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Trypanosoma cruzi has three biochemically and morphologically distinct developmental stages that are programmed to rapidly respond to environmental changes the parasite faces during its life cycle. Unlike other eukaryotes, Trypanosomatid genomes contain protein coding genes that are transcribed into polycistronic pre-mRNAs and have their expression controlled by post-transcriptional mechanisms. Transcriptome analyses comparing three stages of the T. cruzi life cycle revealed changes in gene expression that reflect the parasite adaptation to distinct environments. Several genes encoding RNA binding proteins (RBPs), known to act as key post-transcriptional regulatory factors, were also differentially expressed. We characterized one T. cruzi RBP, named TcZH3H12, which contains a zinc finger domain and is up-regulated in epimastigotes compared to trypomastigotes and amastigotes. TcZC3H12 knockout (KO) epimastigotes showed decreased growth rates and increased capacity to differentiate into metacyclic trypomastigotes. Transcriptome analyses comparing wild type and TcZC3H12 KOs revealed a TcZC3H12-dependent expression of epimastigote-specific genes such as genes encoding amino acid transporters and proteins associated with differentiation (PADs). RNA immunoprecipitation assays showed that transcripts from the PAD family interact with TcZC3H12. Taken together, these findings suggest that TcZC3H12 positively regulates the expression of genes involved in epimastigote proliferation and also acts as a negative regulator of metacyclogenesis.
The consumption of energy-dense sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and its low satiating effects may influence the development of child eating behaviours. We aimed to investigate the association of SSB consumption at 4 years on appetitive behaviours at age 7 years. Children from the Generation XXI birth cohort were included (n 3880). SSB consumption was evaluated through a FFQ and appetitive behaviours were evaluated through the Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, which includes eight subscales. Two composite factors, derived by principal component analysis (Appetite Restraint – related to Food Fussiness, Enjoyment of Food, Slowness in Eating and Satiety Responsiveness – and Appetite Disinhibition – related to Food Responsiveness, Emotional Under- and Overeating and Desire to Drink), were also investigated. The dose–response relationship between SSB consumption and appetitive behaviours was examined using multivariable linear regression (continuous eating behaviour scores) and multinomial logistic regression (tertile categories of eating behaviour scores). Child SSB consumption at 4 years was associated with higher Appetite Disinhibition and Desire to Drink and lower Food Fussiness and Slowness in Eating at 7 years. Consuming SSB ≥1 times/d (compared with a lower intake) was associated with 29 % increase in the odds of Desire to Drink (3rd v. 1st tertile). Pre-schoolers’ SSB consumption was associated with higher food approach and less food avoidant behaviours later in childhood. Family characteristics, particularly maternal SSB consumption, explained part of these associations. It is essential to promote the intake of water, instead of sugary drinks, and make parents and caregivers aware of the importance of this exposure, since they have a pivotal role in shaping children’s eating behaviours.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the fermentative characteristics and chemical composition of cochineal nopal cactus silage additives with urea or Lactobacillus buchneri (LB), as well as the association of both additives in four storage times (7, 15, 60 and 120 days) and during aerobic stability, with evaluations at 0, 48 and 96 h. Four silages were used: no additive, addition of 2% urea, addition of LB and addition of 2% urea and LB. The study was divided into two experiments: the first experiment evaluated the silages at different storage times, and the second experiment evaluated the silages during the aerobic stability test. In both experiments, the experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial scheme (4 × 4 and 4 × 3) with three replicates per treatment. After the ensiling process, lactic acid bacteria predominated in all treatments. The concentration of lactic acid increased significantly from 60 days of ensiling. The concentration of acetic acid varied significantly between the storage times only for the silages treated with urea and LB alone. The silage treated with urea maintained a constant pH value up to 120 days of storage. During the 96 h aerobic stability test, no breaking in the stability of silages was observed. The exclusive or associated use of urea and LB promotes improvement in the fermentative characteristics of cochineal nopal cactus silage, without major alterations in the chemical composition or interfering with the aerobic stability of the silages.
Background: Based on data obtained from hospitals in the city of Belo Horizonte (population ~3,000,000), we evaluated relevant factors such as death, age, duration of surgery, potential for contamination and surgical site infection, plastic surgery, and craniotomy. The possibility of predicting surgical site infection (SSI) was then analyzed using pattern recognition algorithms based on MLP (multilayer perceptron). Methods: Data were collected by the hospital infection control committees (CCIHs) in hospitals in Belo Horizonte between 2016 and 2018. The noisy records were filtered, and the occurrences were analyzed. Finally, the predictive power of SSI of 5 types MLP was evaluated experimentally: momentum, backpropagation standard, weight decay, resilient propagation, and quick propagation. The model used 3, 5, 7, and 10 neurons in the occult layer and with resamples varied the number of records for testing (65% and 75%) and for validation (35% and 25%). Comparisons were made by measuring the AUC (area under the curve (range, 0–1). Results: From 1,096 records of craniotomy, 289 were usable for analysis. Moreover, 16% died; averaged age was 56 years (range, 40–65); mean time of surgery was 186 minutes (range, 95–250 minutes); the number of hospitalizations ranged from 1 (90.6%) to 8 (0.3%). Contamination among these cases was rated as follows: 2.7% contaminated, 23.5% potentially contaminated, 72.3% clean. The SSI rate reached 4%. The prediction process in AUCs ranged from 0.7 to 0.994. In plastic surgery, from 3,693 records, 1,099 were intact, with only 1 case of SSI and no deaths. The average age for plastic surgery was 41 years (range, 16–91); the average time of surgery was 218.5 minutes (range, 19–580 minutes); the number of hospitalizations ranged from 1 (77.4%) to 6 times (0.001%). Contamination among these cases was rated as follows: 27.90% potential contamination, 1.67% contaminated, and 0.84% infected. The prediction process ranged in AUCs from 0.2 to 0.4. Conclusions: We identified a high noise index in both surgeries due to subjectivity at the time of data collection. The profiles of each surgery in the statistical analyses were different, which was reflected in the analyzed structures. The MLP for craniotomy surgery demonstrated relevant predictive power and can guide intelligent monitoring software (available in www.sacihweb.com). However, for plastic surgeries, MLPs need more SSI samples to optimize outcomes. To optimize data collection and to enable other hospitals to use the SSI prediction tool, a mobile application was developed.
To conduct international comparisons of self-reports, collateral reports, and cross-informant agreement regarding older adult psychopathology.
We compared self-ratings of problems (e.g. I cry a lot) and personal strengths (e.g. I like to help others) for 10,686 adults aged 60–102 years from 19 societies and collateral ratings for 7,065 of these adults from 12 societies.
Data were obtained via the Older Adult Self-Report (OASR) and the Older Adult Behavior Checklist (OABCL; Achenbach et al., 2004).
Cronbach’s alphas were .76 (OASR) and .80 (OABCL) averaged across societies. Across societies, 27 of the 30 problem items with the highest mean ratings and 28 of the 30 items with the lowest mean ratings were the same on the OASR and the OABCL. Q correlations between the means of the 0–1–2 ratings for the 113 problem items averaged across all pairs of societies yielded means of .77 (OASR) and .78 (OABCL). For the OASR and OABCL, respectively, analyses of variance (ANOVAs) yielded effect sizes (ESs) for society of 15% and 18% for Total Problems and 42% and 31% for Personal Strengths, respectively. For 5,584 cross-informant dyads in 12 societies, cross-informant correlations averaged across societies were .68 for Total Problems and .58 for Personal Strengths. Mixed-model ANOVAs yielded large effects for society on both Total Problems (ES = 17%) and Personal Strengths (ES = 36%).
The OASR and OABCL are efficient, low-cost, easily administered mental health assessments that can be used internationally to screen for many problems and strengths.
The production of beef cattle in the Atlantic Forest biome mostly takes place in pastoral production systems. There are millions of hectares covered with pastures in this biome, including degraded pasture (DP), and only small area of the original Atlantic Forest has been preserved in tropics, implying that actions must be taken by the livestock sector to improve sustainability. Intensification makes it possible to produce the same amount, or more beef, in a smaller area; however, the environmental impacts must be assessed. Regarding climate change, the C dynamics is essential to define which beef cattle systems are sustainable. The objectives of this study were to investigate the C balance (t CO2e./ha per year), the intensity of C emission (kg CO2e./kg BW or carcass) and the C footprint (t CO2e./ha per year) of pasture-based beef cattle production systems, inside the farm gate and considering the inputs. The results were used to calculate the number of trees to be planted in beef cattle production systems to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The GHG emission and C balance, for 2 years, were calculated based on the global warming potential (GWP) of AR4 and GWP of AR5. Forty-eight steers were allotted to four grazing systems: DP, irrigated high stocking rate pasture (IHS), rainfed high stocking rate pasture (RHS) and rainfed medium stocking rate pasture (RMS). The rainfed systems (RHS and RMS) presented the lowest C footprints (−1.22 and 0.45 t CO2e./ha per year, respectively), with C credits to RMS when using the GWP of AR4. The IHS system showed less favorable results for C footprint (−15.71 t CO2e./ha per year), but results were better when emissions were expressed in relation to the annual BW gain (−10.21 kg CO2e./kg BW) because of its higher yield. Although the DP system had an intermediate result for C footprint (−6.23 t CO2e./ha per year), the result was the worst (−30.21 CO2e./kg BW) when the index was expressed in relation to the annual BW gain, because in addition to GHG emissions from the animals in the system there were also losses in the annual rate of C sequestration. Notably, the intensification in pasture management had a land-saving effect (3.63 ha for IHS, 1.90 for RHS and 1.19 for RMS), contributing to the preservation of the tropical forest.
We have synthesized off-stoichiometric Ni40Cu10Mn35Ti15 all-d-metal Heusler alloy with a B2 cubic crystal structure by an arc melting process and investigated its structural, magnetic, electronic, thermal, and mechanical properties under the influence of a single-step thermal annealing. The compound exhibits an antiferromagnetic ordering accompanied by thermal hysteresis indicating a first-order magneto-structural transition. Curie–Weiss molecular field analysis reveals the presence of ferromagnetic interactions competing with long-range antiferromagnetic ordering. Thermal annealing leads to the appearance of a heat capacity sharp peak around antiferromagnetic transition. Electrical resistivity measurements display abrupt changes close to the magneto-structural transition revealing the strong coupling among spin, lattice, and charge degrees of freedom characteristic of a martensitic transition (MT). We have also evaluated its mechanical properties from microhardness measurements, and the results indicate that this alloy exhibits ductile behavior. The occurrence of MT associated with improved ductility is an essential combination for technological application as shape-memory alloys.
This article proposes a method for incremental data dimensionality reduction in loop closure detection for robotic autonomous navigation. The approach uses dominant eigenvector concept for: (a) spectral description of visual datasets and (b) representation in low dimension. Unlike most other papers on data dimensionality reduction (which is done in batch mode), our method combines a sliding window technique and coordinate transformation to achieve dimensionality reduction in incremental data. Experiments in both simulated and real scenarios were performed and the results are suitable.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Cactus (Opuntia spp) levels in total mixed ration silages based on Cactus and Gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Steud) on the fermentation profile, microbial populations, aerobic stability and taxonomic diversity. The completely randomized design was used in a 4 × 4 factorial design with four replications, being four rations with different levels of Cactus (15, 30, 45, 60% based on the dry matter) and four opening periods (0, 15, 30 and 60 days of fermentation). An interaction effect (P < 0.050) was observed among the diets and opening times for mould and yeast populations. An interaction effect for the levels of acetic acid was observed, where the diets 15, 30, 45 and 60% showed higher values at 60 days (0.44, 0.41, 0.35 and 0.40 g/kg DM, respectively). A significant difference was observed for the richness and diversity index (Chao1 and Shannon). The most abundant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria and Firmicutes and the genera Lactobacillus and Weissella. Cactus can be added in total mixed ration silages up to the level of 60% in a way that it positively affects the qualitative indicators of the silages, modulating the taxonomic communities and allowing the predominance of important groups for preservation of the ensiled mass.
The farrowing process is one of the most energy-demanding activities for the modern hyperprolific sow. This study evaluated the effects of supply of energy on the expected date of farrowing on the farrowing kinetics and piglets’ performance during the first 24 h after birth. A total of 80 sows were used. The sows and their respective litters were considered as the experimental unit. On the expected day of farrowing, the sows were allocated to one of the following groups: sows that did not have access to feed from farrowing induction until the end of the farrowing process (CON, n = 40); sows fed 500 g of energetic supplement, which consisted of 250 g of the basal lactation diet plus 250 g of cane sugar, 18 h after farrowing induction (SUP, n = 40). The farrowing duration, farrowing assistance, birth interval, number of total born, stillborn and mummified piglets were recorded for each sow. Piglets were weighed individually at birth and 24 h later. The interval from birth to first suckle was evaluated individually for each piglet in 16 randomly selected litters (eight litters per treatment group). Blood glucose concentrations of six sows were measured shortly after expulsion of the first piglet. Farrowing duration, farrowing assistance and stillborn rate tended to be greater (P = 0.06, P = 0.09 and P = 0.07, respectively) in sows from the CON group compared to sows from the SUP group. However, there was no difference (P > 0.05) between the groups for birth interval. Colostrum intake was greater (P < 0.05) for piglets from the SUP group compared to piglets from the CON group. Additionally, BW gain of the piglets suckling the SUP group was greater (P < 0.05) than those suckling the CON group at 24 h after birth. The blood glucose concentrations during the expulsive stage of farrowing were greater (P < 0.05) in the SUP group than for sows from the CON group. In conclusion, supplying modern hyperprolific sows energy on the expected day of farrowing is a valuable nutritional intervention to improve the farrowing kinetics and piglets’ performance in early life.
Primary deficit schizophrenia (DS) is characterized by enduring negative symptoms and represents a qualitatively different disease entity with respect to non-deficit schizophrenia (NDS). No studies investigated the association between the enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and DS and its phenomenology.
In this case-control study, Thai women and men, aged 18 to 65 years, were divided in DS (n = 40) and NDS (n = 40) and were compared to controls (n = 40). PON1 activities against 4-(chloromethyl)phenyl acetate (CMPA) and phenylacetate were determined. Moreover, subjects were genotyped for their PON1 Q192R polymorphism and immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels responses directed to Gram-negative bacteria were measured.
DS is significantly associated with the QQ genotype and the Q allele as compared with NDS and controls. PON1 activities are significantly and inversely associated with negative symptoms, formal thought disorders, psychomotor retardation, excitation and DS. The presence of the Q allele is associated with increased IgA responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Morganella morganii, and Pseudomonas putida as compared with RR carriers.
The PON1 Q allele and lower PON1 activities especially against CMPA are associated with DS, indicating lowered quorum quenching abilities as well as lowered defenses against lipoperoxidation and immune activation. It is suggested that lowered PON1 activity in DS constitutes an impairment in the innate immune system which together with lowered natural IgM may cause lower immune regulation thereby predisposing toward greater neurotoxic effects of immune-inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative pathways and Gram-negative microbiota.
Spontaneous abortion is considered a public health problem having several causes, including infections. Among the infectious agents, bacteria of the vaginal microbiota and Ureaplasma parvum have been associated with abortion, but their participation needs to be further elucidated. This study aims to evaluate the influence of Mollicutes on the development of spontaneous abortion. Women who underwent spontaneous abortion and those with normal birth (control) were studied. Samples of cervical mucus (CM) and placental tissue were collected to identify Mollicutes using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction methodology. Eighty-nine women who had a miscarriage and 20 women with normal pregnancies were studied. The presence of Mollicutes in placental tissue increased the chance of developing miscarriage sevenfold. The prevalence of U. parvum in women who experienced spontaneous abortion was 66.3% in placental tissue. A positive association was observed between the detection of U. parvum in samples of placental tissue and abortion. There was a significant increase in microbial load in placental tissue for M. hominis, U. urealyticum and U. parvum compared to the control group. Detection of U. parvum in CM in pregnant women can ascend to the region of the placental tissue and trigger a spontaneous abortion.
Wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla L.) is a troublesome broadleaf weed in grain production areas in South America. Herbicide resistance to multiple sites of action has been documented in this species, including protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) inhibitors. We investigated the physiological and molecular bases for PPO-inhibitor resistance in a E. heterophylla population (RPPO) from Southern Brazil. Whole-plant dose–response experiments revealed a cross-resistance profile to three different chemical groups of PPO inhibitors. Based on dose–response parameters, RPPO was resistant to lactofen (47.7-fold), saflufenacil (8.6-fold), and pyraflufen-ethyl (3.5-fold). Twenty-four hours after lactofen treatment (120 g ha−1) POST, RPPO accumulated 27 times less protoporphyrin than the susceptible population (SPPO). In addition, RPPO generated 5 and 4.5 times less hydrogen peroxide and superoxide than SPPO, respectively. The chloroplast PPO (PPO1) sequences were identical between the two populations, whereas 35 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were found for the mitochondrial PPO (PPO2). Based on protein homology modeling, the Arg-128-Leu (homologous to Arg-98-Leu in common ragweed [Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.] was the only one located near the catalytic site, also in a conserved region of PPO2. The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase inhibitor malathion did not reverse resistance to lactofen in RPPO, and both populations showed similar levels of PPO1 and PPO2 expression, suggesting that metabolic resistance and PPO overexpression are unlikely. This is the first report of an Arg-128-Leu mutation in PPO2 conferring cross-resistance to PPO inhibitors in E. heterophylla.
Aposematism and crypticity are visual defensive strategies against predation; however, the relative effectiveness of these two strategies to reduce the risk of predation is not yet fully understood. We evaluated the risk of predation for caterpillars with cryptic and aposematic colouration as well as the probability of predation relative to the natural variation of contrast with the substrate. We expected that the two models would experience similar predation attempts and that the contrast with the substrate would be negatively related to the predation on aposematic mimic models and positively to the predation of cryptic models. Overall, 224 models were laid out along a transect and exposed to predation for five consecutive days during winter and autumn. Daily predation was 11.0% (winter) and 4.8% (autumn). Significant differences were not observed between predation rates on the two model types (50.6% aposematic). Most of the predated models had arthropod marks (86.4%) and only 13.6% had bird marks. The chance of predation was higher the greater the contrast between the aposematic mimic model and the substrate, although no relationship was observed for the cryptic model. Our results suggest that the two colour patterns do not differ in their defensive effectiveness and that micro-habitat selection might define the predation risk on aposematic mimic caterpillars in environments dominated by arthropod predators.
The use of antibiotics as performance enhancers in animal feeding is declining, so Lippia gracilis Schauer essential oil (LGSEO) could be used as a potential substitute for the conventionally used growth promoters. The LGSEO contains components such as carvacrol and thymol, which kill and/or control pathogenic bacteria, increase population of beneficial organisms, act against oxidative processes and onto nutrient digestibility and absorption. The aim of this study was to investigate the action and the effects of LGSEO as a growth promoter in the diet of Japanese quail by examining their productive performance, intestinal microbiology, blood biochemical parameters, hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content and intestinal gene expression. A total of 252 two-day-old quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were assigned to 3 treatments in 7 replicates, using 12 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of a basal diet, basal diet + LGSEO at 400 mg/kg of diet and basal diet + chemical antimicrobial (bacitracin methylene disalicylate) at 500 mg/kg of diet. The experimental period was 34 days. The highest feed intake (P < 0.01) was found in the group receiving the conventional antimicrobial, whereas the best feed conversion (P < 0.01) was shown by the animals receiving LGSEO. Escherichia coli growth was restricted in the quail receiving the growth promoters. Salmonella spp. growth was controlled by the treatment containing the conventional antimicrobial. There was no difference between the treatments (P > 0.05) for the concentration of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase enzymes in the blood or hepatic TBARS content. Birds receiving negative-control treatment exhibited a higher expression of sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT1), while those receiving the treatment with essential oil showed lower catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX7) expressions compared to the conventional antimicrobial and control groups, respectively. Lippia gracilis Schauer essential oil is a powerful performance enhancer for Japanese quail by virtue of its abilities to improve their intestinal environment, balance the microbial population and reduce energy expenditure for oxidative processes.
The co-infection between visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has increased in several countries in the world. The current serological tests are not suitable since they present low sensitivity to detect the most of VL/HIV cases, and a more precise diagnosis should be performed. In this context, in the present study, an immunoproteomics approach was performed using Leishmania infantum antigenic extracts and VL, HIV and VL/HIV patients sera, besides healthy subjects samples; aiming to identify antigenic markers for these clinical conditions. Results showed that 43 spots were recognized by antibodies in VL and VL/HIV sera, and 26 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Between them, β-tubulin was expressed, purified and tested in ELISA experiments as a proof of concept for validation of our immunoproteomics findings and results showed high sensitivity and specificity values to detect VL and VL/HIV patients. In conclusion, the identified proteins in the present work could be considered as candidates for future studies aiming to improvement of the diagnosis of VL and VL/HIV co-infection.
This study emphasised the nurses’ assistance practices and conceptions in order to understand how they perceive and live with all the complexity that underlies this phenomenon.
With the articulation of qualitative methods (interview) and quantitative (structured questionnaire), the study focused on a group of 78 nurses aged between 22 and 60 years (average: 40.15) being 61% women and experience either in the hospital or in primary health care.
We found that violence against women was perceived as a complex phenomenon and present, with strong socio-cultural, marked by abuse of power and disregard for human rights. We note also that nurses generally experience negative feelings associated with the aggressor, but also the victim. On his practice emphasizes the desire to help and, paradoxically, a strong sense of powerlessness. The lack of competence / training to effectively tackle the problem is also a reference, supplemented with special needs to progress in this area.
The evidence presented here should be taken into consideration by health professionals in a reorientation of care model in this area.
The Borderline Personality (BP) disorder is defined as a limit state between neurosis and psychosis. The symptomatology observed in such disorder seems to be correlated with the dysfunction of specific areas of the human brain, such as cortical and sub-cortical ones.
This report aims to review the state of the art in order to better understand the correlation between the functional anatomy of the brain and the BP disorder, and its relevance to the symptomatic manifestation of this psychopathology.
The stress response of patients with BP disorder seems to be associated with a low-responsive pituitary gland. The frontolimbic abnormalities observed in recent studies seems associated with the difficulty in the emotional management and impulsivity. The findings suggest a reduction of parietal cortex metabolism which appears to be associated to lack of insight and easy hypnotic induction. The disfunction of the amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex was found to be lateralized on the left hemisphere, whether the structures with increased activation on the right hemisphere were the temporal lobe, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal lobe. Finally, the aggressive and impulsive behavior of such patients seems to be related with low levels of cortical serotonin.
To our knowledge, some of the neurofunctional findings didn’t match the symptomatic pattern of the BP disorder. From all the relations found, the fronto-limbic deficit is the one with a more relevant influence for the consequent emotional disturbance, a major symptom of this disorder.
To characterize the population with suicidal behaviour that uses the ER of the Hospital Infante D. Pedro. Elaborate a plan for prevention.
Observational descriptive study of a single sample, transversal, including 102 individuals. All patients were assessed concerning socio-demographic, clinical and psychological items - IACLIDE (Depression Scale), 23QVS (Stress Vulnerability Scale) and Mini-Mult (Personality Scale).
90.6% of women use pills as suicide method. 63.2% of men use drugs, 10.5% phlebotomy and 26.8% resorts to violent methods.
Individuals with moderate or severe depression have a higher probability (91x) of suicidal risk compared with individuals with no depression or mild depression. Individuals vulnerable to stress have a higher probability (5.7X) of attempting suicide. Individuals with external influence suicidal behaviour have a higher likelihood of suicide risk (4x), compared to individuals without external influence. Individuals with personality disorder (particularly cluster B) have a higher probability (25x) for suicide risk in people without personality disorder.
The para-suicidal prototype seems to be a 36 year old woman, low level of literacy, married, with previous para-suicidal gestures, from ingestion of drugs, at home, following an emotional conflict. The suicidal will probably be a 40 year old man, divorced, low financial resources, unemployed, having prepared a previous plan that consummated suicide by violent methods.
The elaboration of a para-suicidal and suicidal profile, is an essential contribution to the determination of relative risk and to structure a prevention plan tailored to the perceived reality research.
We studied circadian thyrotropin (TSH) and prolactin (PRL) response to synthetic thyrotropin-releasing-hormone (protirelin) infusion (200μg IV) at 8 am and 11 pm in 35 drug-free inpatients with DSM III-R Major Depressive Episode and in 22 hospitalized controls. In each group, maximum TSH and PRL responses were lower at 8 am than at 11 pm. The difference between 11 pm-ΔTSH and 8 am-ΔJTSH (ΔΔTSH) was significantly lower in depressed patients compared to controls. No such blunting was observed in PRL responses to protirelin in depressed patients. In the overall population, TSH response to protirelin (ie8 am-ΔTSH, 11 pm-ΔTSH, ΔΔTSH) correlated significantly with TSH circadian parameters (ie mesor and amplitude). These correlations were also observed with PRL (except for ΔΔPRL). TSH mesor and amplitude were lower in depressives than in controls. In contrast, PRL mesor and amplitude were not significantly different between diagnostic groups. ΔΔTSH is thus a chronobiological refinement to the measure of thyroid axis dysfunction in major depression. The blunted TSH response to protirelin suggests that the TRH receptors of the pituitary thyrotrophs are hyposensitive in major depression.