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Insurance companies use credit score to predict auto insurance risk. The theory being that people who are irresponsible in handling their finance, might also be irresponsible drivers. As a result, in states which ban discrimination based on credit score one would expect to see more fatal car accidents. In this study we seek to estimate the effect of introducing laws that prohibit credit score discrimination on the number of traffic fatalities, taking a standard differences-in-differences approach and using data on traffic fatalities from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). We find that prohibiting credit score discrimination is likely to not have an impact on insureds' primary behavior. Specifically, we find that in the first few years after the introduction of a law prohibiting credit score discrimination, there is a statistically insignificant increase in the number of traffic fatalities. Because the increase is not statistically significant we interpret the results as suggestive only.
This chapter focuses on computer science (CS) education in Israel, which is known as the “Start-Up Nation” due to its high level of technological innovation and high number of start-ups in the country (Sensor and Singer, 2009). It tells a story, from a gender perspective, that starts in high school, passes through the military service and university stages, and concludes with what happens to female computer scientists in the job market, whether it be in academia or industry. We show that, as expected, external characteristics and cultural aspects matter in determining women’s participation in CS education and CS professions.
Background: Childhood absence epilepsy is a common generalized epilepsy in pediatric patients. Although this was considered a “benign” syndrome, new data suggests there are associated neurocognitive effects. This is the first study comparing quality of life and social functioning in those with absence epilepsy to those with other types of epilepsy. Methods: This observational study recruited patients from six Canadian academic centers. 106 patients had absence seizures, and 219 had other seizures. Established measures of depression, anxiety, social skills, social support, participation, quality of life, and epilepsy severity were assessed. MANCOVA was used to evaluate differences in social function, quality of life, and epilepsy severity measures, while accounting for age and gender. Results: This yielded a statistically significant result (Wilk’s lambda <0.05), with partial eta squared of 0.163. Follow up of between subjects tests revealed lower health related quality of life interpersonal/ social subscale and close friend social support scores in those with absence epilepsy, while other measures were not significant. Conclusions: Children with absence epilepsy have similar social function, quality of life and epilepsy severity measures compared to those with other types of epilepsy. This indicates that any dysfunction in these domains is similar to those with other types of epilepsy.
Infrared absorption spectroscopy is a powerful tool for structural and functional studies of biomolecules. The technique enables direct access to the vibrational fingerprints of molecular bonds in the mid-infrared spectral region (3-20μm). Although intrinsic absorption cross-sections are nearly ten orders of magnitude greater than corresponding Raman cross-sections, they are still small in comparison with those of fluorescent molecules. Sensitivity improvements are therefore required for the method to be applicable to single molecule / molecular layer studies. In this work, we demonstrate the use of lithographically patterned arrays of nanoantennas to enhance the absorption signature of the protein amide-I and II backbone vibrations. Strong absorption signals from monolayer thickness films are obtained. By arranging ensembles of tailored antennas in specific lattices, higher quality factor resonances and increased near-field intensities are possible. These features are leveraged to obtain 104-105 fold signal enhancements and the direct measurement of vibrational spectra of proteins at zepto-mole sensitivity levels.
The need for hollow microneedle arrays is important for both drug delivery and wearable sensor applications; however, their fabrication poses many challenges. Hollow metal microneedle arrays residing on a flexible metal foil substrate were created by combining additive manufacturing, micromolding, and electroplating approaches in a process we refer to as electromolding. A solid microneedle with inward facing ledge was fabricated with a two photon polymerization (2PP) system utilizing laser direct write (LDW) and then molded with polydimethylsiloxane. These molds were then coated with a seed layer of Ti/Au and subsequently electroplated with pulsed deposition to create hollow microneedles. An inward facing ledge provided a physical blocking platform to restrict deposition of the metal seed layer for creation of the microneedle bore. Various ledge sizes were tested and showed that the resulting seed layer void could be controlled via the ledge length. Mechanical properties of the PDMS mold was adjusted via the precursor ratio to create a more ductile mold that eliminated tip damage to the microneedles upon removal from the molds. Master structures were capable of being molded numerous times and molds were able to be reused. SEM/EDX analysis showed that trace amounts of the PDMS mold were transferred to the metal microneedle upon removal. The microneedle substrate showed a degree of flexibility that withstood over 100 cycles of bending from side to side without damaging. Microneedles were tested for their fracture strength and were capable of puncturing porcine skin and injecting a dye.
This paper examines a particular episode in the history of British imperialism in India: the appointment of the Indian Hemp Drug Commission in 1893. We analyze the way a quasi-judicial investigation into the consumption of drugs was differently conceived and executed as a civilizing mission by, on the one hand, British colonizers, and, on the other hand, an aspiring colonized elite. By bringing together the ideological dimensions of a civilizing mission (e.g., the reliance on scientific knowledge, groper procedures, legal techniques) with its social ones (e.g., collaboration between colonizers and a local elite), we show how the very notion of a civilizing mission became a site of struggle over meaning, identity, and desirable forms of governance. The analysis reveals a local elite struggling to position itself at once on a par with British criteria of scientific competence and yet not as a mere proxy for British interests; at once able to articulate itself in terms of enlightenment concepts such as reason and modernity and yet celebrating its own distinct cultural authenticity.
In recent decades, alternative dispute resolution processes have gained worldwide recognition, a growing role in legal practice, and increasing academic attention. Despite their professed advantages, they have also faced fierce opposition. In a seminal article, Owen Fiss argued that ADR exacerbates imbalances of power between the parties. But while the theoretical argument has been widely developed, empirical evidence has remained scant. This article empirically examines the impact of representation patterns and dispute resolution methods on case outcomes. Arguably, professional representation of weaker parties may reduce the effects of inequality, whereas less formal, transparent, and adjudicatory processes may exacerbate them. The article focuses on small claims settlement conferences, using the Israeli labor courts system as a test case. The main findings are that representation increases the probability of a successful settlement conference, and that the more formal the process, the greater the ratio between the sum obtained by the plaintiff and the sum claimed.
This chapter examines the practice of the Israeli Supreme Court in referencing the jurisprudence of international courts and tribunals when interpreting the international law by which Israel is bound. It notes the paucity of such referencing and examines its uses. While international jurisprudence has a limited role in guiding the Court’s own interpretative enterprise, it serves the Court in enhancing the legitimacy of its decisions in the eyes of both domestic and international audiences.
Navigating Global Business integrates and synthesizes all available country cluster studies into a nested meta-structure accompanied by eco-cultural correlates that distinguish amongst clusters. The broad range of analyses will appeal to researchers and practitioners, seasoned multi-firm executives, those in small firms seeking internationalization, and anyone intrigued by the greater question of human diversity. The book covers key work-related cultural dimensions for much of the world, and includes examples of applications in most business areas. Also exhibited are the correlates of culture, some of which, such as language and religion, speak to the origin of cultural variations in addition to illustrating key variants of the global terrain. Finally, the authors examine how patterns might have changed over time, providing a rigorous and realistic assessment of the fruits of globalization.