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The influence of nutrient loading and other anthropogenic stressors is thought to be greater in low inflow, microtidal estuaries, where there is limited water exchange. This 11-month study compared spatial changes in macrofaunal communities adjacent to regions that varied in land cover in Oso Bay, Texas, an estuarine secondary bay with inflow dominated by hypersaline discharge, in addition to discharge from multiple municipal wastewater treatment plants. Macrofauna communities changed in composition with distance away from a wastewater treatment plant in Oso Bay, with the western region of the bay containing different communities than the head and the inlet of the bay. Ostracods were numerically dominant close to the wastewater discharge point. Macrobenthic community composition is most highly correlated with silicate concentrations in the water column. Silicate is negatively correlated with salinity and dissolved oxygen, and positively correlated with nutrients within the bay. Results are relevant for environmental management purposes by demonstrating that point-source discharges can still have ecological effects in hydrologically altered estuaries.
Radiocarbon (14C) ages cannot provide absolutely dated chronologies for archaeological or paleoenvironmental studies directly but must be converted to calendar age equivalents using a calibration curve compensating for fluctuations in atmospheric 14C concentration. Although calibration curves are constructed from independently dated archives, they invariably require revision as new data become available and our understanding of the Earth system improves. In this volume the international 14C calibration curves for both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, as well as for the ocean surface layer, have been updated to include a wealth of new data and extended to 55,000 cal BP. Based on tree rings, IntCal20 now extends as a fully atmospheric record to ca. 13,900 cal BP. For the older part of the timescale, IntCal20 comprises statistically integrated evidence from floating tree-ring chronologies, lacustrine and marine sediments, speleothems, and corals. We utilized improved evaluation of the timescales and location variable 14C offsets from the atmosphere (reservoir age, dead carbon fraction) for each dataset. New statistical methods have refined the structure of the calibration curves while maintaining a robust treatment of uncertainties in the 14C ages, the calendar ages and other corrections. The inclusion of modeled marine reservoir ages derived from a three-dimensional ocean circulation model has allowed us to apply more appropriate reservoir corrections to the marine 14C data rather than the previous use of constant regional offsets from the atmosphere. Here we provide an overview of the new and revised datasets and the associated methods used for the construction of the IntCal20 curve and explore potential regional offsets for tree-ring data. We discuss the main differences with respect to the previous calibration curve, IntCal13, and some of the implications for archaeology and geosciences ranging from the recent past to the time of the extinction of the Neanderthals.
Recent declines of wild pollinators and infections in honey, bumble and other bee species have raised concerns about pathogen spillover from managed honey and bumble bees to other pollinators. Parasites of honey and bumble bees include trypanosomatids and microsporidia that often exhibit low host specificity, suggesting potential for spillover to co-occurring bees via shared floral resources. However, experimental tests of trypanosomatid and microsporidial cross-infectivity outside of managed honey and bumble bees are scarce. To characterize potential cross-infectivity of honey and bumble bee-associated parasites, we inoculated three trypanosomatids and one microsporidian into five potential hosts – including four managed species – from the apid, halictid and megachilid bee families. We found evidence of cross-infection by the trypanosomatids Crithidia bombi and C. mellificae, with evidence for replication in 3/5 and 3/4 host species, respectively. These include the first reports of experimental C. bombi infection in Megachile rotundata and Osmia lignaria, and C. mellificae infection in O. lignaria and Halictus ligatus. Although inability to control amounts inoculated in O. lignaria and H. ligatus hindered estimates of parasite replication, our findings suggest a broad host range in these trypanosomatids, and underscore the need to quantify disease-mediated threats of managed social bees to sympatric pollinators.
Raw milk cheeses are commonly consumed in France and are also a common source of foodborne outbreaks (FBOs). Both an FBO surveillance system and a laboratory-based surveillance system aim to detect Salmonella outbreaks. In early August 2018, five familial FBOs due to Salmonella spp. were reported to a regional health authority. Investigation identified common exposure to a raw goats' milk cheese, from which Salmonella spp. were also isolated, leading to an international product recall. Three weeks later, on 22 August, a national increase in Salmonella Newport ST118 was detected through laboratory surveillance. Concomitantly isolates from the earlier familial clusters were confirmed as S. Newport ST118. Interviews with a selection of the laboratory-identified cases revealed exposure to the same cheese, including exposure to batches not included in the previous recall, leading to an expansion of the recall. The outbreak affected 153 cases, including six cases in Scotland. S. Newport was detected in the cheese and in the milk of one of the producer's goats. The difference in the two alerts generated by this outbreak highlight the timeliness of the FBO system and the precision of the laboratory-based surveillance system. It is also a reminder of the risks associated with raw milk cheeses.
Competing theories on the aetiology of eating disorders originate from a diverse set of disciplines. One such discipline is Evolutionary Psychology which assumes that the human mind has been shaped by natural and sexual selection. Most evolutionary theories on eating disorders limit themselves to the causation of anorexia nervosa only. The Sexual Competition Hypothesis (SCH), based on the Darwinian theory of sexual selection, provides an explanatory framework for the whole spectrum of eating disorders. It contends that intense female intrasexual competition (ISC) is the ultimate cause of eating disorders. The SCH explains the phenomenon of the pursuit of thinness as an adaptation to ISC in the modern environment. It argues that eating disorders are pathological phenomena that arise from the mismatch between the modern environment and the inherited female adaptations for ISC.
To test predictions from a novel evolutionary hypothesis for eating disorders.
i) To examine the relationship between disordered eating behaviour (DEB) and ISC in a sample of female undergraduates.
ii) To establish whether there is any relationship between DEB and Life History (LH) strategy.
A group of 206 female undergraduates were recruited. A structural equation model was constructed to analyse the data.
ISC for mates was significantly associated with DEB, as predicted by the SCH. DEB was found to be predicted by fast LH strategy, which was only partially mediated by the SCH.
The results of this study are supportive of the SCH and justify research on a clinical sample.
Previous research suggests that adult anxiety disorders begin in adolescence and the transition from primary school to secondary school is the first challenge many young adolescents face, which could test their resilience for the first time.
To examine students’ anxiety scores before and after their transition, and what protective and risk factors are present during this challenge.
To determine how the transition can impact anxiety in children, and if protective factors can help decrease the disruption that the transition can cause.
One hundred and eighty-four pupils completed questionnaires in their last term of primary school and during the first term of secondary school. At time 1: the attachment, school membership, and bullying and victimization measures were compared with pupils’ anxiety scores, along with whether their friends or siblings will be attending the same secondary school as them. These analyses will also be conducted once the pupils start secondary school, at time 2.
Secure attachment was associated with lower anxiety and transition anxiety (F(2.56) = 7.255, P = .002; F(2.52) = 19.245, P = .000; F(2.181) = 10.181, P = .000; F(2.53) = 20.545, P = .000). School membership was associated with lower transition anxiety (F(2.181) = 4.151, P = .017; F(2.181) = 3.632, P = .028). Low victimisation was also associated with low anxiety and transition anxiety (F(2.181) = 14.024, P = .000; F(2.181) = 14.529, P = .000; F(2.181) = 9.381, P = .000).
These preliminary results suggest that attachment, school membership and victimisation all impact on pupils anxiety before they transition to secondary school. Therefore, schools could work together to increase school membership and decrease victimisation, particularly for pupils who they suspect will struggle with the transition.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Family dysfunction can test the resilience of adolescents, specifically those from single parent families and those attending schools in more socio-economically challenged areas.
To determine what factors are associated with resilience for those from single parent families or attend schools in more socio-economically challenged areas.
To examine the role of emotional regulation and self-esteem as putative resilience factors in the context of single parents status and socioeconomic disadvantage.
Secondary school pupils from single and dual parent families aged 13 to 15 answered questionnaires at three time points on: emotional regulation, self-esteem, depression and anxiety. A total of 434 pupils took part at time 1, 574 at time 2, and 467 at time 3. The secondary schools were categorised into more and less disadvantaged schools.
Positive self-esteem [F(1.205) = 54.568, P = 0.000; F(1.157) = 35.582, P = 0.000] and emotional regulation [F(1.205) = 46.925, P = 0.000; F(1.157) = 16.583, P = 0.000] were both associated with resilience against depression in adolescents from single parent families. Positive self-esteem [F(1,75) = 102.629, P = 0.000; F(1.355) = 60.555, P = 0.000] and emotional regulation [F(1.60) = 34.813, P = 0.000; F(1.73) = 36.891, P = 0.000] were both associated with resilience against depression in adolescents attending more socio-economically challenged areas.
This research suggests that adolescent resilience against depression may be promoted by improving self-esteem and emotional regulation. Therefore, future interventions could focus on boosting these resilience factors. Further resilience research could include emotional regulation and self-esteem as protective factors for resilience in adolescent mental health. As these variables have been identified, they can help find more pieces to the complex puzzle of resilience.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Theoretical models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder implicate neurocognitive dysfunction, yet neurocognitive functioning covers a range of abilities that may not all be linked with inattention. This study (a) investigated the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) heritability (h2SNP) of inattention and aspects of neurocognitive efficiency (memory, social cognition, executive function, and complex cognition) based on additive genome-wide effects; (b) examined if there were shared genetic effects among inattention and each aspect of neurocognitive efficiency; and (c) conducted an exploratory genome-wide association study to identify genetic regions associated with inattention. The sample included 3,563 participants of the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort, a general population sample aged 8–21 years who completed the Penn Neurocognitive Battery. Data on inattention was obtained with the Kiddie Schedule of Affective Disorders (adapted). Genomic relatedness matrix restricted maximum likelihood was implemented in genome-wide complex trait analysis. Analyses revealed significant h2SNP for inattention (20%, SE = 0.08), social cognition (13%, SE = 0.08), memory (17%, SE = 0.08), executive function (25%, SE = 0.08), and complex cognition (24%, SE = 0.08). There was a positive genetic correlation (0.67, SE = 0.37) and a negative residual covariance (−0.23, SE = 0.06) between inattention and social cognition. No SNPs reached genome-wide significance for inattention. Results suggest specificity in genetic overlap among inattention and different aspects of neurocognitive efficiency.
Studies suggest that alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders have distinct genetic backgrounds.
We examined whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) for consumption and problem subscales of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C, AUDIT-P) in the UK Biobank (UKB; N = 121 630) correlate with alcohol outcomes in four independent samples: an ascertained cohort, the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA; N = 6850), and population-based cohorts: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; N = 5911), Generation Scotland (GS; N = 17 461), and an independent subset of UKB (N = 245 947). Regression models and survival analyses tested whether the PRS were associated with the alcohol-related outcomes.
In COGA, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with alcohol dependence, AUD symptom count, maximum drinks (R2 = 0.47–0.68%, p = 2.0 × 10−8–1.0 × 10−10), and increased likelihood of onset of alcohol dependence (hazard ratio = 1.15, p = 4.7 × 10−8); AUDIT-C PRS was not an independent predictor of any phenotype. In ALSPAC, the AUDIT-C PRS was associated with alcohol dependence (R2 = 0.96%, p = 4.8 × 10−6). In GS, AUDIT-C PRS was a better predictor of weekly alcohol use (R2 = 0.27%, p = 5.5 × 10−11), while AUDIT-P PRS was more associated with problem drinking (R2 = 0.40%, p = 9.0 × 10−7). Lastly, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with ICD-based alcohol-related disorders in the UKB subset (R2 = 0.18%, p < 2.0 × 10−16).
AUDIT-P PRS was associated with a range of alcohol-related phenotypes across population-based and ascertained cohorts, while AUDIT-C PRS showed less utility in the ascertained cohort. We show that AUDIT-P is genetically correlated with both use and misuse and demonstrate the influence of ascertainment schemes on PRS analyses.
Developing the ability to regulate one's emotions in accordance with
contextual demands (i.e., emotion regulation) is a central developmental task of
early childhood. These processes are supported by the engagement of the
autonomic nervous system (ANS), a physiological hub of a vast network tasked
with dynamically integrating real-time experiential inputs with internal
motivational and goal states. To date, much of what is known about the ANS and
emotion regulation has been based on measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia, a
cardiac indicator of parasympathetic activity. In the present study, we draw
from dynamical systems models to introduce two nonlinear indices of cardiac
complexity (fractality and sample entropy) as potential indicators of these
broader ANS dynamics. Using data from a stratified sample of preschoolers living
in high- (i.e., emergency homeless shelter) and low-risk contexts
(N = 115), we show that, in conjunction with
respiratory sinus arrhythmia, these nonlinear indices may help to clarify
important differences in the behavioral manifestations of emotion regulation. In
particular, our results suggest that cardiac complexity may be especially useful
for discerning active, effortful emotion regulation from less effortful
regulation and dysregulation.
This research investigates two factors influencing the ability of tree-ring data to provide accurate 14C calibration information: the fitness and rigor of the statistical model used to combine the data into a curve; and the accuracy, precision and reproducibility of the component 14C data sets. It presents a new Bayesian spline method for calibration curve construction and tests it on extant and new Southern Hemisphere (SH) data sets (also examining their dendrochronology and pretreatment) for the post-Little Ice Age (LIA) interval AD 1500–1950. The new method of construction allows calculation of component data offsets, permitting identification of laboratory and geographic biases. Application of the new method to the 10 suitable SH 14C data sets suggests that individual offset ranges for component data sets appear to be in the region of ± 10 yr. Data sets with individual offsets larger than this need to be carefully assessed before selection for calibration purposes. We identify a potential geographical offset associated with the Southern Ocean (high latitude) Campbell Island data. We test the new methodology for wiggle-matching short tree-ring sequences and use an OxCal simulation to assess the likely precision obtainable by wiggle-matching in the post-LIA interval.
22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), one of the most common recurrent copy number variant disorders, is associated with dopaminergic abnormalities and increased risk for psychotic disorders.
Given the elevated prevalence of substance use and dopaminergic abnormalities in non-deleted patients with psychosis, we investigated the prevalence of substance use in 22q11DS, compared with that in non-deleted patients with psychosis and matched healthy controls.
This cross-sectional study involved 434 patients with 22q11DS, 265 non-deleted patients with psychosis and 134 healthy controls. Psychiatric diagnosis, full-scale IQ and COMT Val158Met genotype were determined in the 22q11DS group. Substance use data were collected according to the Composite International Diagnostic Interview.
The prevalence of total substance use (36.9%) and substance use disorders (1.2%), and weekly amounts of alcohol and nicotine use, in patients with 22q11DS was significantly lower than in non-deleted patients with psychosis or controls. Compared with patients with 22q11DS, healthy controls were 20 times more likely to use substances in general (P < 0.001); results were also significant for alcohol and nicotine use separately. Within the 22q11DS group, there was no relationship between the prevalence of substance use and psychosis or COMT genotype. Male patients with 22q11DS were more likely to use substances than female patients with 22q11DS.
The results suggest that patients with 22q11DS are at decreased risk for substance use and substance use disorders despite the increased risk of psychotic disorders. Further research into neurobiological and environmental factors involved in substance use in 22q11DS is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms involved.
Crystals within volcanic rocks record geochemical and textural signatures during magmatic evolution before eruption. Clues to this magmatic history can be examined using crystal size distribution (CSD) studies. The analysis of CSDs is a standard petrological tool, but laborious due to manual hand-drawing of crystal margins. The trainable Weka segmentation (TWS) plugin in ImageJ is a promising alternative. It uses machine learning and image segmentation to classify an image. We recorded back-scattered electron (BSE) images of three volcanic samples with different crystallinity (35, 50 and ≥85 vol. %), using scanning electron microscopes (SEM) of variable image resolutions, which we then tested using TWS. Crystal measurements obtained from the automatically segmented images are compared with those of the manual segmentation. Samples up to 50 vol. % crystallinity are successfully segmented using TWS. Segmentation at significantly higher crystallinities fails, as crystal boundaries cannot be distinguished. Accuracy performance tests for the TWS classifiers yield high F-scores (>0.930), hence, TWS is a successful and fast computing tool for outlining crystals from BSE images of glassy rocks. Finally, reliable CSD’s can be derived using a low-cost desktop SEM, paving the way for a wide range of research to take advantage of this new petrological method.
Gut symbionts can augment resistance to pathogens by stimulating host-immune responses, competing for space and nutrients, or producing antimicrobial metabolites. Gut microbiota of social bees, which pollinate many crops and wildflowers, protect hosts against diverse infections and might counteract pathogen-related bee declines. Bumble bee gut microbiota, and specifically abundance of Lactobacillus ‘Firm-5’ bacteria, can enhance resistance to the trypanosomatid parasite Crithidia bombi. However, the mechanism underlying this effect remains unknown. We hypothesized that the Firm-5 bacterium Lactobacillus bombicola, which produces lactic acid, inhibits C. bombi via pH-mediated effects. Consistent with our hypothesis, L. bombicola spent medium inhibited C. bombi growth via reduction in pH that was both necessary and sufficient for inhibition. Inhibition of all parasite strains occurred within the pH range documented in honey bees, though sensitivity to acidity varied among strains. Spent medium was slightly more potent than HCl, d- and l-lactic acids for a given pH, suggesting that other metabolites also contribute to inhibition. Results implicate symbiont-mediated reduction in gut pH as a key determinant of trypanosomatid infection in bees. Future investigation into in vivo effects of gut microbiota on pH and infection intensity would test the relevance of these findings for bees threatened by trypanosomatids.
Identifying factors that influence the functional outcome is an important goal in schizophrenia research. The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a unique genetic model with high risk (20–25%) for schizophrenia. This study aimed to identify potentially targetable domains of neurocognitive functioning associated with functional outcome in adults with 22q11DS.
We used comprehensive neurocognitive test data available for 99 adults with 22q11DS (n = 43 with schizophrenia) and principal component analysis to derive four domains of neurocognition (Verbal Memory, Visual and Logical Memory, Motor Performance, and Executive Performance). We then investigated the association of these neurocognitive domains with adaptive functioning using Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales data and a linear regression model that accounted for the effects of schizophrenia status and overall intellectual level.
The regression model explained 46.8% of the variance in functional outcome (p < 0.0001). Executive Performance was significantly associated with functional outcome (p = 0.048). Age and schizophrenia were also significant factors. The effects of Executive Performance on functioning did not significantly differ between those with and without psychotic illness.
The findings provide the impetus for further studies to examine the potential of directed (early) interventions targeting Executive Performance to improve long-term adaptive functional outcome in individuals with, or at high risk for, schizophrenia. Moreover, the neurocognitive test profiles may benefit caregivers and clinicians by providing insight into the relative strengths and weaknesses of individuals with 22q11DS, with and without psychotic illness.
Bathing intensive care unit (ICU) patients with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG)–impregnated cloths decreases the risk of healthcare-associated bacteremia and multidrug-resistant organism transmission. Hospitals employ different methods of CHG bathing, and few studies have evaluated whether those methods yield comparable results.
To determine whether 3 different CHG skin cleansing methods yield similar residual CHG concentrations and bacterial densities on skin.
Prospective, randomized 2-center study with blinded assessment.
PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING
Healthcare personnel in surgical ICUs at 2 tertiary-care teaching hospitals in Chicago, Illinois, and Boston, Massachusetts, from July 2015 to January 2016.
Cleansing skin of one forearm with no-rinse 2% CHG-impregnated polyester cloth (method A) versus 4% CHG liquid cleansing with rinsing on the contralateral arm, applied with either non–antiseptic-impregnated cellulose/polyester cloth (method B) or cotton washcloth dampened with sterile water (method C).
In total, 63 participants (126 forearms) received method A on 1 forearm (n=63). On the contralateral forearm, 33 participants received method B and 30 participants received method C. Immediately and 6 hours after cleansing, method A yielded the highest residual CHG concentrations (2500 µg/mL and 1250 µg/mL, respectively) and lowest bacterial densities compared to methods B or C (P<.001).
In healthy volunteers, cleansing with 2% CHG-impregnated cloths yielded higher residual CHG concentrations and lower bacterial densities than cleansing with 4% CHG liquid applied with either of 2 different cloth types and followed by rinsing. The relevance of these differences to clinical outcomes remains to be determined.
Thermal resistance across the interface between touching surfaces is critical for many industrial applications. We developed a network model to predict the macroscopic thermal resistance of mechanically contacting surfaces. Contacting interfaces are fractally rough, with small islands of locally intimate contact separated by regions with a wider gas filled boundary gap. Heat flow across the interface is therefore heterogeneous and thus the contact model is based on a network of thermal resistors representing boundary resistance at local contacts and the access resistance for lateral transport to contacts. Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to characterize boundary resistance of Silicon Alumina interfaces for testing the sensitivity of thermal resistance to contact opening. Boltzmann transport simulations of access resistance in Si are conducted in the ballistic transport regime.
Giardiasis is a treatable disease, caused by the flagellated protozoan parasite, Giardia duodenalis (G. duodenalis). It is one of the most common enteric parasites found globally to cause gastrointestinal disturbances, and infections may result in long-term irritable bowel syndrome-like symptoms. It is a common misconception that giardiasis is associated with foreign travel, which results in locally acquired cases in the UK being underdiagnosed. This report highlights the findings from one large Scottish Health Board, arising from a change in testing methodology, which resulted in the screening of all stools submitted for enteric investigations for G. duodenalis. Previous selection criteria were restricted to patients with a travel history to specific regions of the world, or on the basis of certain clinical details. In this report, clinical details were recorded from samples shown to be positive using two methods: an ELISA-based antigen detection assay and microscopy. Clinical details were assessed for a total of 28 laboratory-confirmed positive cases against the original selection criteria. Twenty-six cases (93%) would have been excluded from Giardia testing if the previous selection criteria had been applied. Although nine cases stated foreign travel, only two had been to regions deemed to be ‘high risk’. Therefore, those seven cases that travelled to perceived ‘low-risk’ regions would have been excluded from testing for this reason. This summary highlights the need for significant improvements to the selection criteria for Giardia testing. Laboratories should be encouraged towards the testing of all routinely submitted stools for this neglected pathogen to ensure cases that are acquired locally are properly identified and treated effectively.