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In the autumn of 1306 a group of twenty-two knights deserted the king's army in Scotland in order to pursue their martial interests elsewhere by participating in tournaments in France. Their impulsive behaviour can perhaps be understood, as, for all intents and purposes, the campaign for 1306 had come to an end and the aged king lay infirm at Lanercost, which he had only reached at Michaelmas. The Prince of Wales had himself departed Scotland in early autumn, travelling south in a leisurely fashion by way of Langley, Dover and Canterbury, and eventually spending Christmas with his two young halfbrothers at Northampton Castle. Nevertheless, despite the absence of the royal commanders and the lack of military activity, the dereliction of their duty by these knights would not be overlooked. Indeed, as if in anticipation of this very development, in the previous spring, on 6 April at Wolvesey, Edward I – himself an avid tournament knight in his youth4 – had issued a prohibition on tournaments, urging men instead to ‘prepare themselves to set out with the king for the parts of Scotland in as much strength as they can for the repression of the rebellion there’. This injunction was followed in the autumn by an order of 24 September to all the sheriffs in England further forbidding ‘tournaments, tiltings, jousts, or other deeds of arms, … until the king's war in Scotland be finished and until the king shall cause other ordinance to be made as to this’. The impetus for this further injunction, we are told, was that the king himself ‘understands that certain of his subjects make and propose to make tournaments … to the delay and hindrance of the king's affairs of Scotland’. Such individuals were to be considered ‘as his enemies and traitors and as hinderers of the expedition of his affairs’. Nonetheless, within three weeks of this supplementary order, the desertions had taken place.
When word of these desertions reached the king his reaction was both immediate and predictably severe. On 18 October 1306 orders went out to sheriffs across England to seize the lands and goods as well as the persons of the deserters.
Background: Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is the leading cause of spinal cord impairment. In a public healthcare system, wait times to see spine specialists and eventually access surgical treatment for CSM can be substantial. The goals of this study were to determine consultation wait times (CWT) and surgical wait times (SWT), and identify predictors of wait time length. Methods: Consecutive patients enrolled in the Canadian Spine Outcomes and Research Network (CSORN) prospective and observational CSM study from March 2015 to July 2017 were included. A data-splitting technique was used to develop and internally validate multivariable models of potential predictors. Results: A CSORN query returned 264 CSM patients for CWT. The median was 46 days. There were 31% mild, 35% moderate, and 33% severe CSM. There was a statistically significant difference in median CWT between moderate and severe groups; 207 patients underwent surgical treatment. Median SWT was 42 days. There was a statistically significant difference in SWT between mild/moderate and severe groups. Short symptom duration, less pain, lower BMI, and lower physical component score of SF-12 were predictive of shorter CWT. Only baseline pain and medication duration were predictive of SWT. Both CWT and SWT were shorter compared to a concurrent cohort of lumbar stenosis patients (p <0.001). Conclusions: Patients with shorter duration (either symptoms or medication) and less neck pain waited less to see a spine specialist in Canada and to undergo surgical treatment. This study highlights some of the obstacles to overcome in expedited care for this patient population.
Synthesizing thin diamond films by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is the most recent and technologically important development in the thin-film field. Thin diamond films are useful in many applications because of their unique physical, chemical, optical, and electronic properties.
To assess thin diamond films’ suitability for support membranes in X-ray lithography, X-ray diffraction was used to characterize the crystal structure and orientation of these films deposited on silicon wafers by hot-filament assisted CVD. X-ray transmission properties of free-standing thin diamond films prepared by selectively etching silicon substrates were characterized by X-ray fluorescence in short and long wavelength regions.
This paper discusses conventional and grazing incidence diffraction techniques used to study the crystal structure of thin diamond films and compares the results with film morphology. It also describes X-ray transmission properties of these films in terms of Beer's Law, the mass absorption coefficient, and the wavelength of attenuated radiation. Finally, it reveals the long wavelength regions for optimum X-ray lithography operations using polycrystalline diamond (PCD) film.
To measure the outcomes of laser treatment of cholesteatoma covering cochlear and vestibular fistulas.
Cholesteatoma matrix over the fistula was denatured; the power density was sufficient only to gradually heat, but not vaporise, the keratin-forming matrix. The denaturing speed was controlled so that the integrity of the fistula cover was maintained. The change in bone conduction threshold and the residual rate of cholesteatoma at the fistula were measured.
Thirty-six fistulas were assessed. There were seven cochlear fistulas. All were 5 mm or less in maximum length. For the entire group, the average change in bone conduction threshold was −0.3 dB. For cochlear fistulas, the average change in bone conduction was + 0.2 dB. The distribution of hearing results for the entire group was Gaussian; the apparent changes in hearing could be attributed to errors associated with testing. All patients underwent second-stage surgery. In all cases, the cholesteatoma was completely cleared from the fistula site. There were no facial palsies.
Laser denaturing of cholesteatoma matrix over fistulas measuring 5 mm or less of vestibular apparatus and the cochlea is effective at eliminating cholesteatoma, and is not associated with cochlear hearing loss or facial palsy.
Short-term hunter-gatherer residential camps have been a central feature of human settlement patterns and social structure for most of human evolutionary history. Recent analyses of ethnohistoric hunter-gatherer data show that across different environments, the average size of hunter-gatherer bands is remarkably constant and that bands are commonly formed by a small number of coresident families. Using ethnoarchaeological data, we examine the relationship between the physical infrastructure of camps and their social organization. We compiled a dataset of 263 ethnoarchaeologically observed hunter-gatherer camps from 13 studies in the literature. We focus on both the scale of camps, or their average size, structure, and composition, and the dynamics that governed their variation. Using a combination of inferential statistics and linear models, we show that the physical infrastructure of camps, measured by the number of household features, reflects the internal social organization of hunter-gatherer bands. Using scaling analyses, we then show that the variation among individual camps is related to a predictable set of dynamics between camp area, infrastructure, the number of occupants, and residence time. Moreover, the scale and dynamics that set the statistical variance in camp sizes are similar across different environments and have important implications for reconstructing prehistoric hunter-gatherer social organization and behavior from the archaeological record.
The term ‘mood stabiliser’ is ill-defined and lacks clinical utility. We propose a framework to evaluate medications and effectively communicate their mood stabilising properties – their acute and prophylactic efficacy across the domains of mania and depression. The standardised framework provides a common definition to facilitate research and clinical practice.
Declaration of interest
The Treatment Algorithm Group (TAG) was supported logistically by Servier who provided financial assistance with travel and accommodation for those TAG members travelling interstate or overseas to attend the meeting in Sydney (held on 18 November 2017). None of the committee were paid to participate in this project and Servier have not had any input into the content, format or outputs from this project.
Isochronal layers in firn detected with ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and dated using results from ice-core analyses are used to calculate accumulation rates along a 100 km across-flow profile in West Antarctica. Accumulation rates are shown to be highly variable over short distances. Elevation measurements from global positioning system surveys show that accumulation rates derived from shallow horizons correlate well with surface undulations, which implies that wind redistribution of snow is the leading cause of this variability. Temporal changes in accumulation rate over 25–185 year intervals are smoothed to along-track length scales comparable to surface undulations in order to identify trends in accumulation that are likely related to changes in climate. Results show that accumulation rates along this profile have decreased in recent decades, which is consistent with core-derived time series of annual accumulation rates measured at the two ends of the radar profile. These results suggest that temporal variability observed in accumulation-rate records from ice cores and GPR profiles can be obscured by spatial influences, although it is possible to resolve temporal signals if the effects of local topography and ice flow are quantified and removed.
In 1976, a young theologian named Donald Dayton wrote an influential book that sought to put asunder what he saw as an unholy marriage between evangelical religion and conservative politics in America. In Discovering an Evangelical Heritage, Dayton showed how revivalistic Protestantism had, in the nineteenth century, been wedded firmly to progressive political causes. Dayton began his book by frankly admitting that his own political views had been heavily influenced by the student movements—antiwar, civil rights, equal rights— of the 1960's. Separate chapters linked evangelical religion to nineteenth-century movements for racial equality, economic justice, and feminism. In his final chapter, Dayton argued that twentieth-century evangelicalism had abandoned its heritage of radical social reform under the dual influence of premillennialism imported from England and ideas about biblical inerrancy formulated at Princeton Seminary.
M. M. Hedman, University of Idaho Moscow, Idaho, USA,
F. Postberg, University of Heidelberg Heidelberg, GERMANY,
D. P. Hamilton, University of Maryland College Park, Maryland, USA,
S. Renner, University of Lille Lille, FRANCE,
H.-W. Hsu, University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado, USA
All of the giant planets in the outer Solar System possess rings composed primarily of particles less than 100 microns across. Such small particles are conventionally referred to as “dust grains” regardless of their composition, and so these rings are considered “dusty rings” (as opposed to the more famous main rings of Saturn and Uranus, whose particles are more than a millimeter across). Dusty rings are often very tenuous and so can be much more difficult to observe than Saturn's broad, bright, and dense main rings. Nevertheless, dusty rings are extremely interesting because they have very rich dynamics and are extremely sensitive probes of their environment.
The high surface-area-to-volume ratio of dust-sized grains makes them much more responsive to non-gravitational forces like solar radiation pressure, plasma drag, and torques from the planet's electromagnetic field. Furthermore, sub-millimeter particles can be lost from the ring system on relatively short timescales due to erosion via charged-particle and micrometeoroid bombardment or through ejection by the non-gravitational forces listed above. This means that small particles need to be constantly supplied to these rings from larger bodies, and indeed all of the known dusty rings are associated with larger objects that are the likely sources of dusty debris. The most dramatic example of this is Saturn's E ring, which is clearly supplied by material erupting from beneath the surface of the geologically active moon Enceladus. However, this is a special case, and most dusty rings are instead associated with denser rings (which are composed primarily of millimeter-to-metersized particles) or small moons. These objects can serve as dust sources because they are constantly being bombarded by micrometeoroids, and these impacts release fine debris that can escape the weak gravitational fields of these small bodies and go into orbit around the planet. Note that the amount of dust released by this process depends on the size, mass, and regolith properties of the source object, and calculations of the dust production rate based on simple estimates of impact ejecta velocity distributions suggest that source moons that are several kilometers across are the most efficient at producing dusty rings (Burns et al., 1999).
Phase-equilibrium relations have been determined at 1000 kg/cm2 water pressure for compositions within the system NaAlSi3O8-KalSi3O8-NaAlSiO4-KAlSiO4 in the area adjacent to the temperature minimum. The composition and temperature of the minimum are Ne50Ks19Qz31 and 750° ± 7° C respectively. The compositions of 102 plutonic rocks and 122 extrusive rocks, from Washington's tables, that carry 80% or more of normative Ab + Or + Ne have been plotted; the areas of high density show a marked similarity to the positions of the low-temperature regions of the synthetic system and suggest that many undersaturated rocks are derived by fractional crystallization from a trachytic magma.
Impact data from the ULYSSES dust detector at 5 AU from the Sun have been interpreted as a flux of sub-micron interstellar dust particles (Grün et al, 1994) arriving from 252° ecliptic longitude and 2.5° ecliptic latitude. Following the motions of these particles under the influence of solar gravity, radiation pressure and electromagnetic forces, we present results from the modeling of the thermal emission from the resultant particle cloud, and conclude that the chances for the detection of such an interstellar signature in the COBE data are marginal at best.
The decision to utilize antimicrobials in end-of-life situations is complex. Understanding the reasons why physicians prescribe antimicrobials in this patient population is important for informing the design of antimicrobial stewardship interventions.
A 51-item survey containing both closed and open-ended questions on end-of-life antimicrobial use was administered to physicians affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania and Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia from January through April 2017. A mixed-methods approach was used to analyze responses.
Of 637 physicians surveyed, 283 responses (44.4%) were received. Most (86.2%) physicians believed that respecting a patient’s wish to continue antimicrobials was important. Approximately half of physicians (49.8%) believed that antimicrobial use at the end of life contributes to resistance. A higher proportion of pediatricians would often or always continue antimicrobial treatment for active infections and for hospice patients whose death was imminent compared to adult physicians (P<.001). Analysis of free-text responses revealed additional reasons why physicians may continue antimicrobials at end of life, including meeting family expectations, wanting to avoid the perception of “giving up,” uncertainty about prognosis, and reducing patient pain or discomfort.
Physician decision making concerning antimicrobial use in patients at the end of life is multifactorial. Clinicians may overweigh the benefits of antimicrobial therapy in end-of-life situations and view the importance of adhering to stewardship policies differently. Pediatric and adult clinicians have different approaches to this patient population. Better understanding of the complex decision making that occurs in the end-of-life patient population can help guide antimicrobial stewardship policies and improve patient care.
Among African Americans, spirituality is meaning or purpose in life and a faith in God who is in control of health and there to provide support and guidance in illness situations. Using qualitative methods, we explored the use of spirituality to make sense of the end-of-life and bereavement experiences among family members of a deceased cancer patient.
Data in this report come from 19 African Americans who experienced the loss of a family member to cancer. A qualitative descriptive design was used with criterion sampling, open-ended semistructured interviews, and qualitative content analysis.
Participants made sense of the death of their loved one using the following five themes: Ready for life after death; I was there; I live to honor their memory; God's wisdom is infinite; and God prepares you and brings you through. These five themes are grounded in conceptualizations of spirituality as connectedness to God, self, and others.
Significance of results
Our findings support the results that even during bereavement, spirituality is important in the lives of African Americans. African American family members might struggle with issues related to life after death, their ability to be physically present during end-of-life care, and disentangling beliefs around God's control over the beginning and ending of life. The findings in this report can be used to inform healthcare providers to better support and address the needs for support of African American family members during end-of-life and bereavement experiences.
Pale soft exudative pork (PSE) is a major problem affecting swine industries worldwide that results in significant economic loss because it reduces processing and saleable product yields. The PSE condition results from a rapid rate of muscle glycolysis early postmortem and a rapid drop in muscle pH while the temperature of the carcass is still high. Stress prior to slaughter can increase the rate of glycolysis and postmortem acidification. Blood acid-base has been used as an indicator of stress in pigs. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the relationship between blood acid-base status at slaughter and fresh meat quality in pigs.
We present preliminary analysis of new HST observations of the transiting extrasolar planet HD 209458b. Photometric observations were obtained with the Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), providing milli-mag precision and high time resolution (40 Hz). The FGS photometry allows us to derive precise stellar/orbital parameters (ephemeris, inclination, limb darkening) and planetary radius, and also allows a search for the presence of planetary rings and satellites. We discuss preliminary results and two approaches to modelling the observations.
Shallow ice cores were obtained from widely distributed sites across the West Antarctic ice sheet, as part of the United States portion of the International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition (US ITASE) program. The US ITASE cores have been dated by annual-layer counting, primarily through the identification of summer peaks in non-sea-salt sulfate (nssSO42–) concentration. Absolute dating accuracy of better than 2 years and relative dating accuracy better than 1 year is demonstrated by the identification of multiple volcanic marker horizons in each of the cores, Tambora, Indonesia (1815), being the most prominent. Independent validation is provided by the tracing of isochronal layers from site to site using high-frequency ice-penetrating radar observations, and by the timing of mid-winter warming events in stable-isotope ratios, which demonstrate significantly better than 1 year accuracy in the last 20 years. Dating precision to ±1 month is demonstrated by the occurrence of summer nitrate peaks and stable-isotope ratios in phase with nssSO42–, and winter-time sea-salt peaks out of phase, with phase variation of <1 month. Dating precision and accuracy are uniform with depth, for at least the last 100 years.
The rate of ice-sheet thickness change is calculated for 10 sites in Greenland by comparing measured values of ice vertical velocity and snow-accumulation rate. Vertical velocities are derived from repeat surveys of markers using precision global positioning system techniques, and accumulation rates are determined from stratigraphic analysis of firn cores. the results apply to time-scales covered by the firn-core records, which in most cases are a few decades. A spectrum of thickness-change rates is obtained, ranging from substantial thinning to slow thickening. the sites where ice-sheet thinning is indicated are located near the ice-sheet margin or in outlet glacier catchments. Interior and high-elevation sites are predominantly in balance or thickening slowly. Uncertainties in the rates of thickness change are dominated by errors in the determination of accumulation rates. the results of this work are broadly comparable with regional estimates of mass balance obtained from the analysis of catchment input vs discharge.