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In the past few years, major transformations have occurred in relationships between Western societies and refugees seeking a home within their borders. A marked increase in the influx of refugees and asylum seekers into these host societies has coincided with polarization in receiving societies’ collective representations of refugees, associated with socioeconomic and political dynamics shattering European and North American majorities’ privileges in a globalizing world . Policy responses to the growing demands of refugee reception have fueled polarized debates about both solidarity and exclusion within political discourses and local communities.
"This chapter proposes that the notions of protection and family are negotiated in complex and often conflictual ways among refugee families and host country institutions, sometimes becoming pivotal parts of re-enactment scenarios in which the apprehended repetition of trauma transforms the potential protective nature of the host society into a space perceived as violent. After briefly situating this topic in the field of the legal consciousness studies, the plurality of meanings evoked by the concepts of family and protection is examined, as well as the ways in which the present refugee resettlement context transforms the perceptions of family members’ obligations and rights in a specific social space. Clinical situations are presented to show how what clinicians consider as legal obligations and boundaries need to be constantly interrogated from a legitimacy point of view and how this raises challenging ethical and clinical dilemmas for mental health and social professionals."
The field of refugee family research and intervention forms a growing field of scientific study, focussing on the refugee family as the central niche of coping with, and giving meaning to, trauma, cultural uprooting, and exile. This important new book develops an understanding of the role of refugee family relationships in post-trauma healing and provides an in-depth analysis of central clinical-therapeutic themes in refugee family psychosocial interventions. Expert contributions from across transcultural psychiatry, psychology, psychotherapy and social work have provided chapters on post-trauma reconstruction in refugee family relationships, trauma care for refugee families, and intersectorial psychosocial interventions with refugee families. This exploration of refugee family systems in both research and clinical practice aims to promote a systemic perspective in health and social services working with families in refugee mental health care.
Through a collection of clinical and academic voices, this book has aimed to regroup and further shape knowledge on refugee families and their role in coping with traumatic migration histories and diasporic identities in its members. Across the volume, contributions in Part I account for the growing empirical interest in documenting the refugee family unit as a dynamic system of interacting personal, transgenerational, and collective meaning systems, imbuing family relationships in exile with forms of relational and cultural dynamics of trauma coping and resilience. Parts II and III shift this systemic understanding into clinical practice, with contributions that provide a window into diverging modalities of working with refugee families, with contributions including different client system compositions, sectors, and systems-theoretical inspirations, located within particular national and local settings.
The site of L’anse de la République, Talmont-Saint-Hilaire, Vendée, France, belonging to the Beaker culture, was discovered by Roger Joussaume in the 1960s. It was subsequently investigated during the late 1980s and more recently in 2014. Several items excavated during these operations are clearly linked to metallurgy. This article assesses the results of new analyses (XRF, petrographic analysis, metallographic microscope observation, SEM and EDS microprobe analysis) undertaken on the different artefacts (copper residue, slags, smelting-crucible sherds), which allow the authors to assert that copper ore was smelted on the site. Radiocarbon dating of organic residue preserved on a ceramic sherd confirms the dating of the site to the earliest phase of the Beaker culture (2500 bc). The metallic copper produced here is characterised by two main impurities: arsenic and nickel. This provides an opportunity to review the extremely rare vestiges of Beaker metallurgy in France, which contrast with the numerous metal objects recovered. This article also considers the use of domestic smelting vessels for smelting ore; this technique may have been more widespread than previously thought in the Beaker culture on the Atlantic coast of Europe.
Cette enquête vise à étudier la variabilité du taux d’hospitalisation d’office (HO) constatée entre les départements. En 2007, ce taux variait de 1 à 10 .
L’objectif principal étant d’étudier cette variabilité en partant de l’hypothèse selon laquelle : « La variabilité du recours à l’HO n’est pas principalement en rapport avec la sévérité des troubles présentés par les patients ».
Depuis la loi en application au 1er août 2011, la notion d’« HO » a été remplacée par « soins psychiatriques sur décision du représentant de l’État (SDRE)  ».
Une phase transversale sur un an vise, à évaluer de façon clinique le patient (diagnostic, MINI, EGF) et, à étudier les modalités du contexte d’entrée (questionnaires : patient, psychiatre ayant établi l’admission, équipe soignante, famille, médecin et/ou psychiatre traitant et élu local) . Une phase longitudinale de suivi de cohorte sur 5 ans, à partir de l’inclusion, étudiera les parcours de soins à partir des relevés d’informations médicales. Les certificats médicaux et préfectoraux sont également étudiés.
Le but de cette étude est d’essayer de faire émerger le ou les facteurs qui pourraient être à l’origine des disparités des taux, ce qui amènerait à pouvoir identifier comment prévenir les SDRE.
L’étude a été construite autour d’un plan statistique qui permettra de comparer les différents secteurs selon leur groupe d’appartenance (faible, moyen ou fort taux d’HO). Ces trois groupes seront décrits grâce à la distribution des taux de SDRE des secteurs participants. Le critère de jugement principal est un score global de fonctionnement (EGF3), cette communication le décrira avec les résultats statistiques qui découlent de la comparaison de ce score entre les 3 groupes de taux. Aucune différence significative n’a été observée entre les 3 groupes, sous tendant notre hypothèse de départ. D’autres analyses, sur l’offre de soins des secteurs nous amèneront vers plusieurs hypothèses secondaires.
The objective of the survey was to compare depressive symptoms in depression with and without a concomitant organic disease. The results based on the HAD and CES-D scales showed that, compared to those with an isolated depression, the patients with an associated chronic organic disease have a higher score on two items on the HAD. Three variables on the CES-D scale also helped to differentiate the two groups of depressed patients. No significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of anxiety or cognitive symptoms, fatigue or feelings of disability. Our results do not indicate any symptom that is specific to a combination of depression and somatic diseases. Guilt and hostility showed a lower level in depression associated with a concomitant somatic disease than in isolated depression.
Long-term memory is normally assessed with traditional measures such as the Wechsler memory scale. However, these measures might not fully capture individuals’ daily experiences. Long-term memory system has three separate information components: 1) encoding; 2) storage; and 3)retrieval. These three processes are thought to occur in the hippocampal formation. One of the main functions of the hippocampus is to construct and maintain spatial maps of the environment. In fact, when the hippocampus is selectively lesioned, humans present severe spatial memory deficits. The right hippocampus is involved in allocentric object location memory (objects that are part of the environment) and finding one's way through complex environments. This part of the hippocampus is activated during physical navigation. The left hippocampus is activated during the retrieval of memory of navigation. It seems that the visuospatial model requires the encoding, binding and retrieval of an event and its context. Given these findings, visuospatial navigation tasks likely explore long-term memory. In fact, visuospatial navigation can be considered as a valid surrogate for long-term memory and a good probe to activate the hippocampal formation. Neuroimaging studies have greatly improved the literature by providing confirmatory evidence that the hippocampus, together with the parahippocampal and posterior parietal cortices, are engaged in visuospatial navigation. Further, there is evidence from neuroimaging studies that the hippocampus is involved during complex navigational situations. The usefulness of visuospatial navigation as a measure of long-term memory will be discussed.