On-farm nutrient management practices were evaluated in the irrigated rice-wheat cropping system (RWCS) in northwestern India. Large farmers used comparatively higher doses of nutrients than small and medium farmers for both rice and wheat crops. On average, a field is treated with organic manure after every 15 years for rice and 53 years for wheat. Nitrogen use was generally more than the recommended dose for both crops. Phosphorus use in wheat was nearly as per recommendation, while in rice it was below the recommended dose. Potassium use was almost nil; however, the use of Zn (particularly in rice) is becoming common. Use of biofertilizers was negligible. Overall, farmers applied higher doses of organic manures, K, Zn and biofertilizers in rice than wheat, and there was increasing trend in their use with increase in the size of land holdings. Grain yield increased significantly with increase in the size of land holding in rice but remained almost same in wheat. This study generated comprehensive data on nutrient use pattern in the RWCS, thus providing necessary input to researchers, planners and developmental agencies who wish to enhance food security.