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This article reviews the Appellate Body decision in the implementation phase of the EC–Aircraft dispute. Focusing on some of the key findings, we assess whether they are legally and economically correct. We conclude that (a) though still unclear, the test for establishing de facto contingency on import substitution subsidies is probably too demanding; (b) though legitimate, the interpretation of the remedy of removal of the adverse effects for actionable subsidies is the weakest and most deferential possible; (c) the hesitation in confirming that quantitative methods are the key tool to define the relevant market is unwelcome; and (d) the Appellate Body correctly recognize the importance for Panels to consider, in the context of the serious prejudice analysis, whether the like product of the complainant has been subsidized. Most importantly, the analysis of this case, set within the broader jurisprudence and practice, has led us to conclude that WTO subsidy disciplines are not particularly strong. The review of the main economic theories justifying subsidy control (strategic trade policy, terms of trade, private information, commitment theory) has shown that no single theory is able to fully account for subsidies and the need to control them. The key question is the definition of what we want to achieve by controlling subsidies, which is the main message sent to the policy-makers and negotiators that are currently considering law reform.
Stigma towards mental illness has a major impact on the quality of life and the health care of psychiatric patients. Several studies have reported that health professionals have more negative attitudes than general population.
To explore empathy and attitudes towards mental illness in nursing students (NS) and non-health university students. Our purpose is to see how NS have more empathic and less stigmatizing attitudes towards psychiatric patients, compared to other university students.
We tested 96 university students (50 NS and 46 non-health university students), with the following questionnaires anonymously filled out:
– Community attitudes towards mental ill (CAMI), to evaluate the different students’ attitudes towards mental illness;
– Empathy quotient (EQ), to assess empathy.
NS differs from the other group in 5 items of CAMI (P < 0.05 in 3 items and P < 0.01 in 2 items), and Authoritarianism subscale (P = 0.023). This shows that NS have a greater general awareness and less stigmatizing attitudes about the need to hospitalize the mentally ill, the difference between psychiatric patients and general population, the wrong need of segregation and the real causes of mental illness. There is also a significant difference in EQ (items 6, 21, 25, 44, 59): future nurses seem to have a slightly higher empathy, even though the EQ total score does not differ in the two groups.
These results suggest that there is a difference with respect to the attitudes towards psychiatric patients in NS and students who do not follow health-care courses: NS have more empathetic and less stigmatizing attitudes.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Psychiatric patients often do not receive the same health treatment reserved for patients with no mental disorders. Stigma in mental-health nurses can worsen the patients’ healing time and quality of care.
To explore the different attitudes towards mental illness and psychiatry in nursing students (NS) of the first and the final year of university, and the importance of having visited a psychiatric ward and having known a psychiatric patient.
Fifty NS completed the following tests:
– Community attitudes towards mental ill (CAMI);
– Attitudes towards psychiatry (ATP-30);
– Empathy quotient (EQ).
NS of the final year differ significantly from those of the first year in 4 CAMI items, in Authoritarianism subscale (P = 0.041), Social Restrictiveness (P = 0.029) and Community Mental Health Ideology (P = 0.045), indicating a more mature and responsible approach to psychiatric patients, without considering them a threat to be secluded. EQ does not show a significant difference in empathy, not even considering the individual items. Final year NS also have more positive attitudes toward Psychiatry in 3 ATP-30 items and total score (P = 0.01). Those who visited a psychiatric ward have more positive attitudes towards mental illness and Psychiatry, in 6 CAMI items and 3 ATP-30 items. Having personally known a psychiatric patient leads to positive attitudes in only a few CAMI items.
Last-year NS, who have had more direct relationships with patients through practical training, have more empathetic and less stigmatizing attitudes. It is also very useful to attend a psychiatric ward during the nursing training.
Normal 0 14 false false false IT X-NONE X-NONE.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Cement glands are one of the most conspicuous and distinctive elements of taxonomic interest in male Acanthocephala. Cement glands vary in shape, number and arrangement in different classes of the taxon. The glands and their products have a fundamental role in the reproductive process. Light and electron microscopy were used to investigate the ultrastructure of the cement apparatus, which includes both cement glands and the cement reservoir, in mature males of Centrorhynchus globocaudatus (Zeder, 1800). Centrorhynchus globocaudatus is an enteric parasite of birds of prey, including Falco tinnunculus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Buteo buteo (Linnaeus, 1758) from the province of Ferrara (northern Italy). The four elongated cement glands of C. globocaudatus are situated posterior to the testes. Sections through the cement glands show each gland is surrounded by a fibrous envelope with an approximate thickness of 0.6 μm. Beneath this envelope is an outer cytoplasmic layer thickness ranging from 22 to 26 μm, which contains a number of nuclei with diameters variable from 20 to 22 μm. The cytoplasmic layer is filled with prominent free ribosomes and many mitochondria with lamellar cristae. Secretory granules, measuring from 1 to 1.3 μm in diameter, are formed within the cytoplasmic layer. The cytoplasmic layer surrounds the luminal area for storage of the cement material in each gland. Cement gland ducts arise from the gland and extend towards a common cement reservoir in close contact with the seminal vesicle and Saefftigen's pouch. Microtubules, large secretory granules and rest of undefined organelles were also observed within the cement reservoir.
An anatomical study was performed to describe the endoscopic anatomy and variations of the protympanum, including classification of the protiniculum and subtensor recess.
A retrospective review was conducted of video recordings of cadaveric dissections and surgical procedures, which included visualisation of the protympanum, across 4 tertiary university referral centres over a 16-month period. A total of 97 ears were used in the analysis.
A quadrangular conformation of the protympanum was seen in 60 per cent of ears and a triangular conformation in 40 per cent. The protiniculum was type A (ridge) in 58 per cent, type B (bridge) in 23 per cent and type C (absent) in 19 per cent. The subtensor recess was type A (absent) in 30 per cent, type B (shallow) in 48 per cent and type C (deep) in 22 per cent.
The protympanum is an area that has been ignored for many years because of difficulties in visualising it with an operating microscope. However, modern endoscopic equipment has changed this, providing detailed anatomical knowledge fundamental to ensuring the safety of endoscopic surgical procedures in the region.
We study the effect of exporting on markups building on two stylized facts: (1) exporters charge higher markups than nonexporters and (2) firms increase markups when they start to export. These facts suggest that exporting increases markups, but the causal relationship has not been studied directly. To do so, we modify Melitz and Ottaviano (2008) by adding decreasing returns technologies and demand and productivity shocks to account for sales correlations across markets. We calibrate and simulate a trade cost reduction. Old exporters increase markups on average, while new ones reduce them. Three mechanisms matter: (1) cost reductions are not fully passed on to prices, (2) firms expand, increasing marginal cost, and (3) foreign demand is more elastic than domestic demand. The first effect dominates along the intensive margin, while the others prevail along the extensive margin. Thus, exporters charge larger markups in spite of exporting, not because of it.
This article discusses the future of benchmarking after the Canada–Renewable Energy/FIT case. This decision left us with bad law. Assuming that any momentous shift, especially in the current regulatory framework that does not provide for any express justification for good subsidies, is difficult, we speculate on what may lie ahead for future litigants and the dispute settlement. Either ‘a wide’ or ‘a narrow road’ can now be followed. After outlining the risks that a normalization and expansion of this ruling may pose (the ‘wide road’), we have responded to the call for clarification and narrowing of this case (the ‘narrow road’) and speculated on how this could be done. The EU Altmark decision of the European Court of Justice, which was certainly on the minds of the EU litigators and whose ethos the Appellate Body embraced by referring to the use of ‘price-discovery mechanisms’, has inspired the analysis. The exercise has, however, exposed many challenges and difficulties, many of them having already occurred in EU law. The amount of helpful clarification the WTO judicature could offer is thus limited, and would probably be restricted to taking the link between market definition and benchmarking seriously. This unsatisfactory conclusion leads to suggest, once again, law reform as the only solution to the current status quo.
We have used a hydrogel templating technique followed by the subsequent evaporation of water present to fabricate porous cement and porous PDMS composites, and we have analyzed their sound absorption properties. All experiments were carried out with hydrogel slurries of broad bead size distributions. Porous PDMS and cement composites were produced with porosities of up to 80% and 70%, respectively. Scanning electron microscope analysis shows fibrous domains within the voids created by the hydrogel in the cement samples and open pore network in the PDMS composites of initial hydrogel content higher than 70 vol%. Sound absorption was improved with respect to control nonporous samples in all composites with porosities higher than 60 vol%, where an open pore structure was formed. The porous PDMS and porous cement produced by this method show better sound absorption at 200–400 Hz and 1200–1800 Hz frequency ranges when compared with the sound absorption in the intermediate frequencies range between 400 and 1000 Hz.
This paper analyzes the dispute between Korea and the United States regarding the method of calculating anti-dumping duties. The case mirrors other recent WTO disputes involving zeroing. Even though it ceased zeroing in original investigations in December 2006, the United States implemented the policy change only prospectively. As a result, the margins applied to the products in this dispute remained unchanged because they had been calculated prior to the policy change. The United States did not contest Korea's claims. The Panel confirmed that zeroing was used and, following the long line of Panel and Appellate Body rulings, found the practice inconsistent with the Anti-Dumping Agreement. After the Panel Report was adopted, the United States recalculated the margins without zeroing. It, however, refused to refund unliquidated cash deposits that were based on zeroing, highlighting the United States's continued lukewarm compliance with WTO rulings on zeroing. This dispute offers an opportunity to ponder on weaknesses of the WTO Dispute Settlement and the ability of one Member to take advantage of it. Since the facts and their legal assessment were undisputed, why was litigation necessary? Can compliance with WTO law be improved with broader findings and more incisive remedies?
This article investigates the environmental and economic impact of the free allocation of emissions allowances in Emissions Trading Schemes (ETSs) as well as its compatibility with trade law. Free allocation can facilitate the industry’s gradual adjustment to an ETS and hence boost its acceptability. At the same time, however, the article shows that the economic and environmental benefits of free allocation are debatable. Moreover, the practice of free allocation possibly contravenes WTO law. The conclusion that free allowances may constitute an objectionable subsidy under WTO subsidy disciplines raises questions of law reform. Should the ETS be reformed to fit conventional trade imperatives, or should trade law be rethought so as to be responsive to contemporary environmental protection strategies? The article argues that, considering the questionable benefits of free allocation, any adjustment to trade law should be narrow and temporary.
Programs of X-ray polarimetry in Italy arise from the convergence of a long experience of X-ray astronomy missions with an outstanding tradition in development of radiation detectors. The gas pixel detector in the focus of X-ray optics can perform angular-resolved polarimetry with a breakthrough improvement in sensitivity, even with a moderate collecting surface. POLARIX makes a large use of already existing items and, in particular, of the three telescopes from the JET-X program. It can extend the X-ray polarimetry from one positive detection only, to tens of sources, including a few brighter extragalactics: an ambitious pathfinder on a very limited budget. Phase A study of POLARIX, and of four other missions, was performed in 2008 and ASI should select two missions to fly. Another pathfinder is under study: two short telescopes, designed with modern tight packing techniques, mounted as piggy-back on the Chinese mission HXMT.
The national context
X-ray polarimetry has been a line of research at IASF for many years. A scattering polarimeter was proposed for the XMM mission, but was not selected. An IASF team joined the collaboration headed by R. Novick for the Stellar X-ray Polarimeter, aboard the Spectrum X-Gamma mission, contributing the detectors as the sensors for both scattering and diffraction stages. SXRP was completed but the whole mission was not. Considering the large area of the telescope, SXRP was close to the best achievable with conventional techniques.
The advent of a new generation of X-ray polarimeters based on the photoelectric effect poses the problem of their calibration. We devised and built a calibration facility aimed at the study of the performances of photoelectric X-ray polarimeters such as the Gas Pixel Detector (GPD). The calibration facility exploits the 45° Bragg diffraction from crystals of both X-ray lines characteristic of X-ray tubes and from continuum. A set of linear and rotary stages allows the GPD to be calibrated on its whole surface. We successfully tested the GPD filled with a mixture of He-DME 30-70 at one atmosphere. We measured the modulation factor at 2.69 keV and 4.51 keV. We also studied the homogeneity of the modulation factor, of the angular phase and of the position reconstruction capability on the surface of the GPD.
Since early 2000 we have been developing true 2-D X-ray polarimeters based on the photoelectric effect. The Gas Pixel Detector (GPD), an evolution based on the use of an ASICCMOS readout chip, has been calibrated at energies greater then 5 keV with a Thomson based X-ray polarizer. However, the sensitivity of the GPD at the focus of conventional X-ray optics peaks below 5 keV. In this regime the photoelectric effect severely competes with Thomson scattering. For this reason we developed a facility aimed at the production of polarized X-rays in the few keV band.