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In 2017, the Onassis Cultural Center in New York hosted an exhibition called “A World of Emotions” (Levere, 2017). This exhibition was publicized as “Bringing to vivid life the emotions of the people of ancient Greece, and prompting questions about how we express, control, and manipulate feelings in our own society” (Onassis USA, 2017). The historical epoch covered was from 700 BC to AD 200, very roughly from a time near the end of the classical period to the middle of the Hellenistic period. One commentary on this exhibition suggested: “These objects provide a timely opportunity to think about the role of feelings in our personal, social and political lives and help advance the relatively new field of the history of emotions” (Levere, 2017).
Over the past few decades, researchers have made notable strides in understanding the processes underlying workplace affect. In particular, rigorous measures and new theoretical models for the study of workplace affect have been developed, validated, and updated with data gathered from employee samples across different industries, countries, and cultures (e.g. Bledow, Schmitt, Frese, & Kühnel, 2011; McCullough, Emmons, & Tsang, 2002; Watson, 2000; Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996; Yang, Simon, Wang, & Zheng, 2016). As shown in the array of chapters in this volume, exciting progress has been made on many fronts. Yet there are many separate streams of research that have been developed in a relatively independent fashion. This chapter will propose some directions for future research that could integrate different areas of research on emotional experiences at work. We propose and discuss the following ideas: integration of research on general and discrete emotions; research taking a broader view of emotional management; new research methods and new perspectives; and the implications of social changes for research on workplace affect and for the application of such research.
Are you struggling to improve a hostile or uncomfortable environment at work, or interested in how such tension can arise? Experts in organizational psychology, management science, social psychology, and communication science show you how to implement interventions and programs to manage workplace emotion. The connection between workplace affect and relevant challenges in our society, such as diversity and technological changes, is undeniable; thus learning to harness that knowledge can revolutionize your performance in tackling workday issues. Applying major theoretical perspectives and research methodologies, this book outlines the concepts of display rules, emotional labor, work motivation, well-being, and discrete emotions. Understanding these ideas will show you how affect can promote team effectiveness, leadership, and conflict resolution. If you require a foundation for understanding workplace affect or a springboard into deeper, more interdisciplinary research, this book presents an integrative approach that is indispensable.
Recent declines of wild pollinators and infections in honey, bumble and other bee species have raised concerns about pathogen spillover from managed honey and bumble bees to other pollinators. Parasites of honey and bumble bees include trypanosomatids and microsporidia that often exhibit low host specificity, suggesting potential for spillover to co-occurring bees via shared floral resources. However, experimental tests of trypanosomatid and microsporidial cross-infectivity outside of managed honey and bumble bees are scarce. To characterize potential cross-infectivity of honey and bumble bee-associated parasites, we inoculated three trypanosomatids and one microsporidian into five potential hosts – including four managed species – from the apid, halictid and megachilid bee families. We found evidence of cross-infection by the trypanosomatids Crithidia bombi and C. mellificae, with evidence for replication in 3/5 and 3/4 host species, respectively. These include the first reports of experimental C. bombi infection in Megachile rotundata and Osmia lignaria, and C. mellificae infection in O. lignaria and Halictus ligatus. Although inability to control amounts inoculated in O. lignaria and H. ligatus hindered estimates of parasite replication, our findings suggest a broad host range in these trypanosomatids, and underscore the need to quantify disease-mediated threats of managed social bees to sympatric pollinators.
Schizophrenia often presents in adolescence (13–18 years), is more likely to have a poor prognosis and young people are also more prone to adverse effects. Clearer guidance is needed in order to plan treatment for early onset cases more effectively.
We aimed to evaluate effects of atypical antipsychotic medications for psychosis in adolescents.
We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register. References of all identified studies were inspected for further trials.
All relevant RCTs that compared atypical antipsychotic medication with pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions in adolescents with psychosis were included. We reliably selected, quality assessed and extracted data from trials.
There were 13 RCTs with a total of 1112 participants. Adolescents improved more on standard dose of risperidone (1.5 – 6.0 mg) against low dose of risperidone (0.15 – 0.6 mg) (1 RCT, n = 255, RR 0.54 CI 0.38 to 0.75). Participants on clozapine were three times more likely to have drowsiness as compared to haloperidol (1 RCT, n = 21, RR 3.30 CI 1.23 to 8.85, NNH 2 CI 2 to 17). Lesser number of adolescents on atypical antipsychotics left the study due to adverse effects (3 RCTs, n = 187, RR 0.65 CI 0.36 to 1.15) than on typical antipsychotics.
There is no convincing evidence that atypical-antipsychotic medications are superior over typical antipsychotic medications. There is some evidence to show that adolescents respond better to standard-dose as opposed to lower dose of medications. Larger, more robust, trials are required.
The aim of the current study was to explore the changing interrelationships among clinical variables through the stages of schizophrenia in order to assemble a comprehensive and meaningful disease model.
Twenty-nine centers from 25 countries participated and included 2358 patients aged 37.21 ± 11.87 years with schizophrenia. Multiple linear regression analysis and visual inspection of plots were performed.
The results suggest that with progression stages, there are changing correlations among Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale factors at each stage and each factor correlates with all the others in that particular stage, in which this factor is dominant. This internal structure further supports the validity of an already proposed four stages model, with positive symptoms dominating the first stage, excitement/hostility the second, depression the third, and neurocognitive decline the last stage.
The current study investigated the mental organization and functioning in patients with schizophrenia in relation to different stages of illness progression. It revealed two distinct “cores” of schizophrenia, the “Positive” and the “Negative,” while neurocognitive decline escalates during the later stages. Future research should focus on the therapeutic implications of such a model. Stopping the progress of the illness could demand to stop the succession of stages. This could be achieved not only by both halting the triggering effect of positive and negative symptoms, but also by stopping the sensitization effect on the neural pathways responsible for the development of hostility, excitement, anxiety, and depression as well as the deleterious effect on neural networks responsible for neurocognition.