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Intermediate morphologies of a new fossil crinoid shed light on the pathway by which crinoids acquired their distinctive arms. Apomorphies originating deep in echinoderm history among early nonblastozoan pentaradiate echinoderms distinguish Tremadocian (earliest Ordovician) crinoid arms from later taxa. The brachial series is separated from the ambulacra, part of the axial skeleton, by lateral plate fields. Cover plates are arrayed in two tiers, and floor plates expressed podial basins and pores. Later during the Early Ordovician, floor plates contacted and nestled into brachials, then were unexpressed as stereom elements entirely and cover plates were reduced to a single tier. Incorporation of these events into a parsimony analysis supports crinoid origin deep in echinoderm history separate from blastozoans (eocrinoids, ‘cystoids’). Arm morphology is exceptionally well-preserved in the late Tremadocian to early Floian Athenacrinus broweri new genus new species. Character analysis supports a hypothesis that this taxon originated early within in the disparid clade. Athenacrinus n. gen. (in Athenacrinidae new family) is the earliest-known crinoid to express what is commonly referred to as ‘compound’ or ‘biradial’ morphology. This terminology is misleading in that no evidence for implied fusion or fission of radials exists, rather it is suggested that this condition arose through disproportionate growth.
This chapter draws on Daniel S. Lev’s work on Indonesian law and legal culture to assess the Constitutional Court’s role in the reformasi. One of the central themes running though Lev’s work, the chapter notes, was the idea that law’s claim to authority as an autonomous body of norms is invariably a function of politics – of the middle class’s need to promote this quintessentially liberal idea of law to further its own interests. On the other hand, Lev also recognised that societies generally prosper where there is public confidence in precisely this conception of law. This tension in Lev’s work may be resolved, the chapter argues, if law’s autonomy from politics is seen as being, not an empirically provable fact, but a constitutional-cultural ideology that may take hold under certain conditions. The third section uses this modified Levian conceptual framework to examine the Indonesian Constitutional Court’s role in promoting the rule of law after the constitutional reforms of 1999–2002. While the Court has made admirable strides, the chapter argues, its vacillation between a legalist and an instrumentalist conception of law has inhibited the consolidation of a stable societal understanding of its legitimate role in tempering the exercise of political power. The chapter conclusions on this score, despite differences of conceptualisation, demonstrate how vitally important Lev’s work still is to the fate of the Indonesian ‘law-state’.
Longitudinal studies of the relationship between cognition and functioning in bipolar disorder are scarce, although cognition is thought to be a key determinant of functioning. The causal structure between cognition and psychosocial functioning in bipolar disorder is unknown.
We sought to examine the direction of causality between cognitive performance and functional outcome over 2 years in a large cohort of euthymic patients with bipolar disorder.
The sample consisted of 272 adults diagnosed with bipolar disorder who were euthymic at baseline, 12 and 24 months. All participants were recruited via the FondaMental Advanced Centers of Expertise in Bipolar Disorders. We used a battery of tests, assessing six domains of cognition at baseline and 24 months. Residual depressive symptoms and psychosocial functioning were measured at baseline and 12 and 24 months. The possible causal structure between cognition and psychosocial functioning was investigated with cross-lagged panel models with residual depressive symptoms as a covariate.
The analyses support a causal model in which cognition moderately predicts and is causally primary to functional outcome 1 year later, whereas psychosocial functioning does not predict later cognitive performance. Subthreshold depressive symptoms concurrently affected functioning at each time of measure.
Our results are compatible with an upward causal effect of cognition on functional outcome in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. Neuropsychological assessment may help specify individual prognoses. Further studies are warranted to confirm this causal link and evaluate cognitive remediation, before or simultaneously with functional remediation, as an intervention to improve functional outcome.
Nous avons documenté et comparé les caractéristiques environnementales potentiellement associées à la participation sociale de Québécois âgés, selon le niveau de ruralité. Une enquête a été réalisée auprès de Québécois âgés de 65 ans et plus recrutés par différents regroupements d’aînés et les réseaux sociaux. Les répondants ont rempli le Questionnaire du potentiel de participation sociale, développé à partir d’une recension systématique des écrits. Selon les 515 aînés, âgés en moyenne de 71,5 ans, les caractéristiques environnementales liées à la participation sociale, ainsi que la convivialité des villes et des quartiers, sont perçues plus favorablement dans les milieux métropolitains et urbains que dans les milieux ruraux. Toutefois, l’accès à l’autobus ainsi que l’accueil et l’ouverture des gens du quartier sont davantage appréciés par les aînés ruraux. Ces résultats témoignent de la présence d’inégalités de participation sociale selon le niveau de ruralité et permettent d’envisager de nouvelles pistes d’action.
The age-at-onset (AAO) of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is thought to be influenced by environmental factors and polygenic predispositions. Professional exposures to pesticides and toxic metals were shown to be associated with an earlier onset in small sample studies.
Aim of Study:
The aim of this study was to confirm the association between professional exposures to pesticides and toxic metals and the AAO of PD, on a larger cohort of patients, defined with a clinic-based ascertainment scheme.
We used an incident cohort of 290 patients recruited through three designated movement disorder clinics in the province of Quebec, Canada. Patients completed a detailed questionnaire regarding professional exposures to pesticides and toxic metals. We compared the AAO in patients without prior professional exposure (N = 170) and those with exposure to pesticides (N = 53) or toxic metals through welding (N = 30). We further subdivided patients exposed to pesticides according to the frequency and proximity of their contacts.
Patients with prior exposure to pesticides (AAO = 54.74 years) or toxic metals (54.27 years) had a significantly earlier AAO compared to the control group (59.26 years) (p = 0.003). In those exposed to pesticides, closer (p = 0.03) and more frequent (p = 0.02) contacts were negatively correlated with AAO.
Exposure to pesticides and toxic metals were both associated with an earlier onset of PD, an effect that was greater with higher levels of exposure, both in terms of frequency and proximity.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common and a major health and socioeconomic problem worldwide. In the United States it is estimated that someone suffers a TBI every 15 seconds and that >2% of the population lives with TBI-associated disability. TBI is a heterogeneous disease in cause, pathology, severity, clinical presentation and prognosis that may occur in isolation or be associated with other extracranial injuries. Despite much research and success in animal studies, effective drug therapies are missing in clinical trials [1–3]. Instead TBI management is centered on the early identification and removal of mass lesions and on the detection, prevention, and management of secondary brain insults such as hypotension, hypoxia, seizures, and elevated intracranial pressure (ICP), among others, that evolve over time following the primary injury. Hence management in the neurocritical care unit (NCCU) can have a significant impact on patient outcome. Much of this care has been codified in various guidelines published by organizations such as the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in the United Kingdom or the Brain Trauma Foundation and Neurocritical Care Society in the United States [4–8]. In this chapter we will briefly review the classification, pathology, and pathophysiology of TBI, provide indications for surgical intervention, and discuss important aspects of critical care. Several topics, e.g. cerebral blood flow (CBF), ICP, monitoring, ventilation, sedation, and brain death, are also enlarged upon in other chapters in this book. We will concentrate on moderate and severe TBI in adults since it is these patients who usually require intensive care. The reader is referred elsewhere for recent reviews on concussion, mild TBI, and care of pediatric TBI [9–17].
Three species, Lobothallia brachyloba Paukov & I. V. Frolov, L. epiadelpha Paukov & A. Nordin and L. zogtii Paukov & Davydov, from arid regions of Eurasia (Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, China and Mongolia) are described as new to science. Lobothallia brachyloba has flat, firmly attached lobes, immersed apothecia lacking a distinct thalline margin, and contains norstictic acid. Both Lobothallia epiadelpha and L. zogtii contain stictic acid and have a brown thallus and sessile apothecia. Lobothallia epiadelpha initially develops on crustose Circinaria spp, has thick lobes loosely attached to the substratum, and brown apothecial discs with constant thalline margins. Lobothallia zogtii is a free-living species with brownish black to jet black apothecial discs surrounded by a receding thalline margin. Lecanora bogdoënsis is synonymized with Lobothallia praeradiosa and Lobothallia helanensis is synonymized with L. subdiffracta. Three new combinations, Lobothallia hedinii (H. Magn.) Paukov, A. Nordin & Sohrabi, L. lacteola (Oxner) Şenkardeşler, Paukov, Davydov & Sohrabi, and L. subdiffracta (H. Magn.) Paukov, are proposed. Phylogenetic analyses of Lobothallia brachyloba, L. epiadelpha and L. subdiffracta (ITS, mtSSU) are presented, showing their relationships within Lobothallia. The lectotype of the name Aspicilia lacteola Oxner is designated. A key to 18 species of Lobothallia is provided.
At the first retinal synapse, horizontal cells (HCs) contact both photoreceptor terminals and bipolar cell dendrites, modulating information transfer between these two cell types to enhance spatial contrast and mediate color opponency. The synaptic mechanisms through which these modulations occur are still debated. The initial hypothesis of a GABAergic feedback from HCs to cones has been challenged by pharmacological inconsistencies. Surround antagonism has been demonstrated to occur via a modulation of cone calcium channels through ephaptic signaling and pH changes in the synaptic cleft. GABAergic transmission between HCs and cones has been reported in some lower vertebrates, like the turtle and tiger salamander. In these reports, it was revealed that GABA is released from HCs through reverse transport and target GABA receptors are located at the cone terminals. In mammalian retinas, there is growing evidence that HCs can release GABA through conventional vesicular transmission, acting both on autaptic GABA receptors and on receptors expressed at the dendritic tips of the bipolar cells. The presence of GABA receptors on mammalian cone terminals remains equivocal. Here, we looked specifically for functional GABA receptors in mouse photoreceptors by recording in the whole-cell or amphotericin/gramicidin-perforated patch clamp configurations. Cones could be differentiated from rods through morphological criteria. Local GABA applications evoked a Cl− current in cones but not in rods. It was blocked by the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline methiodide and unaffected by the GABAC receptor antagonist TPMPA [(1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)methylphosphinic acid]. The voltage dependency of the current amplitude was as expected from a direct action of GABA on cone pedicles but not from an indirect modulation of cone currents following the activation of the GABA receptors of HCs. This supports a direct role of GABA released from HCs in the control of cone activity in the mouse retina.