Seed shatter is an important weediness trait on which the efficacy of harvest weed seed control (HWSC) depends. The level of seed shatter in a species is likely influenced by agroecological and environmental factors. In 2016 and 2017, we assessed seed shatter of eight economically important grass weed species in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] from crop physiological maturity to four weeks after maturity at multiple sites spread across eleven states in the southern, northern, and mid-Atlantic U.S. From soybean maturity to four weeks after maturity, cumulative percent seed shatter was lowest in the southern U.S. regions and increased as the states moved further north. At soybean maturity, the percent of seed shatter ranged from 1 to 70%. That range had shifted to 5 to 100% (mean: 42%) by 25 days after soybean maturity. There were considerable differences in seed shatter onset and rate of progression between sites and years in some species that could impact their susceptibility to HWSC. Our results suggest that many summer annual grass species are likely not ideal candidates for HWSC, although HWSC could substantially reduce their seed output at during certain years.
Background: Surgical site infections (SSIs) among cardiothoracic (CT) patients are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Data are limited regarding SSI incidence among pediatric patients undergoing primary reparative procedures for congenital cardiac disease. Published evidence on targeted interventions to prevent pediatric CT-surgery SSI is lacking. We aimed to establish standard metrics for measuring CT-surgery SSI incidence and to implement bundled interventions for SSI prevention. Methods: A dedicated CT-surgery SSI prevention workgroup was established, consisting of hospital leadership, CT surgeons, cardiac critical care unit staff, anesthesia, perfusion, environmental services, instrument sterile processing, risk management, infection prevention and antibiotic stewardship. We created a standard definition for CT-surgery SSI and calculated retrospective SSI rates over a 24-month period (2017–2019). The outcome measured was incidence of CT-surgery SSI per 100 primary cardiac procedures with delayed ( 3 days after primary surgery) or non-delayed chest closure. The difference in proportion of SSI was reported separately for delayed closure and non-delayed closure; statistical significance was tested using a Fisher’s Exact test. We identified many potential improvement opportunities, including gaps in SSI surveillance, poor compliance with daily bathing, inconsistent perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis, lack of controlled environment for bedside chest closures, and lapses in environmental cleaning. These issues informed the enhanced SSI prevention bundle, which included education on sterility with the operating room (OR) staff. Protocols for care of cardiac patients with delayed chest closures focused on universal daily and preoperative chlorhexidine baths. In addition, the bundle incorporated stringent environmental cleaning interventions including scheduled decluttering of patient rooms and clinical spaces, terminal cleaning of patient rooms prior to returning from the OR, and use of adjunctive ultraviolet light for the daily cleaning of operating rooms and patient rooms at discharge. Results: Surveillance definition of microbiological growth from a clinical sample obtained within 30 days of primary cardiac procedure sufficiently captured all CT-surgery SSIs. Of 551 CT-surgery procedures prior to intervention, 91 (17%) had delayed final operative closures. Prior to the intervention, 16 SSIs were identified from July 2017 – May 2019 for a rate of 2.90 per /100 procedures, and was higher among patients with delayed chest closure 6.59 per /100 procedures (6 SSIs/91 procedures) versus those with primary chest closure 2.17 per /100 procedures (10 SSIs/460 procedures; P = 0.034). Gram-positive organisms, including coagulase coagulase-negative Staphylococci, were most frequently identified as the causative organisms for SSIs. Compliance with bundled intervention, rolled out over a 2-month period, was associated with an immediate decrease in the number of SSIs for primary and delayed chest closures 6SSIs /185 procedures in the initial quarters (August – December 2019) of the post-intervention period. However, this decrease was not reflected in the overall rate (3.24 per /100 procedures) due to fewer procedures performed. Data collection to measure sustainability is ongoing. Conclusions: Bundled interventions targeting skin antisepsis and environmental cleaning may be associated with a decrease in SSIs among pediatric CT-surgery patients. Ongoing surveillance is required to determine sustainability of these interventions.
A control volume based analytical method for calculating the efficiency
of flapping foil power generators was developed for single and tandem foil configurations. Ignoring unsteady effects and non-uniform pressures resulted in theoretical limits identical to the Betz (
for a single turbine) and Newman (
for tandem turbines) limits. Inclusion of unsteady flow and non-uniform pressure distributions produced theoretical efficiency maxima in excess of these limits. Simulation of single and tandem foil cases to determine the magnitude of these effects showed that the Betz limit would not be exceeded by a single foil system in practice, but that it is conceivable that a tandem foil system could exceed the Newman limit due to the strong unsteady vortex wake of the upstream turbine entraining additional energy into the path of the downstream turbine and maintaining pressures in the wake below ambient.
To conduct international comparisons of self-reports, collateral reports, and cross-informant agreement regarding older adult psychopathology.
We compared self-ratings of problems (e.g. I cry a lot) and personal strengths (e.g. I like to help others) for 10,686 adults aged 60–102 years from 19 societies and collateral ratings for 7,065 of these adults from 12 societies.
Data were obtained via the Older Adult Self-Report (OASR) and the Older Adult Behavior Checklist (OABCL; Achenbach et al., 2004).
Cronbach’s alphas were .76 (OASR) and .80 (OABCL) averaged across societies. Across societies, 27 of the 30 problem items with the highest mean ratings and 28 of the 30 items with the lowest mean ratings were the same on the OASR and the OABCL. Q correlations between the means of the 0–1–2 ratings for the 113 problem items averaged across all pairs of societies yielded means of .77 (OASR) and .78 (OABCL). For the OASR and OABCL, respectively, analyses of variance (ANOVAs) yielded effect sizes (ESs) for society of 15% and 18% for Total Problems and 42% and 31% for Personal Strengths, respectively. For 5,584 cross-informant dyads in 12 societies, cross-informant correlations averaged across societies were .68 for Total Problems and .58 for Personal Strengths. Mixed-model ANOVAs yielded large effects for society on both Total Problems (ES = 17%) and Personal Strengths (ES = 36%).
The OASR and OABCL are efficient, low-cost, easily administered mental health assessments that can be used internationally to screen for many problems and strengths.
Hydrogen lithography has been used to template phosphine-based surface chemistry to fabricate atomic-scale devices, a process we abbreviate as atomic precision advanced manufacturing (APAM). Here, we use mid-infrared variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (IR-VASE) to characterize single-nanometer thickness phosphorus dopant layers (δ-layers) in silicon made using APAM compatible processes. A large Drude response is directly attributable to the δ-layer and can be used for nondestructive monitoring of the condition of the APAM layer when integrating additional processing steps. The carrier density and mobility extracted from our room temperature IR-VASE measurements are consistent with cryogenic magneto-transport measurements, showing that APAM δ-layers function at room temperature. Finally, the permittivity extracted from these measurements shows that the doping in the APAM δ-layers is so large that their low-frequency in-plane response is reminiscent of a silicide. However, there is no indication of a plasma resonance, likely due to reduced dimensionality and/or low scattering lifetime.
Recent declines of wild pollinators and infections in honey, bumble and other bee species have raised concerns about pathogen spillover from managed honey and bumble bees to other pollinators. Parasites of honey and bumble bees include trypanosomatids and microsporidia that often exhibit low host specificity, suggesting potential for spillover to co-occurring bees via shared floral resources. However, experimental tests of trypanosomatid and microsporidial cross-infectivity outside of managed honey and bumble bees are scarce. To characterize potential cross-infectivity of honey and bumble bee-associated parasites, we inoculated three trypanosomatids and one microsporidian into five potential hosts – including four managed species – from the apid, halictid and megachilid bee families. We found evidence of cross-infection by the trypanosomatids Crithidia bombi and C. mellificae, with evidence for replication in 3/5 and 3/4 host species, respectively. These include the first reports of experimental C. bombi infection in Megachile rotundata and Osmia lignaria, and C. mellificae infection in O. lignaria and Halictus ligatus. Although inability to control amounts inoculated in O. lignaria and H. ligatus hindered estimates of parasite replication, our findings suggest a broad host range in these trypanosomatids, and underscore the need to quantify disease-mediated threats of managed social bees to sympatric pollinators.
Lithium is the third element in the periodic table. It was discovered just over 200 years ago in the mineral petalite by the Swedish chemist Arfwedson, and later separated by others (Cogen 2006, Weeks & Larson, 1937). It was initially named lithion (Greek for stone).
While fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) has primarily been thought of as a neurodevelopmental condition, research is beginning to highlight its ‘whole-body’ implications. Accordingly, the current study sought to provide a snapshot of potential health issues. Caregivers of children (median age of 12 years) with an FASD diagnosis were invited to participate in an online survey. Information relating to sample demographics, FASD status of the child and health outcomes were collected. The prevalence of health conditions reported in the FASD sample was compared against national prevalence data. Multiple linear regression utilising a stepwise approach was used to investigate potential predictors of the number of diagnosed health conditions. Survey data were from an international cohort (n = 197), with the majority of respondents based in Australia (40.2%) or the United States (27.7%). The most commonly reported diagnosed health conditions were eye conditions (44.7%), asthma (34.5%), heart conditions (34.0%) and skin conditions (27.4%). Binomial testing indicated the proportion of children diagnosed with these disorders was generally higher in the current FASD population, compared to national prevalence data. Indicators of metabolic dysfunction including diabetes and obesity were not significantly different compared to national prevalence data. Age of FASD diagnosis, existence of comorbid mental health conditions and the primary caregiver being in paid work were identified as being associated with the prevalence of diagnosed health conditions. Overall, the study has provided an up-to-date snapshot of health problems reported in a sample of children with FASD, confirming their increased risk of adverse health outcomes.
Evaluate efficacy and tolerability of quetiapine and paroxetine monotherapy for major depressive episodes in bipolar disorder during an acute 8-week period and up to 52-week continuation phase.
740 patients (478 bipolar I, 262 bipolar II) were randomized to quetiapine 300mg/d (n=245), quetiapine 600mg/d (n=247), paroxetine 20mg/d (n=122), or placebo (n=126) for 8 weeks. Primary endpoint was change from baseline to 8 weeks in MADRS total score. After 8 weeks, patients with MADRS ≤12 and YMRS ≤12 entered a 26- to 52-week continuation phase of quetiapine (300mg/d or 600mg/d) or placebo. Patients on paroxetine received 300mg/d of quetiapine (continuation phase results not included here and to be presented separately).
LSM MADRS score change at 8 weeks was -16.19 (quetiapine 300mg/d),-16.31 (quetiapine 600mg/d), -13.76 (paroxetine), and -12.60 (placebo; P<0.001 for both quetiapine doses, P=0.313 for paroxetine, versus placebo; LOCF ANCOVA). Quetiapine (both doses)-treated patients showed significantly greater improvements (P≤0.05) in MADRS response rate, HAM-D, CGI-BP-S, CGI-BP-Change, HAM-A, and MADRS item 10 (suicidal thoughts) at Week 8 versus placebo; MADRS remission rates improved with quetiapine 600mg/d versus placebo (P=0.012). Paroxetine improved HAM-A scores versus placebo (P=0.033).
Most common adverse events considered drug-related included dry mouth, somnolence, sedation, and dizziness with quetiapine (both doses); dry mouth, sedation, headache, insomnia, and nausea with paroxetine.
Quetiapine (300mg/d or 600mg/d) was more effective than placebo for the treatment of acute depressive episodes in bipolar I and II disorder. Quetiapine treatment was generally well tolerated.
Supported by funding from AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP.
Characteristics of DSM-IV attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults can also be found as part of other psychiatric disorders. This study investigated the specificity of adult ADHD features in relation to patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), a syndrome which shares some of its intrinsic features with ADHD and often co-occurs with ADHD. A group of 20 adult patients selected on the basis of a diagnosis of ADHD and 20 patients selected on the basis of a diagnosis of BPD were assessed by the self-report Attention Deficit Scales for Adults (ADSA). The two groups were matched for age, verbal IQ and gender. Of the nine ADSA scales, seven showed significant inter-group differences, in particular involving attention, organisation and persistence. The ‘Consistency/Long-Term’ scale, which mainly reflects impaired task and goal persistence, was the best discriminator between the groups. Furthermore, ratings on this scale correlated significantly with the error score of a computer-administered task of spatial working memory, the performance of which has been reported to be impaired in patients with ADHD. The results provide further validation for the ADSA scales and support a previous claim that ‘long-term consistencies’, i.e., related to task and goal persistence, is ‘the centrepiece behavioural issue’ for adults with ADHD.
Dystrobrevin binding protein 1 (DTNBP1) is a schizophrenia susceptibility gene involved with neurotransmission regulation (especially dopamine and glutamate) and neurodevelopment. The gene is known to be associated with cognitive deficit phenotypes within schizophrenia. In our previous studies, DTNBP1 was found associated not only with schizophrenia but with other psychiatric disorders including psychotic depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, nicotine dependence and opiate dependence. These findings suggest that DNTBP1 may be involved in pathways that lead to multiple psychiatric phenotypes. In this study, we explored the association between DTNBP1 SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) and multiple psychiatric phenotypes included in the Diagnostic Interview of Psychosis (DIP).
Five DTNBP1 SNPs, rs17470454, rs1997679, rs4236167, rs9370822 and rs9370823, were genotyped in 235 schizophrenia subjects screened for various phenotypes in the domains of depression, mania, hallucinations, delusions, subjective thought disorder, behaviour and affect, and speech disorder. SNP-phenotype association was determined with ANOVA under general, dominant/recessive and over-dominance models.
Post hoc tests determined that SNP rs1997679 was associated with visual hallucination; SNP rs4236167 was associated with general auditory hallucination as well as specific features including non-verbal, abusive and third-person form auditory hallucinations; and SNP rs9370822 was associated with visual and olfactory hallucinations. SNPs that survived correction for multiple testing were rs4236167 for third-person and abusive form auditory hallucinations; and rs9370822 for olfactory hallucinations.
These data suggest that DTNBP1 is likely to play a role in development of auditory related, visual and olfactory hallucinations which is consistent with evidence of DTNBP1 activity in the auditory processing regions, in visual processing and in the regulation of glutamate and dopamine activity.
Selenium (Se) is an essential element for human health. However, our knowledge of the prevalence of Se deficiency is less than for other micronutrients of public health concern such as iodine, iron and zinc, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Studies of food systems in SSA, in particular in Malawi, have revealed that human Se deficiency risks are widespread and influenced strongly by geography. Direct evidence of Se deficiency risks includes nationally representative data of Se concentrations in blood plasma and urine as population biomarkers of Se status. Long-range geospatial variation in Se deficiency risks has been linked to soil characteristics and their effects on the Se concentration of food crops. Selenium deficiency risks are also linked to socio-economic status including access to animal source foods. This review highlights the need for geospatially-resolved data on the movement of Se and other micronutrients in food systems which span agriculture–nutrition–health disciplinary domains (defined as a GeoNutrition approach). Given that similar drivers of deficiency risks for Se, and other micronutrients, are likely to occur in other countries in SSA and elsewhere, micronutrient surveillance programmes should be designed accordingly.
Prior studies indicate greater disease burden for obesity among rural compared with urban residents but no differences for mood disorder based on geographic location. Recent attention has focused on the need to examine regional rural–urban disparities in disease burden. We focused on mood disorders and obesity prevalence within three southeastern Minnesota counties served by the Mayo Clinic Center for Translational Science Award, in Rochester, Minnesota, as these were top priorities identified in community health needs assessments.
Cross-sectional study to assess the association of rural–urban locality on 5-year (2009–2014) prevalence of mood disorder and obesity obtained using the Rochester Epidemiological Project medical records linkage system, among subjects residing in three mixed rural–urban counties on April 1, 2014. Multivariable analyses adjusted for demographics, socioeconomic status using an individual housing-based measure, and counties.
The study cohort (percent rural location) included 91,202 (15%) for Olmsted, 10,197 (51%) in Dodge, and 10,184 (57%) in Wabasha counties. On multivariate analysis, 5-year prevalence of mood disorders and obesity was significantly greater for urban compared with rural residents, after adjusting for confounders; odds ratios (95% confidence intervals): 1.21 (1.17–1.26), P < 0.001, and 1.05 (1.01–1.10), P = 0.016, respectively. Observed effects were not modified in additional models adjusted for health care utilization (HCU; ≥1 general medical examination visit and flu vaccination).
Rural–urban health disparities for burden of mood disorders and obesity are independent of socioeconomic status and HCU in a Midwestern community. It is important to assess potential regional heterogeneity of rural–urban disparities on health outcomes.
The Internet is commonly used in modern society; however, Internet use may become a problematic behaviour. There is an increasing need for research on problematic Internet use (PIU) and its’ associated risk factors.
This study aims to explore the prevalence and health correlates of problematic Internet use among South Korean adults.
We recruited the participants aged between 18 and 84 years old among the online panel of an online research service. The sample size of the survey was 500. Of these 500 participants, 51.4% (n = 257) were men and 48.6% (n = 243) were women. A participant was classified as a problematic Internet use (PIU) if his/her total score of Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIA) was above 50. Stress Response Index (SRI), Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence, lifetime average caffeine consumption, and sociodemographic query form were used in the collection of data. The t test and chi-square test were used for data analysis.
One hundred ninety-seven (39.4%) of the participants was classified into the PIU group. There was no difference of gender and education between PIU and normal users. However, PIU group was younger (mean 39.5 years) than normal users (mean 45.8 years). PIU group was more likely to have high levels of perceived stress, nicotine dependence, and drink more often caffeinated beverages (P < 0.05).
These data indicate that problematic Internet use is associated with perceived stress level, nicotine and caffeine use in South Korean Internet users. More research is needed to better understand the relationship between Internet use and mental health issues.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Patients with subthreshold bipolar disorder (sub-BP) experience severe clinical courses and functional impairments, which are comparable to those with bipolar I and II disorders (BP-I and -II). Nevertheless, lifetime prevalence, socioeconomic correlates and diagnostic overlaps of bipolar spectrum disorder (BPS) have not yet been estimated in the general population of South Korean adults.
This study aimed to estimate the lifetime prevalence, correlates and diagnostic comorbidities of BPS using a validated screening instrument in the nationwide general population of South Korea.
A total of 3013 adults among the 2011 Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area survey (KECA-2011) completed face-to-face interviews using the Korean versions of the composite international diagnostic interview 2.1 and mood disorder questionnaire (K-CIDI and K-MDQ).
The lifetime prevalence of BPS in the South Korean adults was measured to be 4.3% (95% CI 2.6–6.9). Nearly 80% of the subjects with BPS were codiagnosed with other DSM-IV nonpsychotic mental disorders: 35.4% (95% CI 24.2–48.5) for major depression and dysthymic disorder, 35.1% (95% CI 27.7–43.3) for anxiety disorders and 51.9% (95% CI 40.5–63.1) for alcohol and nicotine use disorders. Younger age (18–34 years) was the only sociodemographic predictor of BPS positivity (P = 0.014) and the diagnostic overlap patterns were different between men and women.
Positivity for BPS was estimated to be much greater than the prevalence of DSM-IV BP in South Korea. Most of the respondents with BPS were diagnosed with other major mental disorders and this might be related with mis and/or underdiagnosis of clinically relevant Sub-BP.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Cognitive dysfunction is an important aspect of depression that includes problems with thinking, concentration and memory. Research suggests that the cognitive aspect of depression is highly prevalent and has a significant impact on patient functioning. Currently, cognitive dysfunction in depression is largely unrecognised, unmonitored and untreated.
We aim to define cognitive dysfunction in clinical depression (major depressive disorder) and explore its detection and management in the UK, highlighting priority areas to be addressed.
A modified Delphi method was used as the process to gain consensus. A multi-stakeholder steering committee of depression experts (including psychiatrists, psychologists, primary care physicians, and representatives from occupational therapy and a depression charity) provided the key themes and, through round-table discussion, developed draft statements. The main areas of focus were burden, detection and management of cognitive dysfunction in depression. These statements formed a questionnaire to be reviewed by 150–200 health-care professionals with an involvement in the management of depression, with level of agreement noted as ‘strongly disagree’, ‘disagree’, ‘don’t know/uncertain’, ‘agree’ or ‘strongly agree’. Responses to the questionnaire will be analysed (very high agreement [> 66%] or very low agreement [< 33%]) and the steering committee will revise and finalise the consensus statements, and identify priority areas for future consideration. The steering committee was initiated and supported by the pharmaceutical company Lundbeck Ltd, through an educational grant. Lundbeck Ltd did not influence content.
Results of the questionnaire and the evolution of the final consensus statements will be presented.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Stressful experiences affect biological stress systems, such as the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. Life stress can potentially alter regulation of the HPA axis and has been associated with poorer physical and mental health. Little, however, is known about the relative influence of stressors that are encountered at different developmental periods on acute stress reactions in adulthood. In this study, we explored three models of the influence of stress exposure on cortisol reactivity to a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) by leveraging 37 years of longitudinal data in a high-risk birth cohort (N = 112). The cumulative stress model suggests that accumulated stress across the lifespan leads to dysregulated reactivity, whereas the biological embedding model implicates early childhood as a critical period. The sensitization model assumes that dysregulation should only occur when stress is high in both early childhood and concurrently. All of the models predicted altered reactivity, but do not anticipate its exact form. We found support for both cumulative and biological embedding effects. However, when pitted against each other, early life stress predicted more blunted cortisol responses at age 37 over and above cumulative life stress. Additional analyses revealed that stress exposure in middle childhood also predicted more blunted cortisol reactivity.
Clozapine is the most effective antipsychotic medication, but it has the highest propensity for metabolic side effects. A clozapine clinic was established within an early intervention for psychosis service to facilitate the timely commencement of clozapine and to manage the associated adverse effects. This study describes the changes in the weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and blood pressure after 6 months in young people commenced on clozapine.
This was a prospective cohort study of all young people, aged 15–24 years, commenced on clozapine within an early intervention service in Melbourne, Australia, between 01.04.2016 and 30.06.2018. Continuous data were analyzed with paired t-test and categorical with Wilcoxon signed-rank test.
Twenty-six young people received 6 months of treatment with clozapine, of whom the mean age was 19.8 years (s.d. ±3.1) and 66.7% were male. After 6 months, the mean weight gain was 5.1 kg (s.d. ±10.1 kg) and over half (53.8%) gained clinically significant weight. The proportion of young people classified as either overweight or obese rose from 69.2% to 88.5% (p = 0.006). The proportion of young people with a waist circumference above the recommended parameters increased from 57.9% to 78.9% (p = 0.008). Hypertension was present in 30%, and after 6 months, 45% had hypertension (p = 0.64). Metformin was prescribed to 34.6%, typically to those with the greatest and most rapid weight gain.
Among young people with treatment resistant psychosis, clozapine is associated with significant metabolic side effects in the early stages of commencement. More interventions aimed at attenuating this weight gain are needed.