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There is an increasing focus on the impact of psychosocial factors and stressors on the course of Alcohol Use Disorders. Exposure to traumatic events is common among individuals with substance use disorders. PTSD symptoms were associated with greater risk of relapse in intrapersonal and negative physiological contexts. Causative chains are multifactorial and complex, and genetic factors can influence life event exposure. The purpose of this study is to describe the relationships stressful life events and alcohol relapse in a clinical sample of Alcohol Dependent Subjects.
Seventy detoxified alcoholics meeting clinical criteria for Alcohol Dependence were consecutively recruited, after a short detoxification period, and then regularly followed for a period of one year. In the occurrence of alcohol relapse, patients were evaluated by the Paykel Interview for Recent Life Events. All patients were assessed by the Global Assessment of Functioning, the Quality of Life Index, and the Social Adaptation Self-evaluation Scale.
Forty-six subjects were still in treatment at the end of the study period. Stressful life events, did not determine an increased relapse rata and were not associated with alcohol relapse.
This study suggests that the role of psychosocial risk factors should be reconsidered toward a better understand of the factors implicated in alcohol relapse. Other aspects, such as the psychological functioning, the family environment, the peer relationships, and biological and genetic characteristics are further aspect to investigate.
Aims of this study were to investigate alexithymic traits and dissociative experiences in a sample of patients with Alcohol Use Disorders, the significance of this association and the possible correlation with temperamental and character personality traits.
Eighty patients with diagnosis of Alcohol Use Disorder (DSM-IV) were consecutively recruited and assessed with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20), to evaluate the alexithymic traits, the Dissociative Experience Scale II (DES II), to investigate the possible presence of dissociative experiences, and the Temperament and Character Inventory - Revised (TCI-R) in order to define a personality profile.
The mean scores obtained by the experimental group in both the TAS-20 and DES II do not differ from those estimated during the validation procedure. Pearson's linear correlation between scores was found statistically significant (p < .05). Significant correlations with some personality dimensions have also been found.
According to some authors substances related disorders could be classified as “disturbs of emotional regulation”, an active process in which neurophysiological, motor-behavioural and cognitive-experiential systems are involved. The lack of connection or an inadequate development of these systems would result in the malfunction of the symbolic function and then in the inability for the subject to contain the tensions generated by internal needs and/or by environmental stimulations. Both alexithymia and dissociation may assume the form of defence mechanisms against the unbearable emotions. Finally, some personality factors may be involved both in the rise of dissociative states and in the alexithymic traits.
Illicit drug use is well known as an important contributor to the global burden of diseases, but the physical and psychopathological risks of recreational drugs misuse are often underestimated and drug-related fatalities in specific settings are under-investigated.
Objectives and methods
In the framework of the EU-funded project “EU-Madness”, we collected and analysed all the reports of drug-related fatalities in Ibiza from January 2010 to September 2016, with the aim of characterising the sample, and identifying the involved substances and the nature of deaths associated with their consumption.
Overall, 58 drug-related fatalities were registered from 2010 to September 2016 (87.9% males, 12.1% females, mean age 33.16; females were significantly younger than males). Most of the deceased were Britons (36.2%), followed by Spanish (22.4%), Italians (6.9%) and Germans (5.2%). In half the cases, the substance identified in post-mortem analyses was a stimulant; in 24.1% of the sample it was a depressor a prescription drug or more than two substances in 22.4%. Most of the fatalities were due to cardiovascular accidents (62%); 22.4% were deaths by drowning, 12% by fall from heights and 3.4% were due to mechanical asphyxia.
According to the results from our sample, stimulants (mainly MDMA and cocaine) are the substances of abuse involved in most drug-caused fatalities. The number of fatalities per year has been steadily increasing, but the growing diffusion of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) does not seem to be a direct cause (although better methods of their analysis in post-mortem samples should be designed).
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
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