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Terminal heat stress leads to sizeable yield loss in late-sown wheat in tropical environments. Several synthetic compounds are known to counteract plant stress emanating from abiotic factors. A field experiment was conducted in Sabour (eastern India) during 2013–2016 to investigate the field efficacy of two synthetic compounds, calcium chloride (CaCl2) and arginine, for improving grain yield of two contrasting wheat cultivars (DBW 14 and K 307) facing terminal heat stress. For this, foliar spray of 18.0 mM CaCl2 at booting (CCB) or anthesis (CCA), 9.0 mM CaCl2 at both booting and anthesis (CCB+A), 2.5 mM arginine at booting (ARGB) or anthesis (ARGA) and 1.25 mM arginine at both booting and anthesis (ARGB+A) treatments along with no-spray and water-spray treatments were evaluated in late-sown wheat. The highest grain yield was recorded in treatment CCB+A, followed by CCA and ARGB+A. However, the effect of these compounds was marginal on grain yield when applied only at the booting stage. Grains/ear and thousand-grain weight were found to be the critical determinants for yield in late-sown wheat. During the anthesis to grain filling period, flag-leaf chlorophyll degradation and increase in relative permeability in no-spray treatment were 34–36% and 29–52%, respectively, but these values were reduced considerably in CCB+A treatment followed CCA. Thus, foliar spray of 9.0 mM CaCl2 both at booting and anthesis stages may be recommended for alleviating the negative impacts of terminal heat stress in late-sown wheat and improving its productivity (>13%).
The present study investigated the risks and benefits of routine Fe–folic acid (IFA) supplementation in pregnant women living in low- and high-groundwater-Fe areas in Bangladesh.
A case-controlled prospective longitudinal study design was used to compare the effect of daily Fe (60 mg) and folic acid (400 μg) supplementation for 3·5 months.
A rural community in Bangladesh.
Pregnant women living in low-groundwater-Fe areas (n 260) and high-groundwater-Fe areas (n 262).
Mean Hb and serum ferritin concentrations at baseline were significantly higher in pregnant women in the high-groundwater-Fe areas. After supplementation, the mean change in Hb concentration in the women in the low-groundwater-Fe areas (0·10 mg/dl) was higher than that in the pregnant women in the high-groundwater-Fe areas (–0·08 mg/dl; P = 0·052). No significant changes in the prevalence of anaemia or Fe deficiency (ID) in either group were observed after IFA supplementation; however, the prevalence of Fe-deficiency anaemia (IDA) decreased significantly in the women in the low-groundwater-Fe areas. The risk of anaemia, ID and IDA after supplementation did not differ significantly between the groups. None of the participants had Fe overload. However, a significant proportion of the women in the high- and low-groundwater-Fe areas remained anaemic and Fe-deficient after supplementation.
IFA supplementation significantly increased the Hb concentration in pregnant women living in the low-groundwater-Fe areas. Routine supplementation with 60 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid does not pose any significant risk of haemoconcentration or Fe overload. Further research to identify other nutritional and non-nutritional contributors to anaemia is warranted to prevent and treat anaemia.
The polysaccharide alginate has received most extensive attention as bioink in bioprinting applications due to its ability to undergo gelation under cell-friendly conditions. However, absence of cell-binding motifs and the erratic degradation of alginate hydrogels have remained their persistent limitations. Honey is a conveniently available natural material, known for its role in wound healing and skin tissue regeneration. However, honey blending to improve biological response of alginate-based bioprinted scaffolds has not been yet reported. In the present work, honey-alginate bioinks were evaluated for their printability property (shape fidelity). It was found that honey blending reduced alginate viscosity, which gradually affected bioprinting fidelity. Therefore, the concentration that provides for acceptable bioprinting along with improvement in cell proliferations is determined. It is concluded that honey blending improves cell response of alginate bioinks and can be a facile approach to obtain bioinks especially for in situ skin tissue engineering applications.
The daily time series Flare Index (FI) data of Northern Hemisphere, Southern Hemisphere and Total Disk for Solar Cycle 21- 23 and 24 up to Dec. 2014 has been pre-processed using a 2nd order exponential smoothing algorithm to remove orthogonal noise. The smoothed data in each case is processed for scaling analysis using Rescaled-Range Analysis as well as Finite Variance Scaling Method in order to search for the Hurst exponent. As the value of H obtained from our analysis lies in between 0 and 1, so it can be said that the signal may behave like Fractional Brownian Motion. Also, it is observed that H is less than 0.5 which indicates the data is anti-persistent in nature and it has a strong negative correlation within the signal. The value of H also indicates the oscillating features of the signal which might have some fundamental periodicities in the Suns atmosphere.
Labour studies in the current scenario are understandably in difficult times. Our traditional subjects of research are disappearing: strikes and other forms of industrial disputes, collective bargaining, trade unions, left parties and so on. Displaced from the spaces – factories and fields – in which labour scholars have historically imagined them, the so called working class is physically scattered and in what could be described as political wilderness. Informal work or the informal sector has become the most commonly used term for describing workers who work, but who do not have regular or assured work, income, or work-related social security. The domain of informal work is vast and diverse. Perhaps one of the most challenging tasks in labour studies has been to provide a definition which captures both the essence and the wide ranging complexity of informality, as well as a coherent imagination of a possible politics of informal workers qua workers. Neo classical economists have defined informality as absence of state regulations, and in recognition of the sector's diverseness have conceded that there is a range (more or less) in terms of absence of regulations, and also, importantly, that formal and informal, therefore, must be seen in a continuum, rather than as mutually exclusive. This unifying definitional framework, is a useful first cut, but does not provide any clues to understand the complexity, or the historical specificity of informal work in the present times.
On the other side of the intellectual divide, left leaning critiques of capitalism, in general, and dependency inspired theories, in particular, explain informal work, particularly in developing countries, but also increasingly in the west, as generated by the contradictions of capitalism in a technologically driven world of global capital. Other left-leaning theorists have seen petty self employment as the domain of exclusion – the need economy – which provides subsistence to workers excluded by the global-capital driven economy. Informality, as a domain of exclusion, is, on this view, structured by global capitalism. Such theories are intrinsically attractive for a broad understanding of the political economy of development; the push cart seller or the pavement vendor in third world cities may well be a product of the dynamics of global capital. It is nevertheless difficult to imagine the precise points of interface/ conflict between the huge domain of self employed workers (who may also double up as casual wage earners) and global capital.
In this paper a new design of compact single layered triangular slotted microstrip patch antenna with spur lines and strip loading is proposed. It has been experimentally investigated that strip loading causes more size reduction where spur lines and triangular slot introduces multi frequency operation of microstrip patch antenna. The size reduction has been found to be 87% for the proposed antenna. In this article the effect of strip loading and spur lines over compactness are individually analyzed.
Interpreting how people walk is intuitive for humans. From birth, we observe physical motion in the world around us and create perceptual models to make sense of it. Neurobiologically, we invent a framework within which we understand and interpret human activities like walking (Kandel et al. 2000). Analogously, in this chapter we propose a computational model that seeks to understand human gait from its neural basis to its physical essence.
We thus started by examining the basis of all human activities: motion. The rigorous study of motion has been the cornerstone of physics for the last 450 years, over which physicists have unlocked a deep, underlying structure of motion. We employ ideas grounded firmly in fundamental physics that are true for the motion of the physical systems we consider in gait analysis.
Using this physics-based methodology, we compute Hamiltonian Energy Signatures (HES) for a person by considering all the points on their contour, thus leading to a multidimensional time series that represents the gait of a person. These HES time-series curves thus provide a model of the gait for each person's style of walking. It can also be shown, using basic physical principles, that the HES is invariant under a special affine transformation, as shown in Appendix 9.A.1.3. This allows us to use the HES to categorize the activities of different people across different domains (high resolution, low resolution, etc.) in a moderately view-invariant manner.
Spatial tools such as remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS) are increasingly used in a variety of research and public applications. The popularization of geospatial data and tools in the media and society has significantly changed the way we perceive, understand and manage our landscapes. A variety of social actors have become familiar with these technologies, whether they be an extractivist cooperative disputing borders in the Brazilian Amazon, a US resident checking his property on a cadastral map, or a school teacher in India, using a satellite image to teach regional geography. Today, geospatial technologies are recognized as valuable assets of civil society and essential tools to address social and environmental problems (NAS 2002). The proliferation of satellite and public-domain spatial data, Global Positioning Systems (GPS), affordable computer hardware and software, and data processing and analytical techniques continue to expand the use of these technologies in anthropology generally, and environmental anthropology in particular. Such spatial information is frequently used in visualization (e.g., displays of aerial photography or satellite imagery for a study region) using Google Earth or other public domain software that allow quick online data access/display without requiring specialized training. More in-depth research and analyses entail the use of designated RS/GIS software programs (e.g., ERDAS Imagine, ArcGIS, Idrisi, Multispec, among many others), and the actual acquisition of the relevant GIS datasets (as opposed to merely accessing them for online displays and/or simple queries).
This chapter reviews uses and issues in the application of RS and GIS in anthropological research. We briefly present fundamental geospatial concepts and provide a concise history of RS and GIS applications in anthropology. Next, we review the range of geospatial concerns in anthropological research design, highlighting research questions, units of analysis, data search and temporal sampling, and assessments of data processing needs and analysis. In order to illustrate these geospatial concerns, we focus in particular on land use/cover change research, and provide guidelines for data planning and research design. Finally, we present critical ethical and pragmatic issues in the (re)presentation of spatiotemporal data and maps, reflecting on the positive potential as well as perils of using these tools in anthropological research.
Salmonellosis is an internationally important disease of mammals and birds. Unique epidemics in New Zealand in the recent past include two Salmonella serovars: Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium definitive type (DT) 160 (S. Typhimurium DT160) and S. Brandenburg. Although not a major threat internationally, in New Zealand S. Typhimurium DT160 has been the most common serovar isolated from humans, and continues to cause significant losses in wildlife. We have identified DNA differences between the first New Zealand isolate of S. Typhimurium DT160 and the genome-sequenced strain, S. Typhimurium LT2. All the differences could be accounted for in one cryptic phage ST64B, and one novel P22-like phage, ST160. The majority of the ST160 genome is almost identical to phage SE1 but has two regions not found in SE1 which are identical to the P22-like phage ST64T, suggesting that ST160 evolved from SE1 via two recombination events with ST64T. All of the New Zealand isolates of DT160 were identical indicating the clonal spread of this particular Salmonella. Some overseas isolates of S. Typhimurium DT160 differed from the New Zealand strain and contained SE1 phage rather than ST160. ST160 was also identified in New Zealand isolates of S. Typhimurium DT74 and S. Typhimurium RDNC-April06 and in S. Typhimurium DT160 isolates from the USA. The emergence of S. Typhimurium DT160 as a significant pathogen in New Zealand is postulated to have occurred due to the sensitivity of the Salmonella strains to the ST160 phage when S. Typhimurium DT160 first arrived.
In a populous city like Mumbai, which lacks an organized pre-hospital emergency medical services (EMS) system, there exists an informal network through which victims arrive at the trauma center. This baseline study describes the prehospital care and transportation that currently is available in Mumbai.
A prospective trauma database was created by interviewing 170 randomly selected patients from a total of 454 admitted over a two-month period (July–August 2005) at a Level-I, urban, trauma center.
The injured victim in Mumbai usually is rescued by a good Samaritan passer-by (43.5%) and contrary to popular belief, helped by the police (89.7%). Almost immediately after rescue, the victim begins transport to the hospital. No one waits for the EMS ambulance to arrive, as there is none. A taxi cab is the most popular substitute for the ambulance (39.3%). The trauma patient in India usually is a young man in his late-twenties, from a lower socioeconomic class. He mostly finds himself in a government hospital, as private hospitals are reluctant to provide trauma care to the seriously injured. The injured who do receive prehospital care receive inadequate and inappropriate care due to the high cost of consumables in resuscitation, and in part due to the providers' lack of training in emergency care. Those who were more likely to receive prehospital care suffered from road traffic injuries (odds ratio (OR) = 2.3) and those transported by government ambulances (OR = 10.83), as compared to railway accident victims (OR = 0 .41) and those who came by taxi (OR = 0.54).
Currently, as a result of not having an EMS system, prehospital care is a citizen responsibility using societal networks. It is easy to eliminate this system and shift the responsibility to the state. The moot point is whether the state-funded EMS system will be robust enough in a resource-poor setting in which public hospitals are poorly funded. Considering the high funding cost of EMS systems in developed countries and the insufficient evidence that prehospital field interventions by the EMS actually have improved outcomes, Mumbai must proceed with caution when implementing advanced EMS systems into its congested urban traffic. Similar cities, such as Mexico City and Jakarta, have had limited success with implementing EMS systems. Perhaps reinforcing the existing network of informal providers of taxi drivers and police and with training, funding quick transport with taxes on roads and automobile fuels and regulating the private ambulance providers, could be more cost-effective in a culture in which sharing and helping others is not just desirable, but is necessary for overall economic survival.
We have considered the effect due to the presence of two-temperature electrons on the formation and propagation of cnoidal waves in a weak relativistic plasma. Since the cnoidal wave is equivalent to an infinite series of solitary waves, it is worthy of study for the situation where more than one solitary wave is important. The phase velocity of the modulated periodic wave is plotted as a function of the amplitude. The form of the wave for small values of ellipticity of the cnoidal wave shows up as a series of harmonics. Such cnoidal excitations are important in determining the anomalous transport coefficients of a plasma.
As a continuation of our earlier work, we have analysed the higher-order perturbative corrections to the formation of (ion-acoustic) solitary waves in a relativistic plasma. It is found that the relativistic considerations affect the amplitude and width variation - as conjectured in our previous paper. Our analysis employs a higher-order singular perturbation technique, with the elimination of secular terms in stages. In this way we arrive at an inhomogeneous KdV-type equation, which is then solved exactly. At this point a new phenomena arises at a critical value of the phase velocity at which the coefficient of the nonlinear term in the KdV equation vanishes. A new set of stretched co-ordinate is then used to derive a modified KdV equation. In both cases we have numerically computed the specific physical profile of the new solitary wave and its width.
A generalized non-local nonlinear Schrödinger equation describing the phenomenon of nonlinear Landau damping in a relativistic two-component plasma is deduced using the kinetic-theory approach of Vlasov. Parameters appearing in the equation are evaluated explicitly for the case of a Maxwellian distribution function.
A critical analysis of nonlinear waves in a non-isothermal relativistic plasma is performed using reductive perturbation theory. The plasma is assumed to contain two-temperature electrons. Higher-order corrections to the solitary wave are also computed, and the variations of the profile with respect to v/c, the two temperatures of the electrons, and the parameters bl, and bn characterising the non-isothermal nature are depicted graphically and com-pared with previous results.
Zinc oxide nanocrystals are synthesized using the chemical vapor synthesis (CVS) technique. Diethylzinc is used as zinc precursor. Synthesized zinc oxide nanocrystals are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption and desorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic laser scattering. As-synthesized zinc oxide has a primary particle size of about 10 nm and an isoelectric point at pH 9.5. The surface of zinc oxide nanocrystals can be modified using short chain organic acids like formic acid and glycine as well as using low molecular weight polyacrylic acid (PAA). The isoelectric point shifts towards acidic pH when glycine is used as surface modifier whereas it shifts towards basic pH with formic acid. The use of PAA eliminates the isoelectric point with very high value of zeta potential over the range of pH studied in these experiments.
Chemical Vapor Synthesis (CVS) is the conversion of molecular species into nanocrystalline particles by chemical reactions in a gas flow reactor. Pure anatase nanoparticles are generated in a hot wall reactor from titanium isopropoxide using different time-temperature-profiles. The time-temperature-profile (T(t)-profile) in the gas phase of the reactor has a profound influence on the particle characteristics such as particle microstructure and surface chemistry and, therefore, on the quality of the powder consisting of nanocrystalline particles. In this study a simple reaction-coagulation-sintering model (CVSSIN) was used to predict influence of the T(t)-profile on the powder characteristics. The as-synthesized anatase powders show a very high degree of crystallinity, primary particle of about 10 nm sizes and a low degree of agglomeration.
A great deal of work has been carried out in recent years on temperature rise at the contact between sliding bodies with engineering scale roughness. However, as surfaces become smoother and loading decreases, in applications such as MEMS and NEMS devices, the analysis of surface temperature rise must consider the small-scale asperity height distributions and the surface forces that may be operating at small separations. The paper attempts to predict surface temperature rise at sliding contacts with small-scale roughness considering the influence of relevant parameters. The important observation here is that in addition to the dependence on load, speed and material parameters the contact temperature steadily increases with surface adhesion.
Mesoporous templated MCM-48 silica was prepared using a C16 surfactant as template. The MCM-48 powders and thin films were characterized by different techniques. Two types of porous supports were used, namely macroporous á-alumina and silicon microsieves. The supported MCM-48 layers were applied as liquid permeable membranes in pressure-driven nanofiltration and electric field-mediated ion transport experiments.