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The World Health Organization will publish its 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) in 2018. The ICD-11 will include a refined model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and a new diagnosis of complex PTSD (CPTSD). Whereas emerging data supports the validity of these proposals, the discriminant validity of PTSD and CPTSD have yet to be tested amongst a sample of refugees.
Treatment-seeking Syrian refugees (N = 110) living in Lebanon completed an Arabic version of the International Trauma Questionnaire; a measure specifically designed to capture the symptom content of ICD-11 PTSD and CPTSD.
In total, 62.6% of the sample met the diagnostic criteria for PTSD or CPTSD. More refugees met the criteria for CPTSD (36.1%) than PTSD (25.2%) and no gender differences were observed. Latent class analysis results identified three distinct groups: (1) a PTSD class, (2) a CPTSD class and (3) a low symptom class. Class membership was significantly predicted by levels of functional impairment.
Support for the discriminant validity of ICD-11 PTSD and CPTSD was observed for the first time within a sample of refugees. In support of the cross-cultural validity of the ICD-11 proposals, the prevalence of PTSD and CPTSD were similar to those observed in culturally distinct contexts.
We summarise the first year of operation of the Medium Deep Survey - a key project of the HST. Two fields in the LMC are discussed and some preliminary scientific results presented. We also comment on image deconvolution for the extragalactic fields observed as part of the Medium Deep Survey.
We present deep luminosity functions derived from HST STIS data for three rich LMC clusters (NGC 1805, NGC 1868, and NGC 2209), and for one Galactic globular cluster (NGC 6553). All of the LMC cluster luminosity functions are roughly consistent with a Salpeter IMF or with the solar neighbourhood IMF from Kroupa, Tout & Gilmore (1993). They continue to rise at least to 0.7M⊙. NGC 1868 shows evidence for mass segregation which may be primordial. A comparison of deep luminsoisty functions for seven Galactic globulars shows that the luminosity functions are eroded at low masses by amounts that are strongly correlated with distance from the Galactic plane.
We present details of the database from a large Cycle 7 HST project to study the formation and evolution of rich star clusters in the LMC (see Elson et al., this volume). Our data set, which includes NICMOS, WFPC2 and STIS images of 8 clusters, will enable us to derive deep luminosity functions for the clusters and to investigate the universality of the stellar IMF. We will look for age spreads in the youngest clusters, quantify the population of binary stars in the cores of the clusters and at the half-mass radii, and follow the development of mass segregation.
With HST and WFPC2, galaxies in the Medium Deep Survey can be reliably classified to magnitudes I814 ≲ 22.0 in the F814W band, at a mean redshift . The main result is the relatively high proportion (~40%) of objects which are in some way irregular or anomalous, and which are of relevance in understanding the origin of the familiar excess population of faint galaxies. These diverse objects include compact galaxies, apparently interacting pairs, galaxies with superluminous starforming regions and diffuse low surface brightness galaxies of various forms. The ‘irregulars’ and ‘peculiar’ galaxies contribute most of the excess counts in the I-band at our limiting magnitude, and may explain the ‘faint blue galaxy’ problem.
IAU Commission 6 “Astronomical Telegrams” had a single business meeting during Honolulu General Assembly of the IAU. It took place on Tuesday, 11 August 2015. The meeting was attended by Hitoshi Yamaoka (President), Daniel Green (Director of the Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams, CBAT, via Skype), Steven Chesley (JPL), Paul Chodas (JPL), Alan Gilmore (Canterbury University), Shinjiro Kouzuma (Chukyo University), Paolo Mazzali (Co-Chair of the Supernova Working Group), Elena Pian (Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa), Marion Schmitz (chair IAU Working Group Designations + NED), David Tholen (University of Hawaii), Jana Ticha (Klet Observatory), Milos Tichy (Klet Observatory), Giovanni Valsecchi (INAF\slash Italy), Gareth Williams (Minor Planet Center). Apologies: Nikolai Samus (General Catalogue of Variable Stars, GCVS).
The Gaia Science Alerts project (GSA) aims to augment a precision survey of the Milky Way with a controlled, precision survey of all classes of transient phenomena. While onboard BP/RP spectra from Gaia will ultimately allow us to classify many Gaia Alerts based on Gaia data alone, in the initial phases of the GSA project it is necessary to verify and classify discoveries with ground-based spectroscopic followup. In this article, we describe a subset of the ongoing Gaia Alerts followup programmes, and some of the initial science results from this work.
We describe a laboratory plasma physics experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory that uses two merging supersonic plasma jets formed and launched by pulsed-power-driven railguns. The jets can be formed using any atomic species or mixture available in a compressed-gas bottle and have the following nominal initial parameters at the railgun nozzle exit: ne ≈ ni ~ 1016 cm−3, Te ≈ Ti ≈ 1.4 eV, Vjet ≈ 30–100 km/s, mean charge
≈ 1, sonic Mach number Ms ≡ Vjet/Cs > 10, jet diameter = 5 cm, and jet length ≈20 cm. Experiments to date have focused on the study of merging-jet dynamics and the shocks that form as a result of the interaction, in both collisional and collisionless regimes with respect to the inter-jet classical ion mean free path, and with and without an applied magnetic field. However, many other studies are also possible, as discussed in this paper.
The Helicon-Cathode(HelCat) device is a medium-size linear experiment suitable for a wide range of basic plasma science experiments in areas such as electrostatic turbulence and transport, magnetic relaxation, and high power microwave (HPM)-plasma interactions. The HelCat device is based on dual plasma sources located at opposite ends of the 4 m long vacuum chamber – an RF helicon source at one end and a thermionic cathode at the other. Thirteen coils provide an axial magnetic field B ⩾ 0.220 T that can be configured individually to give various magnetic configurations (e.g. solenoid, mirror, cusp). Additional plasma sources, such as a compact coaxial plasma gun, are also utilized in some experiments, and can be located either along the chamber for perpendicular (to the background magnetic field) plasma injection, or at one of the ends for parallel injection. Using the multiple plasma sources, a wide range of plasma parameters can be obtained. Here, the HelCat device is described in detail and some examples of results from previous and ongoing experiments are given. Additionally, examples of planned experiments and device modifications are also discussed.
IAU Commission 6 “Astronomical Telegrams” had a single business meeting during the Beijing General Assembly of the IAU. It took place on Friday, August 24, 2012. The meeting was attended by five C6 members (N. N. Samus; D. W. E. Green; S. Nakano; J. Ticha; and H. Yamaoka). Also present was Prof. F. Genova as a representative of the IAU Division B. She told the audience about the current restructuring of IAU Commissions and Divisions and consequences for the future of C6.
A total of 855 sera from dogs in Greece were tested for antibodies to strains belonging to the Pomona, Grippotyphosa and Australis serogroups of Leptospira to assess exposure levels to these serogroups, possible associations with clinical disease and to evaluate whether these findings support the inclusion of additional serovars in dog vaccines. Antibodies were detected in 110 (12·9%) dogs. The highest seroprevalence (4·9%) was to the proposed novel serovar Altodouro belonging to the Pomona serogroup. This serovar also showed a statistically significant association with clinical disease. Serovar Bratislava antibodies were found in 3·4% of sera. Consideration should be given to the inclusion of serovars belonging to the Pomona serogroup and serovar Bratislava in future dog vaccines for the Greek market.
As earlier, the main activity of the Commission was performed by the Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams (CBAT), effectively directed by Dan Green. These three years were a difficult period for the Bureau and thus for the Commission because the Bureau unexpectedly had to move from the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, its home since 1965, to the Harvard University's Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences. This move caused many serious administrative and logistical problems, effectively solved by the CBAT Director, Dan Green, and CBAT Director Emeritus, Brian Marsden. A great shock, not only for our commission but for the whole astronomical community, was Brian's death on November 18, 2010.
Basic electronic properties relevant to the carrier mobility were studied in tin oxide thin films doped with fluorine, prepared by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition. Electrical resistivity, Hall and Seebeck effects, plasma and collision frequencies were measured (the last two by using multiangle spectral ellipsometry) and analyzed for films with carrier concentrations from 1.8×1020 to 5.6×1020 cm−3. Scanning over the sample area of resistivity (four-point probe method) and Seebeck coefficient (thermoprobe) monitored uniformity of electronic properties in plane. Ellipsometry was used to check uniformity over the film thickness. Films with a thickness above 400 nm demonstrated high spatial uniformity and were used for further studies.
Effective mass was determined from combined Hall and plasma frequency measurements and was found to be independent of carrier concentration, which indicates a parabolic band spectrum. Its value was very close to the literature data. In films with carrier concentration ≥3×1020 cm−3 the Hall mobility was very close to the optical mobility calculated based on collision frequency and effective mass values. This indicates a very small contribution of grain boundaries to the total resistivity of films. Thus the measured mobility is close to the electron mobility in the grain bulk.
The scattering parameter value derived from thermopower measurements along with the temperature independent mobility indicated that electron scattering by impurity ions screened by free carriers is the dominating scattering mechanism. Theoretical estimates of mobility are very close to the highest measured mobility values (≥ 30 cm2/Vs) if the spatial dispersion of the dielectric constant is taken into account. Comparison of differently processed films showed that compensation of donor dopant with uncontrolled acceptor centers significantly impacted mobility.
Cadmium Sulfide/Cadmium Telluride (CdS/CdTe) devices are subject to stress under various biases. Striking differences are observed with the Current-Voltage, and Capacitance- Voltage measurements for cells degraded at 100°C in dark under forward (FB), open circuit (OC), and reverse (RB) biases. RB stress provides the greatest degradation, and the apparent doping density profile shows anomalous behavior at the zero bias depletion width. Thin films of CdS, both doped and undoped, with Cu are characterized with photoluminescence (PL). The PL spectra from the CdS films are correlated with the CdS spectra from stressed devices, revealing that Cu signatures in the CdS layer of stressed devices are a function of stress biasing. Device modeling using AMPS-1D produces IV curves similar to that in RB degraded devices, by only varying the trap level concentration in the CdS layer.
To report a large outbreak of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI; ribotype 027) between June 2007 and August 2008, describe infection control measures, and evaluate the impact of restricting the use of fluoroquinolones in controlling the outbreak.
Outbreak investigation in 3 acute care hospitals of the Northern Health and Social Care Trust in Northern Ireland.
Implementation of a series of CDI control measures that targeted high-risk antibiotic agents (ie, restriction of fluoroquinolones), infection control practices, and environmental hygiene.
A total of 318 cases of CDI were identified during the outbreak, which was the result of the interaction between C. difficile ribotype 027 being introduced into the affected hospitals for the first time and other predisposing risk factors (ranging from host factors to suboptimal compliance with antibiotic guidelines and infection control policies). The 30-day all-cause mortality rate was 24.5%; however, CDI was the attributable cause of death for only 2.5% of the infected patients. Time series analysis showed that restricting the use of fluoroquinolones was associated with a significant reduction in the incidence of CDI (coefficient, —0.054; lag time, 4 months; P = .003).
These findings provide additional evidence to support the value of antimicrobial stewardship as an essential element of multifaceted interventions to control CDI outbreaks. The present CDI outbreak was ended following the implementation of an action plan improving communication, antibiotic stewardship, infection control practices, environmental hygiene, and surveillance.
The quality of the bond produced after mating oxidized and/or unoxidized silicon wafers has been studied using acoustic microscopy, infrared transmission thermographs, and transmission electron microscopy. The acoustic microscopy revealed that a significant number of unbonded regions (gaps) remain at the bond interface after bonding in oxygen, nitrogen, or high vacuum, and then annealing. These gaps could be virtually eliminated by a subsequent hyperbaric annealing step. The thermal imaging was found to have insufficient resolution to give a detailed picture of the bond quality. Transmission electron microscopy showed that an excellent bond could be produced when bonding clean silicon wafers, with only very small oxide or void bubbles present at the interface. Bonding two oxidized wafers resulted in a buried oxide layer with no detectable bond line. Mating an oxidized wafer to an unoxidized wafer produced a bonded silicon/oxide interface which was nearly indistiguishable from the wafer/thermal oxide interface.