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Grape skin is a source of polyphenols with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Little information is available regarding its application in animal feeding. The present study investigated the effect of inclusion of fermented (FS) and unfermented (UFS) grape skin at two different doses (30 g/kg, FS30 and UFS30, and 60 g/kg, FS60 and UFS60) and 200 mg/kg vitamin E (α-tocopheryl acetate) in a corn–soybean diet on growth performance, ileal protein digestibility, ileal and excreta total extractable polyphenols content and digestibility, intestinal microbiota and thigh meat oxidation in broiler chickens. Growth performance was depressed in chickens fed UFS and FS diets. A reduction in ileal protein digestibility was also observed in birds fed UFS, being this effect more pronounced in those fed 60 g/kg. The dietary inclusion of grape skin increased both ileal and excreta polyphenols contents, being higher in birds fed UFS than in those fed FS. Excreta moisture content increased in birds fed UFS and FS diets. No effect of dietary inclusion of grape skin was observed on ileal counts of lactic-acid bacteria and Clostridium, but UFS inclusion in the diet reduced ileal count of Escherichia coli as compared with FS dietary inclusion. After 7 days of refrigerated storage, values of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were lower in chicken meat when grape skin was added in the diet at 60 g/kg instead of 30 g/kg, and meat from birds fed 60 g/kg of grape skin reached TBARS values similar to those of birds supplemented with vitamin E. In conclusion, high doses of grape skin polyphenols depressed growth performance and protein digestibility, and increased excreta moisture content. Unfermented grape skin contained more polyphenols than FS, and its inclusion in the diet led to higher ileal and excreta polyphenols contents and to a lower ileal count of E. coli. Furthermore, the antioxidant potential of the polyphenols present in grape skin was observed after 7 days of meat storage, with the dose of 60 g/kg of grape skin being as effective as vitamin E supplementation in maintaining oxidative stability of meat.
The elastic constants, elastic modulus, anisotropy, Debye temperature, and sound velocity properties of Mo0.85Nb0.15B3 were investigated by first-principles calculations under pressure based on the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) proposed by Perdew–Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE). Employing the stress-strain method and the Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximations, were calculated the elastic properties of single and polycrystalline crystals; Bulk modulus (B), Young modulus (E), Poisson ratio (ν), Pugh ratio (G/B), Debye temperature and the Cauchy pressure terms. The calculated ν, Cauchy pressure, and Pugh ratio G/B values indicate that Mo0.85Nb0.15B3 shows a transition from brittle to ductile under pressure. Finally, the Density of States decreases as pressure increases.
The new compound (4R)-methyl-3-(1-(4-chlorophenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carbonyl)thiazolidin-4-carboxylate was synthesized by the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between (4R)-methyl-3-propionyl-thiazolidin-4-carboxylate (1) and 4-chlorophenylazide using the click chemistry approach. Molecular characterization was carried out by infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The X-ray powder diffraction study determined that the title compound crystallized in an orthorhombic system with unit-cell parameters a = 20.876 (2) Å, b = 12.111 (1) Å, and c = 6.288 (9) Å. The volume of the unit cell is V = 1589.7 (2) Å3. All measured diffraction maxima were indexed and are consistent with the P2221 space group (No. 17). No detectable impurities were observed.
Infant-directed speech (IDS) is a specific register that adults use to address infants, and it is characterised by prosodic exaggeration and lexical and syntactic simplification. Several authors have underlined that this simplified speech becomes more complex according to the infant's age. However, there is a lack of studies on lexical and syntactic modifications in Italian IDS during the first year of an infant's life. In the present study, 80 mother–infant dyads were longitudinally observed at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months during free-play interactions. Maternal vocal productions were subsequently coded. The results show an overall low lexical variability and syntactic complexity that identify speech to infants as a simplified register; however, the high occurrence of complex items and well-structured utterances suggests that IDS is not simple speech. Moreover, maternal IDS becomes more complex over time, but not linearly, with a maximum simplification in the second half of the first year.
There is a budding food sovereignty movement taking place in Native American communities. An important part of this movement includes the development of food and agricultural businesses by Native nations and by individual farmers and ranchers. This chapter examines the history of Native American food systems and one particular element of the Native American food sovereignty movement, the Native American youth-led movement to develop social enterprises around Native American food and food systems. The chapter demonstrates that the food sovereignty movement in Native communities is an important contributor to Native American youth and enterprise development – and vice versa.
Social cognition has been associated with functional outcome in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP). Social cognition has also been associated with neurocognition and cognitive reserve. Although cognitive reserve, neurocognitive functioning, social cognition, and functional outcome are related, the direction of their associations is not clear. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to analyze the influence of social cognition as a mediator between cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning in FEP both at baseline and at 2 years.
The sample of the study was composed of 282 FEP patients followed up for 2 years. To analyze whether social cognition mediates the influence of cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning, a path analysis was performed. The statistical significance of any mediation effects was evaluated by bootstrap analysis.
At baseline, as neither cognitive reserve nor the cognitive domains studied were related to functioning, the conditions for mediation were not satisfied. Nevertheless, at 2 years of follow-up, social cognition acted as a mediator between cognitive reserve and functioning. Likewise, social cognition was a mediator between verbal memory and functional outcome. The results of the bootstrap analysis confirmed these significant mediations (95% bootstrapped CI (−10.215 to −0.337) and (−4.731 to −0.605) respectively).
Cognitive reserve and neurocognition are related to functioning, and social cognition mediates in this relationship.
Biodiversity conservation in forest fragments surrounded by a low-quality matrix requires an understanding of how ecological conditions prevailing in the matrix enter the fragments and interact with local habitat conditions. We assessed the regeneration of oak species along edge–interior gradients in forest fragments at the periphery of Mexico City. The abundance of oak saplings was sampled along transects to the forest, while the edge effect was analysed using segmented zero-inflated Poisson models for abundance data. Three oak species were dominant in terms of their relative abundances: Quercus laeta, Quercus castanea and Quercus obtusata. Regeneration of nine oak species responded nonlinearly to the edge distance, with greater sapling abundance from the edge up to 10 m into the fragment. Canopy cover and tree height decreased from edge to fragment interior, while saplings increased in open areas within the fragments (i.e., independent of edge distance). A posterior analysis indicated that Q. obtusata reacted positively to edges. These results indicate that oak regeneration is promoted by suitable habitat conditions near the boundaries. Therefore, we suggest that forest management should focus on promoting seed production and oak establishment in forest interior habitats.
Like any therapy, acupuncture is effective for some patients, while not helpful for others. Understanding from a patients' perspective what makes one respond or not to acupuncture can help guide further intervention development. This study aimed to identify factors that influence the perception of acupuncture's therapeutic effect among cancer survivors with insomnia.
We conducted post-treatment semi-structured interviews with cancer survivors who were randomized to the acupuncture group in a clinical trial for the treatment of insomnia. Survivors were categorized into Responders and Non-Responders to acupuncture treatment based on the change in the Insomnia Severity Index with a reduction of eight points or greater as the cut-off for the response. An integrated approach to data analysis was utilized by merging an a priori set of codes derived from the key ideas and a set of codes that emerged from the data through a grounded theory approach. Codes were examined for themes and patterns.
Among 28 cancer survivors interviewed, 18 (64%) were classified as Responders. Participants perceived the ability to respond to acupuncture as dependent on treatment that effectively: (1) alleviated co-morbidities contributing to insomnia, (2) supported sleep hygiene practices, and (3) provided a durable therapeutic effect. Acupuncture treatment that did not address one of these themes often detracted from positive treatment outcomes and diminished perceived benefit from acupuncture.
Significance of results
We identified patient-perceived contributors to response to acupuncture, such as co-morbid medical conditions, adequate support for sleep hygiene practices, and temporary therapeutic relief. Addressing these factors may improve the overall effectiveness of acupuncture for insomnia.
Four Beauveria bassiana and three Metarhizium brunneum isolates were evaluated, as soil drenches, against Spodoptera littoralis prepupae. Treatment efficacy was determined by assessing total mortality during development from prepupae through to pupae and adults; mortality and sub-lethal effects on reproduction were also quantified for adults emerging from surviving prepupae/pupae. All isolates were pathogenic but overall mortality varied between 31.7 and 83.3% (0% for control); average survival time was 7.5–10.5 days (14.0 days for control). From 1.7–15.0% of adults emerging from surviving prepupae/pupae were deformed (0% in control). Contact with fungal suspensions as prepupae/pupae caused a significant reduction in fecundity of emerging adult females (15–58.9%), and a significant reduction in egg viability (6.8–28.4%) compared with controls. Two isolates were selected for virulence evaluation against S. littoralis prepupae. The LC50s were 1.7 × 107 and 1.8 × 107 conidia ml−1 and the median survival times were 7 and 6 days for isolates EAMa 01/58-Su and EAMb 09/01-Su, respectively. Destruxin A was present in pupae developing from prepupae treated with isolates EAMa 01/58-Su (0.010 ± 0.002 µg pupae−1) and EAMb 09/01-Su (0.015 ± 0.003 µg pupae−1). The use of entomopathogenic fungi as soil drenches could be a key component of S. littoralis IPM strategies due to direct reductions in the number of soil-dwelling life stages and, also, the significant reduction in reproductive potential of surviving adults.
With the aim to elucidate gonococcal antimicrobial resistance (AMR)–risk factors, we undertook a retrospective analysis of the molecular epidemiology and AMR of 104 Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from clinical samples (urethra, rectum, pharynx and cervix) of 94 individuals attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic in Madrid (Spain) from July to October 2016, and explored potential links with socio-demographic, behavioural and clinical factors of patients. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by E-tests, and isolates were characterised by N. gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing. Penicillin resistance was recorded for 15.4% of isolates, and most were susceptible to tetracycline, cefixime and azithromycin; a high incidence of ciprofloxacin resistance (~40%) was found. Isolates were grouped into 51 different sequence types (STs) and 10 genogroups (G), with G2400, ST5441, ST2318, ST12547 and G2992 being the most prevalent. A significant association (P = 0.015) was evident between HIV-positive MSM individuals and having a ciprofloxacin-resistant strain. Likewise, a strong association (P = 0.047) was found between patient age of MSM and carriage of isolates expressing decreased susceptibility to azithromycin. A decrease in the incidence of AMR gonococcal strains and a change in the strain populations previously reported from other parts of Spain were observed. Of note, the prevalent multi-drug resistant genogroup G1407 was represented by only three strains in our study, while the pan-susceptible clones such as ST5441, and ST2318, associated with extragenital body sites were the most prevalent.
Evidence-informed planning and interpretation of research results both require standardised description of local care delivery context. Such context analysis descriptions should be comparable across regions and countries to allow benchmarking and organizational learning, and for research findings to be interpreted in context. The European Service Mapping Schedule (ESMS) is a classification of adult mental health services that was later adapted for the assessment of health and social systems research (Description and Evaluation of Services and DirectoriEs - DESDE). The aim of the study was to review the diffusion and use of the ESMS/DESDE system in health and social care and its impact in health policy and decision-making.
We conducted a systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines (1997–2018).
Out of 155 papers mentioning ESMS/DESDE, 71 have used it for service research and planning. The classification has been translated into eight languages and has been used by seven international research networks. Since 2000, it has originated 11 instruments for health system research with extensive analysis of their metric properties. The ESMS/DESDE coding system has been used in 585 catchment areas in 34 countries for description of services delivery at local, regional and national levels.
The ESMS/DESDE system provides a common terminology, a classification of care services, and a set of tools allowing a variety of aims to be addressed in healthcare and health systems research. It facilitates comparisons across and within countries for evidence-informed planning.
We analyzed the effect of infant-directed speech (IDS) on multimodal communicative production of children at the beginning of the second year of life in two different languages: Spanish and Basque. Twelve Spanish and twelve Basque children aged between 12 and 15 months observed two versions of an audiovisual story: one version was narrated with IDS and the other with adult-directed speech (ADS). We analyzed the use of gaze and the communicative behaviors produced by children. The time spent looking at the story increases in the IDS condition regardless of the language of the narration. Children produced more multimodal communicative behaviors while watching the IDS version both in Spanish and in Basque. These results suggest that IDS increases attention and social engagement promoting joint attention episodes.
An experimental technique for assessing film cooling performance is proposed which can determine both film effectiveness and heat transfer coefficient distributions from a single infrared experiment. First, the film effectiveness is determined in the experiment’s steady-state phase on a series of film-cooled nozzle guide vane leading edge geometries made of a low thermal conductivity foam. Then, the effectiveness is used to calculate the distribution of the transient phase driving gas temperatures, which is applied to a finite element conduction model. Heat transfer coefficients are guessed and iteratively refined until the surface temperature histories predicted by the finite element model match those which were experimentally observed. Unlike conventional methods based on one-dimensional analytical heat transfer solutions, this approach does not require assumptions about the material thickness underlying the test surface or the uniformity with depth of its initial temperature distribution. This relieves certain experimental constraints and reduces uncertainty in results.
Male gamete chemotaxis towards the female gamete is a general strategy to facilitate the sexual reproduction in many marine eukaryotes. Biochemical studies of chemoattractants for male gametes of brown algae have advanced in the 1970s and 1980s, but the molecular mechanism of male gamete responses to the attractants remains elusive. In sea urchin, a K+ channel called the tetraKCNG channel plays a fundamental role in sperm chemotaxis and inhibition of K+ efflux through this channel by high K+ seawater blocks almost all cell responses to the chemoattractant. This signalling mechanism could be conserved in marine invertebrates as tetraKCNG channels are conserved in the marine invertebrates that exhibit sperm chemotaxis. We confirmed that high K+ seawater also inhibited sperm chemotaxis in ascidian, Ciona intestinalis (robusta), in this study. Conversely, the male gamete chemotaxis towards the female gamete of a brown alga, Mutimo cylindricus, was preserved even in high K+ seawater. This result indicates that none of the K+ channels is essential for male gamete chemotaxis in the brown alga, suggesting that the signalling mechanism for chemotaxis in this brown alga is quite different from that of marine invertebrates. Correlated to this result, we revealed that the channels previously proposed as homologues of tetraKCNG in brown algae have a distinct domain composition from that of the tetraKCNG. Namely, one of them possesses two repeats of the six transmembrane segments (diKCNG) instead of four. The structural analysis suggests that diKCNG is a cyclic nucleotide-modulated and/or voltage-gated K+ channel.