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Incidence of human yersiniosis in New Zealand has increased between 2013 and 2017. For surveillance and outbreak investigations it is essential that an appropriate level of discrimination between pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica isolates is provided, in order to support epidemiological linking of connected cases. Subtyping of 227 Y. enterocolitica isolates was performed using a range of different typing methods, including biotyping, serotyping and seven loci multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). In addition, core genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (core SNP) analysis and multi-locus sequence typing were performed on a subset of 69 isolates. Sixty-seven different MLVA types were identified. One MLVA profile was associated with an outbreak in the Bay of Plenty region, supported by epidemiological data. Core SNP analysis showed that all the outbreak-related isolates clustered together. The subtyping and epidemiological evidence suggests that the outbreak of yersiniosis in the Bay of Plenty region between October and December 2016 could be attributed to a point source. However, subtyping results further suggest that the same clone was isolated from several regions between August 2016 and March 2017. Core SNP analysis and MLVA typing failed to differentiate between Y. enterocolitica biotype 2 and biotype 3. For this reason, we propose that these biotypes should be reported as a single type namely: Y. enterocolitica biotype 2/3 and that the serotype should be prioritised as an indicator of prevalence.
This paper presents a review of the current status of photodiode array systems adapted for Energy Dispersive EXAFS (EDE) using a synchrotron radiation source. The performance of a conventional Reticon PDA is compared with that of a hybrid CCD. The specification of a new detector system for EDE is discussed in the light of experience gained with current linear detectors.
We recently reported an association of offspring educational attainment with polygenic risk scores (PRS) computed on parent’s non-transmitted alleles for educational attainment using the second GWAS meta-analysis article on educational attainment published by the Social Science Genetic Association Consortium. Here we test the replication of these findings using a more powerful PRS from the third GWAS meta-analysis article by the Consortium. Each of the key findings of our previous paper is replicated using this improved PRS (N = 2335 adolescent twins and their genotyped parents). The association of children’s attainment with their own PRS increased substantially with the standardized effect size, moving from β = 0.134, 95% CI = 0.079, 0.188 for EA2, to β = 0.223, 95% CI = 0.169, 0.278, p < .001, for EA3. Parent’s PRS again predicted the socioeconomic status (SES) they provided to their offspring and increased from β = 0.201, 95% CI = 0.147, 0.256 to β = 0.286, 95% CI = 0.239, 0.333. Importantly, the PRS for alleles not transmitted to their offspring — therefore acting via the parenting environment — was increased in effect size from β = 0.058, 95% CI = 0.003, 0.114 to β = 0.067, 95% CI = 0.012, 0.122, p = .016. As previously found, this non-transmitted genetic effect was fully accounted for by parental SES. The findings reinforce the conclusion that genetic effects of parenting are substantial, explain approximately one-third the magnitude of an individual’s own genetic inheritance and are mediated by parental socioeconomic competence.
Birth weight and early growth have been associated with later blood pressure. However, not all studies consistently find a significant reduction in blood pressure with an increase in birth weight. In addition, the relative importance of birth weight and of other lifestyle and environmental factors is often overlooked and the association is rarely studied in adolescents. We investigated early life predictors, including birth weight, of adolescent blood pressure in the Gateshead Millennium Study (GMS). The GMS is a cohort of 1029 individuals born in 1999–2000 in Gateshead in Northern England. Throughout infancy and early childhood, detailed information were collected, including birth weight and measures of height and weight. Assessments of 491 returning participants at age 12 years included measures of body mass and blood pressure. Linear regression and path analysis were used to determine predictors and their relative importance on blood pressure. Birth weight was not directly associated with blood pressure at the age of 12. However, after adjustment for contemporaneous body mass index (BMI), an inverse association of standardized birth weight on systolic blood pressure was significant. The relative importance of birth weight on later systolic blood pressure was smaller than other contemporaneous body measures (height and BMI). There was no independent association of birth weight on blood pressure seen in this adolescent population. Contemporaneous body measures have an important role to play. Lifestyle factors that influence body mass or size, such as diet and physical activity, where interventions are directed at early prevention of hypertension should be targeted.
We implemented a cross-sectional study in Tana River County, Kenya, a Rift Valley fever (RVF)-endemic area, to quantify the strength of association between RVF virus (RVFv) seroprevalences in livestock and humans, and their respective intra-cluster correlation coefficients (ICCs). The study involved 1932 livestock from 152 households and 552 humans from 170 households. Serum samples were collected and screened for anti-RVFv immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using inhibition IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data collected were analysed using generalised linear mixed effects models, with herd/household and village being fitted as random variables. The overall RVFv seroprevalences in livestock and humans were 25.41% (95% confidence interval (CI) 23.49–27.42%) and 21.20% (17.86–24.85%), respectively. The presence of at least one seropositive animal in a household was associated with an increased odds of exposure in people of 2.23 (95% CI 1.03–4.84). The ICCs associated with RVF virus seroprevalence in livestock were 0.30 (95% CI 0.19–0.44) and 0.22 (95% CI 0.12–0.38) within and between herds, respectively. These findings suggest that there is a greater variability of RVF virus exposure between than within herds. We discuss ways of using these ICC estimates in observational surveys for RVF in endemic areas and postulate that the design of the sentinel herd surveillance should consider patterns of RVF clustering to enhance its effectiveness as an early warning system for RVF epidemics.
Family-based strategies to reduce the risk of overweight in childhood are needed in the Caribbean.
To investigate the associations between parental characteristics and risk of overweight and explore possible mechanisms.
Data from a parenting intervention were analysed. Parental characteristics were obtained by questionnaire at enrolment. At 18 months, 501 infants (82.9% of cohort) had weight and length measured using standardized methods. The association of parents’ characteristics with risk of infant overweight was assessed using random-effects logistic regression. Four focus groups among mothers in Jamaica were conducted to explore mechanisms.
Overall, 20.6% of infants were ‘at risk of overweight’. Fathers were present in 52% of households. Fathers’ presence [OR (95% CI) 0.60 (0.37–0.96)] was associated with reduced risk of overweight independent of socioeconomic status. Mothers reported that fathers encouraged healthier practices.
Fathers may be important agents of change in intervention strategies to prevent childhood overweight.
In 2014, the Southeastern Archaeological Conference (SEAC) conducted a sexual harassment survey of its membership. The survey's goal was to investigate whether sexual harassment had occurred among its members, and if so, to document the rate and demographics of harassment. Our findings include a high (66%) level of harassment, primarily among women, with an additional 13% of respondents reporting sexual assault. This article provides an overview of the survey and responses. Additionally, we analyze survey data aimed at capturing change over time in harassment and assault, correlation between field and non-field tasks and harassment and assault, and correlation between gender of supervisor and harassment and assault. We also discuss the effects of harassment and assault on careers. We conclude with suggestions for decreasing the rate of harassment and assault and urge professional archaeological organizations to document sexual harassment and assault to mitigate the effects on their members and on the discipline as a whole.
To characterize the microbiology of hepatobiliary surgical site infections (SSIs) and to explore the relationship between specific antimicrobial prophylaxis regimens and the development of SSIs.
Retrospective matched case-control study comparing patient, procedure, and antimicrobial prophylaxis characteristics among patients undergoing a hepatobiliary surgical procedure with and without an SSI.
A tertiary referral acute-care facility.
Patients undergoing procedures defined as “BILI” (bile duct, liver, or pancreas surgery) using National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) definitions, excluding those undergoing concomitant liver transplantation, from January 2013 through June 2016 were included in the study population. The SSIs were identified through routine infection control surveillance using NHSN definitions. All patients who developed an SSI were considered cases. Controls were selected randomly matched 2:1 with cases based on fiscal quarter of the procedure. Logistic regression modeling was performed to explore variables associated with SSI, including antimicrobial prophylaxis received.
Among 975 procedures, 80 (8.2%) resulted in an SSI. Most cases involved an organism nonsusceptible to standard prophylaxis regimens, including cefazolin (68.8%), cefazolin plus metronidazole (61.3%), and ampicillin-sulbactam (52.5%). In a multivariate model, antimicrobial coverage against Enterococcus spp (aOR, 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17–2.04; P=.40) and against Pseudomonas spp (aOR, 2.40; 95% CI, 0.56–10.29; P=.24) were not protective against the development of an SSI. The presence of a documented β-lactam allergy was significantly associated with the development of an SSI (aOR, 3.54; 95% CI, 1.36–9.19; P=.009).
Although SSIs at the study institution were associated with pathogens nonsusceptible to the most commonly used prophylaxis regimens, broader-spectrum coverage was not associated with a reduction in SSIs.
Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is a powerful tool for macromolecular to near-atomic resolution structure determination in the biological sciences. The specimen is maintained in a near-native environment within a thin film of vitreous ice and imaged in a transmission electron microscope. The images can then be processed by a number of computational methods to produce three-dimensional information. Recent advances in sample preparation, imaging, and data processing have led to tremendous growth in the field of cryo-EM by providing higher resolution structures and the ability to investigate macromolecules within the context of the cell. Here, we review developments in sample preparation methods and substrates, detectors, phase plates, and cryo-correlative light and electron microscopy that have contributed to this expansion. We also have included specific biological applications.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The purpose of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of phosphatidylethanol (PEth) 16:0/20:4 homolog in uncoagulated, human blood samples taken from 18 participants in a clinical laboratory setting after consumption of 2 doses of ethanol. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Male and female participants received either 0.4 or 0.8 g/kg oral doses of ethanol during a 15-minute period. Blood samples were collected before and throughout 6 hours immediately after alcohol administration, then after 2, 4, 7, 11, and 14 days of administration day. PEth 16:0/20:4 levels were quantified by liquid mass spectrometry. Breath ethanol concentrations were measure concurrently with each blood collection during the administration day, as well as transdermal ethanol concentrations monitored constantly before, during and after ethanol administration day. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: (1) Single doses of 0.4 and 0.8 g ethanol/kg produced proportional increases in BrAC and PEth 16:0/20:4 levels; (2) the increase of Peth 16:0/20:4 from base line to Cmax was less than either PEth 16:0/18:1 or PEth 16:0/18:2 during the 6-hour period after ethanol administration; (3) the mean rate of formation of PEth 16:0/20:4 was lower than those of the other 2 homologs; (4) the mean half-life of PEth 16:0/20:4 was 2.18 days, which was shorter than that of either PEth 16:0/18:1 and PEth 16:0/18:2, which were 6.80 and 6.62, respectively. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The results of this study further confirm that PEth homologs are a sensitive biomarker for ethanol consumption. The measurement of three PEth homologs appears to provide additional information about the level and time frame of drinking.
BACKGROUND: IGTS is a rare phenomenon of paradoxical germ cell tumor (GCT) growth during or following treatment despite normalization of tumor markers. We sought to evaluate the frequency, clinical characteristics and outcome of IGTS in patients in 21 North-American and Australian institutions. METHODS: Patients with IGTS diagnosed from 2000-2017 were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS: Out of 739 GCT diagnoses, IGTS was identified in 33 patients (4.5%). IGTS occurred in 9/191 (4.7%) mixed-malignant GCTs, 4/22 (18.2%) immature teratomas (ITs), 3/472 (0.6%) germinomas/germinomas with mature teratoma, and in 17 secreting non-biopsied tumours. Median age at GCT diagnosis was 10.9 years (range 1.8-19.4). Male gender (84%) and pineal location (88%) predominated. Of 27 patients with elevated markers, median serum AFP and Beta-HCG were 70 ng/mL (range 9.2-932) and 44 IU/L (range 4.2-493), respectively. IGTS occurred at a median time of 2 months (range 0.5-32) from diagnosis, during chemotherapy in 85%, radiation in 3%, and after treatment completion in 12%. Surgical resection was attempted in all, leading to gross total resection in 76%. Most patients (79%) resumed GCT chemotherapy/radiation after surgery. At a median follow-up of 5.3 years (range 0.3-12), all but 2 patients are alive (1 succumbed to progressive disease, 1 to malignant transformation of GCT). CONCLUSION: IGTS occurred in less than 5% of patients with GCT and most commonly after initiation of chemotherapy. IGTS was more common in patients with IT-only on biopsy than with mixed-malignant GCT. Surgical resection is a principal treatment modality. Survival outcomes for patients who developed IGTS are favourable.
Improving compliance with hand hygiene is a cornerstone of infection prevention. However, data regarding practical methods for monitoring compliance are limited. We found that product use metrics have a moderate correlation with direct observation in ward settings and limited correlation in intensive care units.
Research on environmental and genetic pathways to complex traits such as educational attainment (EA) is confounded by uncertainty over whether correlations reflect effects of transmitted parental genes, causal family environments, or some, possibly interactive, mixture of both. Thus, an aggregate of thousands of alleles associated with EA (a polygenic risk score; PRS) may tap parental behaviors and home environments promoting EA in the offspring. New methods for unpicking and determining these causal pathways are required. Here, we utilize the fact that parents pass, at random, 50% of their genome to a given offspring to create independent scores for the transmitted alleles (conventional EA PRS) and a parental score based on alleles not transmitted to the offspring (EA VP_PRS). The formal effect of non-transmitted alleles on offspring attainment was tested in 2,333 genotyped twins for whom high-quality measures of EA, assessed at age 17 years, were available, and whose parents were also genotyped. Four key findings were observed. First, the EA PRS and EA VP_PRS were empirically independent, validating the virtual-parent design. Second, in this family-based design, children's own EA PRS significantly predicted their EA (β = 0.15), ruling out stratification confounds as a cause of the association of attainment with the EA PRS. Third, parental EA PRS predicted the SES environment parents provided to offspring (β = 0.20), and parental SES and offspring EA were significantly associated (β = 0.33). This would suggest that the EA PRS is at least as strongly linked to social competence as it is to EA, leading to higher attained SES in parents and, therefore, a higher experienced SES for children. In a full structural equation model taking account of family genetic relatedness across multiple siblings the non-transmitted allele effects were estimated at similar values; but, in this more complex model, confidence intervals included zero. A test using the forthcoming EA3 PRS may clarify this outcome. The virtual-parent method may be applied to clarify causality in other phenotypes where observational evidence suggests parenting may moderate expression of other outcomes, for instance in psychiatry.
The suboptimal provision of analgesia to children in the emergency department (ED) is well-described. A yet unexplored barrier is caregiver or child refusal of analgesia. We sought to evaluate the frequency of caregiver/child acceptance of analgesia offered in the ED.
We conducted a two-centre cross-sectional study of 743 caregivers of children 4–17 years presenting to the pediatric ED with an acutely painful condition using a survey and medical record review. The primary outcome was the proportion of children/caregiver pairs who accepted analgesia in the ED.
The median (IQR) age of children was 11 (7) years, and 339/743 (45.6%) were female. The overall survey response rate was 73% (743/1018). In the 24 hours preceding ED arrival, the median (IQR) maximal pain score rated by children and caregivers was 8/10 (4) and 5/10 (2), respectively, and 30.4% (226/743) of caregivers offered analgesia. In the ED, children reported a median (IQR) pain score of 8/10 (2) and 54.9% (408/743) were offered analgesia. When offered in the ED, analgesia was accepted by 91% (373/408). Overall, 55.7% (414/743) of children received some form of analgesia.
Most caregivers/children accept analgesia when offered by ED personnel, suggesting refusal is not a major barrier to optimal management of children’s pain and highlighting the importance of ED personnel in encouraging adequate analgesia. A large proportion of children in pain are not offered analgesia by caregivers or ED personnel. Educational strategies for recognizing and treating pain should be directed at children, caregivers, and ED personnel.
Outpatient central venous catheters (CVCs) are being used more frequently; however, data describing mechanical complications and central-line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) in the outpatient setting are limited. We performed a retrospective observational cohort study to understand the burden of these complications to elucidate their impact on the healthcare system.
Data were retrospectively collected on patients discharged from Vanderbilt University Medical Center with a CVC in place and admitted into the care of Vanderbilt Home Care Services. Risk factors for medically attended catheter-associated complications (CACs) and outpatient CLABSIs were analyzed.
A CAC developed in 143 patients (21.9%), for a total of 165 discrete CAC events. Among these, 76 (46%) required at least 1 visit to the emergency department or an inpatient admission, while the remaining 89 (54%) required an outpatient clinic visit. The risk for developing a CAC was significantly increased in female patients, patients with a CVC with >1 lumen, and patients receiving total parenteral nutrition. The absolute number of CLABSIs identified in the study population was small at 16, or 2.4% of the total cohort.
Medically attended catheter complications were common among outpatients discharged with a CVC, and reduction of these events should be the focus of outpatient quality improvement programs.
Concerns have been raised about the potential adverse effects on reproductive health in farm animals, humans, and wildlife species from a range of environmental chemicals that disrupt normal hormonal actions. The alkylphenol polyethoxylates are non-ionic surfactants used in the manufacture of detergents, paints and herbicides. During sewage treatment, these compounds are broken down to short chain alkylphenol polyethoxylates, alkylphenol carboxylic acids and alkylphenols which bioaccumulate in the lipid of living organisms. The estrogenic nature of one of these compounds - octylphenol has been clearly demonstrated in cell culture, in a recombinant yeast screen with human estrogen receptor?and in animal studies. It is proposed that these endocrine disrupting compounds influence male adult reproductive potential by disrupting the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis during fetal life. We have recently identified that exposure to octylphenol for the second half of gestation decreases circulating concentrations of FSH during fetal life and the number of Sertoli cells of the testis and testis size at birth in comparison to control animals (Sweeney et al., 2000). However, the testes size, % interstitial space, semen volume, semen concentration and % live semen was similar in both treatment groups in the adult. In contrast animals exposed to octylphenol from birth to weaning (16 weeks of age) had a significantly greater number of primary and secondary abnormalities in comparison to controls and animals exposed to octylphenol for the second half of gestation. A number of the animals exposed to octylphenol from birth to weaning exhibited augmented sexual behaviour, while those exposed to octylphenol for the second half of pregnancy showed a suppression of sexual behaviour. The current data suggests the physiological effect of exposure to octylphenol is dependant on the time and duration of exposure. This has major implications for the determination of universal end-point measurements to assess exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds.
Optical SETI at Lick Observatory is characterized by its robust approach to initial detections. Our three-detector system has distinguished itself by successful rejection of nearly all false positive signals. We present observational progress, discuss use of data analysis procedures such as FFTs and analysis of double coincidences, and mention plans to upgrade our instrumentation.