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The current study examined whether social status and social integration, two related but distinct indicators of an adolescent's standing within a peer network, mediate the association between risky symptoms (depressive symptoms and deviant behavior) and substance use across adolescence. The sample of 6,776 adolescents participated in up to seven waves of data collection spanning 6th to 12th grades. Scores indexing social status and integration were derived from a social network analysis of six schools and subsequent psychometric modeling. Results of latent growth models showed that social integration and status mediated the relation between risky symptoms and substance use and that risky symptoms mediated the relation between social standing and substance use during the high school transition. Before this transition, pathways involving deviant behavior led to high social integration and status and in turn to substance use. After this transition, both deviant behavior and depressive symptoms led to low social integration and status and in turn greater substance use. These findings suggest that the high school transition is a risky time for substance use related to the interplay of increases in depressive symptoms and deviant behavior on the one hand and decreases in social status and integration on the other.
The year is 2045, and my grandchildren (as yet unborn) are exploring the attic of my house (as yet unbought). They find a letter dated 1995 and a CD-ROM (compact disk). The letter claims that the disk contains a document that provides the key to obtaining my fortune (as yet unearned). My grandchildren are understandably excited, but they have never seen a CD before—except in old movies—and even if they can somehow find a suitable disk drive, how will they run the software necessary to interpret the information on the disk? How can they read my obsolete digital document?
As children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) usually show psychopathological signs beyond their core symptoms (e.g. elevated scores of the dysregulation profile (DP) in 30–40%), treatments with a broader approach to self-regulation skills may be supportive. Neurofeedback (NF) may reflect such an option. Aim of the present analysis was to compare the effects of slow cortical potential (SCP) NF and θ/β NF on the DP using data from a previous trial.
Thirty children with ADHD (aged 8–12 years) and a DP score in the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-DP) ⩾ 3 were included. NF treatment consisted of one block of SCP NF and one block of θ/β NF (18 units per block) allowing an intraindividual comparison. Effects of the NF protocols were also contrasted to a control group (n = 18) that completed an attention skills training (between-group analysis).
Regarding the SDQ-DP, SCP NF was superior to θ/β NF and the control condition. Effects of SCP NF and θ/β NF on ADHD symptom severity were not significantly different. The SDQ-DP score did not correlate with EEG-related measures previously found to be predictors for SCP NF on ADHD symptoms.
SCP NF may reflect a more general approach to improve cognitive, emotional and behavioral self-regulation skills. If confirmed in a larger sample, the SDQ-DP score could be used as an indication criterion and contribute to the individualization of NF in ADHD. Overall, the differential effect provides further evidence for the specificity of NF effects.
While the importance of political appointments is a matter of consensus, theorists and empiricists generally focus on different considerations, such as ideology and confirmation duration, respectively. More recently, there have been efforts to integrate empirical and theoretical scholarship but, to date, no empirical analysis assesses theoretical expectations about the relationship between temporal concerns and nominee ideologies. We fill this gap by examining theoretical predictions and related expectations about how the passage of time affects the President’s choices of nominees. We find that executives are disadvantaged as days pass and Presidents propose nominees with whom they are less ideologically compatible over time.
In the late fifteenth and throughout the sixteenth century the revival of interest in classical civilization had a distinct effect on military theory and practice. The study of Roman military methods especially became a source of inspiration for reformers and Machiavelli's Arte della Guerra ranks only as the most famous in a long line of treatises which intended to revive the art of war as the ancients had understood it. During this era military theorists steeped themselves in classical lore, rediscovered the virtues of the Roman legion, became familiar once more with cohort and maniple.
We aimed to assess the feasibility of a simple new fifteen-item FFQ as a tool for screening risk of poor dietary patterns in a healthy middle-aged population and to investigate how the results of the FFQ correlated with cardiovascular risk factors and socio-economic factors.
A randomized population-based cross-sectional study. Metabolic measurements for cardiovascular risk factors and information about lifestyle were collected. A fifteen-item FFQ was created to obtain information about dietary patterns. From the FFQ, a healthy eating index was created with three dietary groups: good, average and poor. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess relationships between dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors.
Men and women aged 50 years and living in Gothenburg, Sweden.
In total, 521 middle-aged adults (257 men, 264 women) were examined. With good dietary pattern as the reference, there was a gradient association of having obesity, hypertension and high serum TAG in those with average and poor dietary patterns. After adjustment for education and lifestyle factors, individuals with a poor dietary pattern still had significantly higher risk (OR; 95 % CI) of obesity (2·33; 1·10, 4·94), hypertension (2·73; 1·44, 5·20) and high serum TAG (2·62; 1·33, 5·14) compared with those with a good dietary pattern.
Baseline data collected by a short FFQ can predict cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged Swedish men and women. The FFQ could be a useful tool in health-care settings, when screening for risk of poor dietary patterns.
Since 1990, polarization hindered changing environmental policy statutorily. Yet, in mid-2016 the Lautenberg Act regulating toxics - chemicals employed in commerce - was passed, winning business and environmental support. What might explain this? Has the Trump administration undercut the law's effects? Does the Act's passage portend more progressive actions? We show that the Act was a function of the status quo changing due to regulatory efforts abroad and in the United States, and from outside pressures on business. These influences impacted implementation, with the Trump administration not targeting toxics regulation analogous to other programs. Further, the processes we observe for toxics may not be unique.
Severe mood dysregulation is common in childhood and can be highly impairing. The Dysregulation Profile (DP) can be considered as a broader phenotype of emotional dysregulation, including affect, cognition and behaviour. Since mood dysregulation may persist, but differently in boys and girls, the gender associated course needs to be considered longitudinally to gain a better insight in order to support the children more adequately. This study is focusing on gender associated subgroup trajectories of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire-Dysregulation Profile (SDQ-DP) in middle childhood (9–13 years of age) and includes the potential impact of clinical and psychosocial characteristics.
The data set was available from the BELLA study on mental health and well-being in children and adolescents, which is the mental health module of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). A representative epidemiological sample of 564 children living in Germany was examined at three assessment points over 2 years (data collection 2003–2006). The SDQ-DP of children aged 9–13 years was evaluated using Latent Class Growth Analysis (LCGA).
For both genders three trajectories with low (girls 67.0% and boys 59.5%), moderate (girls 28.0% and boys 31.7%) and high SDQ-DP (girls 5.0% and boys 8.8%) scores were detected. The courses of low and moderate subgroups were stable, while in the high SDQ-DP subgroup boys showed a decreasing and girls an increasing trend in symptom severity on a descriptive level. The results of the multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed a significant influence of mainly externalising but also internalising problems both increasing the risk of moderate and high SDQ-DP in both genders. Good quality of life was a protective factor for the SDQ-DP course in all subgroups.
In addition to the known clinical and scientific value of the SDQ-DP, three distinguishable trajectories of SDQ-DP in boys and girls could be found. High externalising problems at the beginning of the trajectory were associated with an undesirable course of SDQ-DP. These findings might be helpful for better psychoeducation, counselling and monitoring in clinical cases and public health.