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Nowadays, 30% of the Spanish population suffers from some form of sleep disorder, occupying much of the visits to a psychiatrist. Sleep disorders are not a serious condition by itself, but have serious implications in daily life: physical exhaustion, poor performance, daytime sleepiness. Insomnia is a most common sleep disorder, however, hypersomnia must also be considered due to the limitations that it causes.
By the description of case report, we will carry out a review of the syndrome Kleine Levine.
A case of Kleine–Levin syndrome in a 23-year-old male is described. The episodic disorder was characterized by excessive sleep, voracious appetite, hyper-sexuality, irritability and memory loss. Among its history, he included a psychotic episode in childhood and an episode of behavioral disorder caused by a stressful situation. His partner refers a similar episode of hypersomnia last year that was self-limiting in 15 days and he did not go to the doctor. Patients often act normal between episodes. Remission was spontaneous. Prospects, for organic aetiology, differential diagnosis. However, arises additional tests (analytical, brain CT, EEG…) resulted no pathological. Patient fulfilled the criteria for KLS, but due to the rarity of the disorder he was previously diagnosed as psychosis not otherwise specified.
This case report aim to highlight that KLS though considered a rare disorder but not uncommon and lack of enough available research data is likely to be responsible for missed or erroneous diagnosis; thus we require more systematic studies regarding etiologies and treatment.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
In January 2012, a drug consumption room (DCR) opened in an outpatient treatment center for alcoholism and drug abuse (CADA) to reach people who inject drugs (PWID) who did not seek treatment.
To evaluate the characteristics and evolution of 76 patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) during a year in a CADA, depending on whether they are DCR users or nonusers.
A retrospective cross-sectional observational study was conducted by reviewing data collected from patients in MMT during 2015, performing a statistical comparison between DCR users and nonusers. Outcome was evaluated through urine controls, considering a poor outcome when positive to heroin > 20%.
Of the 76 patients in MMT, the average age was 40 years, 21% were women, mean dosage of methadone was 48.2 mg/day and more than a half were DCR users (52.63%). Of the 40 patients, which formed the DCR user subgroup, the average age was 36.4 years, 20% were women and mean dosage of methadone was 47 mg/day. The outcome of all the patients in PMM was successful in 48.68% of the cases, presenting differentially the nonusers a 91.67% of good response and the users only a 10%.
Inclusion of a drug consumption room in an outpatient treatment center for alcoholism and drug abuse, which facilitates accessibility for people who inject drugs to treatment, poses new challenges in order to improve the effectiveness of the PMM.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Relatively few studies have investigated whether relatives of patients with bipolar disorder show brain functional changes, and these have focused on activation changes. Failure of de-activation during cognitive task performance is also seen in the disorder and may have trait-like characteristics since it has been found in euthymia.
A total of 20 euthymic patients with bipolar disorder, 20 of their unaffected siblings and 40 healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during performance of the n-back working memory task. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was fitted to individual whole-brain maps from each set of patient–relative–matched pair of controls. Clusters of significant difference among the groups were used as regions of interest to compare mean activations/de-activations between them.
A single cluster of significant difference among the three groups was found in the whole-brain ANOVA. This was located in the medial prefrontal cortex, a region of task-related de-activation in the healthy controls. Both the patients and their siblings showed significantly reduced de-activation compared with the healthy controls in this region, but the failure was less marked in the relatives.
Failure to de-activate the medial prefrontal cortex in both euthymic bipolar patients and their unaffected siblings adds to evidence for default mode network dysfunction in the disorder, and suggests that it may act as a trait marker.
Improvements in colorectal cancer (CRC) detection and treatment have led to greater numbers of CRC survivors, for whom there is limited evidence on which to provide dietary guidelines to improve survival outcomes. Higher intake of red and processed meat and lower intake of fibre are associated with greater risk of developing CRC, but there is limited evidence regarding associations with survival after CRC diagnosis. Among 3789 CRC cases in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, pre-diagnostic consumption of red meat, processed meat, poultry and dietary fibre was examined in relation to CRC-specific mortality (n 1008) and all-cause mortality (n 1262) using multivariable Cox regression models, adjusted for CRC risk factors. Pre-diagnostic red meat, processed meat or fibre intakes (defined as quartiles and continuous grams per day) were not associated with CRC-specific or all-cause mortality among CRC survivors; however, a marginal trend across quartiles of processed meat in relation to CRC mortality was detected (P 0·053). Pre-diagnostic poultry intake was inversely associated with all-cause mortality among women (hazard ratio (HR)/20 g/d 0·92; 95 % CI 0·84, 1·00), but not among men (HR 1·00; 95 % CI 0·91, 1·09) (Pfor heterogeneity=0·10). Pre-diagnostic intake of red meat or fibre is not associated with CRC survival in the EPIC cohort. There is suggestive evidence of an association between poultry intake and all-cause mortality among female CRC survivors and between processed meat intake and CRC-specific mortality; however, further research using post-diagnostic dietary data is required to confirm this relationship.
Little is known about how functional imaging changes in bipolar disorder
relate to different phases of the illness.
To compare cognitive task activation in participants with bipolar
disorder examined in different phases of illness.
Participants with bipolar disorder in mania (n = 38),
depression (n = 38) and euthymia (n =
38), as well as healthy controls (n = 38), underwent
functional magnetic resonance imaging during performance of the n-back
working memory task. Activations and de-activations were compared between
the bipolar subgroups and the controls, and among the bipolar subgroups.
All participants were also entered into a linear mixed-effects model.
Compared with the controls, the mania and depression subgroups, but not
the euthymia subgroup, showed reduced activation in the dorsolateral
prefrontal cortex, the parietal cortex and other areas. Compared with the
euthymia subgroup, the mania and depression subgroups showed
hypoactivation in the parietal cortex. All three bipolar subgroups showed
failure of de-activation in the ventromedial frontal cortex. Linear
mixed-effects modelling revealed a further cluster of reduced activation
in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in the patients; this was
significantly more marked in the mania than in the euthymia subgroup.
Bipolar disorder is characterised by mood state-dependent hypoactivation
in the parietal cortex. Reduced dorsolateral prefrontal activation is a
further feature of mania and depression, which may improve partially in
euthymia. Failure of de-activation in the medial frontal cortex shows
An association between processed and red meat consumption and total mortality has been reported by epidemiological studies; however, there are many controversial reports regarding the association between meat consumption and CVD and IHD mortality. The present meta-analysis was carried out to summarise the evidence from prospective cohort studies on the association between consumption of meat (total, red, white and processed) and all-cause, CVD and IHD mortality. Cohort studies were identified by searching the PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge databases. Risk estimates for the highest v. the lowest consumption category and dose–response meta-analysis were calculated using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity among the studies was also evaluated. A total of thirteen cohort studies were identified (1 674 272 individuals). Subjects in the highest category of processed meat consumption had 22 and 18 % higher risk of mortality from any cause and CVD, respectively. Red meat consumption was found to be associated with a 16 % higher risk of CVD mortality, while no association was found for total and white meat consumption. In the dose–response meta-analysis, an increase of 50 g/d in processed meat intake was found to be positively associated with all-cause and CVD mortality, while an increase of 100 g/d in red meat intake was found to be positively associated with CVD mortality. No significant associations were observed between consumption of any type of meat and IHD mortality. The results of the present meta-analysis indicate that processed meat consumption could increase the risk of mortality from any cause and CVD, while red meat consumption is positively but weakly associated with CVD mortality. These results should be interpreted with caution due to the high heterogeneity observed in most of the analyses as well as the possibility of residual confounding.
Health-beneficial effects of adhering to a healthy Nordic diet index have been suggested. However, it has not been examined to what extent the included dietary components are exclusively related to the Nordic countries or if they are part of other European diets as well, suggesting a broader preventive potential. The present study describes the intake of seven a priori defined healthy food items (apples/pears, berries, cabbages, dark bread, shellfish, fish and root vegetables) across ten countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and examines their consumption across Europe.
Cross-sectional study. A 24 h dietary recall was administered through a software program containing country-specific recipes. Sex-specific mean food intake was calculated for each centre/country, as well as percentage of overall food groups consumed as healthy Nordic food items. All analyses were weighted by day and season of data collection.
Multi-centre, European study.
Persons (n 36 970) aged 35–74 years, constituting a random sample of 519 978 EPIC participants.
The highest intakes of the included diet components were: cabbages and berries in Central Europe; apples/pears in Southern Europe; dark bread in Norway, Denmark and Greece; fish in Southern and Northern countries; shellfish in Spain; and root vegetables in Northern and Central Europe. Large inter-centre variation, however, existed in some countries.
Dark bread, root vegetables and fish are strongly related to a Nordic dietary tradition. Apples/pears, berries, cabbages, fish, shellfish and root vegetables are broadly consumed in Europe, and may thus be included in regional public health campaigns.
Relapses in cocaine abusers in treatment are an important problem. The majority of patients are incapable of sustaining abstinence over any length of time. To identify the factors associated to relapses risk in the cocaine use can be an optimal choice to improve the treatment strategies. The aim of this study was to analyze relapse-risk factors in cocaine-dependent patients on treatment. Participants were 102 patients who had begun outpatient treatment at a public health center in Spain. Some functional areas and cocaine use are evaluated for a period of six months. A structural equations model was used to identify possible predictive variables. The results show that social-family environment and economic-employment situation were associated with greater risk of relapse. Likewise, the social-family environment was related to severity of addiction. It is concluded that the incorporation of family intervention strategies and vocational/employment counseling may help to reduce relapse rates in cocaine addicts receiving treatment.
Fish consumption is the major dietary source of EPA and DHA, which according to rodent experiments may reduce body fat mass and prevent obesity. Only a few human studies have investigated the association between fish consumption and body-weight gain. We investigated the association between fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight. Women and men (n 344 757) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition were followed for a median of 5·0 years. Linear and logistic regression were used to investigate the associations between fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight. Among women, the annual weight change was 5·70 (95 % CI 4·35, 7·06), 2·23 (95 % CI 0·16, 4·31) and 11·12 (95 % CI 8·17, 14·08) g/10 g higher total, lean and fatty fish consumption per d, respectively. The OR of becoming overweight in 5 years among women who were normal weight at enrolment was 1·02 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·02), 1·01 (95 % CI 1·00, 1·02) and 1·02 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·04) g/10 g higher total, lean and fatty consumption per d, respectively. Among men, fish consumption was not statistically significantly associated with weight change. Adjustment for potential over- or underestimation of fish consumption did not systematically change the observed associations, but the 95 % CI became wider. The results in subgroups from analyses stratified by age or BMI at enrolment were not systematically different. In conclusion, the present study suggests that fish consumption has no appreciable association with body-weight gain.
To ascertain the prevalence of and association between main lifestyle factors (diet, physical activity, alcohol consumption and smoking) in students from the Balearic Islands University.
A cross-sectional, descriptive study. A questionnaire including questions on lifestyle, dietary habits and physical activity habits was administered to the students. Four different diet quality scores were calculated (Diet Diversity Score, Mediterranean Diet Score, Dietary Guidelines Score and Global Dietary Guidelines Score).
A sample of students from the Balearic Islands University.
Nine hundred and eighty-seven students (45·5 % males; mean age 21·5 (sd 3·3) years).
The dietary pattern of the student population was characterized by a low consumption of cereals and tubers, fruits, vegetables, olive oil, legumes and nuts, and a high consumption of processed meat, sweets, snacks, soft drinks and pastries. Linear, positive and statistically significant correlations were found between the number of meals consumed daily and all of the diet quality scores determined. Determinants of diet quality, both in the univariate and multivariate analyses, were physical activity practice, sex, age and number of meals consumed daily.
Risk factors such as smoking, diet and physical inactivity had a tendency of clustering among Spanish university students. Overall diet quality was low, due to important departures from dietary recommendations and loss of the traditional Mediterranean dietary pattern. Nutritional education campaigns that include promotion of physical activity practice are needed to improve the overall health status of this population.
Studies have suggested that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of CVD and premature mortality in individuals with diabetes mellitus. However, history of alcohol consumption has hardly been taken into account. We investigated the association between current alcohol consumption and mortality in men and women with diabetes mellitus accounting for past alcohol consumption. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a cohort was defined of 4797 participants with a confirmed diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Men and women were assigned to categories of baseline and past alcohol consumption. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI for total mortality were estimated with multivariable Cox regression models, using light alcohol consumption (>0–6 g/d) as the reference category. Compared with light alcohol consumption, no relationship was observed between consumption of 6 g/d or more and total mortality. HR for >6–12 g/d was 0·89 (95 % CI 0·61, 1·30) in men and 0·86 (95 % CI 0·46, 1·60) in women. Adjustment for past alcohol consumption did not change the estimates substantially. In individuals who at baseline reported abstaining from alcohol, mortality rates were increased relative to light consumers: HR was 1·52 (95 % CI 0·99, 2·35) in men and 1·81 (95 % CI 1·04, 3·17) in women. The present study in diabetic individuals showed no association between current alcohol consumption >6 g/d and mortality risk compared with light consumption. The increased mortality risk among non-consumers appeared to be affected by their past alcohol consumption rather than their current abstinence.
Whether there are differences between countries in the validity of self-reported diet in relation to BMI, as evaluated using recovery biomarkers, is not well understood. We aimed to evaluate BMI-related reporting errors on 24 h dietary recalls (24-HDR) and on dietary questionnaires (DQ) using biomarkers for protein and K intake and whether the BMI effect differs between six European countries. Between 1995 and 1999, 1086 men and women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition completed a single 24-HDR, a DQ and one 24 h urine collection. In regression analysis, controlling for age, sex, education and country, each unit (1 kg/m2) increase in BMI predicted an approximately 1·7 and 1·3 % increase in protein under-reporting on 24-HDR and DQ, respectively (both P < 0·0001). Exclusion of individuals who probably misreported energy intake attenuated BMI-related bias on both instruments. The BMI effect on protein under-reporting did not differ for men and women and neither between countries on both instruments as tested by interaction (all P>0·15). In women, but not in men, the DQ yielded higher mean intakes of protein that were closer to the biomarker-based measurements across BMI groups when compared with 24-HDR. Results for K were similar to those of protein, although BMI-related under-reporting of K was of a smaller magnitude, suggesting differential misreporting of foods. Under-reporting of protein and K appears to be predicted by BMI, but this effect may be driven by ‘low-energy reporters’. The BMI effect on under-reporting seems to be the same across countries.
Flavonols, flavanones and flavones (FLAV) are sub-classes of flavonoids that exert cardioprotective and anti-carcinogenic properties in vitro and in vivo. We aimed to estimate the FLAV dietary intake, their food sources and associated lifestyle factors in ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. FLAV intake and their food sources for 36 037 subjects, aged between 35 and 74 years, in twenty-seven study centres were obtained using standardised 24 h dietary recall software (EPIC-SOFT). An ad hoc food composition database on FLAV was compiled using data from US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases and was expanded using recipes, estimations and flavonoid retention factors in order to increase its correspondence with the 24 h dietary recall. Our results showed that the highest FLAV-consuming centre was the UK health-conscious group, with 130·9 and 97·0 mg/d for men and women, respectively. The lowest FLAV intakes were 36·8 mg/d in men from Umeå and 37·2 mg/d in women from Malmö (Sweden). The flavanone sub-class was the main contributor to the total FLAV intake ranging from 46·6 to 52·9 % depending on the region. Flavonols ranged from 38·5 to 47·3 % and flavones from 5·8 to 8·6 %. FLAV intake was higher in women, non-smokers, increased with level of education and physical activity. The major food sources were citrus fruits and citrus-based juices (especially for flavanones), tea, wine, other fruits and some vegetables. We concluded that the present study shows heterogeneity in intake of these three sub-classes of flavonoids across European regions and highlights differences by sex and other sociodemographic and lifestyle factors.
We characterise those quasi-metric spaces (X, d) whose poset BX of formal balls satisfies the condition
From this characterisation, we then deduce that a quasi-metric space (X, d) is Smyth-complete if and only if BX is a dcpo satisfying condition (*). We also give characterisations in terms of formal balls for sequentially Yoneda complete quasi-metric spaces and for Yoneda complete T1 quasi-metric spaces. Finally, we discuss several properties of the Heckmann quasi-metric on the formal balls of any quasi-metric space.
To assess current Mediterranean dietary patterns (MDP) in the western and eastern Mediterranean, i.e. in Balearic islanders (BI) and Greek islanders (GI).
Subjects and methods
Dietary patterns were assessed using FFQ on a representative sample (n 1200) of the BI and GI (n 1324) adult population. A Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) was calculated according to the consumption of nine MDP components: (i) with a beneficial effect on health, i.e. vegetables, fruits and nuts, cereals, legumes, fish and shellfish, MUFA:SFA ratio, and moderate alcohol consumption; and (ii) with a detrimental effect on health, i.e. meat and meat products, and milk and dairy products. Persons with consumption of beneficial components below the median (GI plus BI) received a value of 0 and those with consumption above the median a value of 1. Persons with below-median consumption of detrimental components received a value of 1 and above-median consumption a value of 0. For alcohol, a value of 1 was given to consumptions of 10–50 g/d (men) and 5–25 g/d (women). The range of the MDS was 0–9, with higher scores indicating greater adherence to the MDP.
GI showed higher adherence (mean MDS 5·12 (sd 1·42)) to the MDP than BI (mean MDS 3·32 (sd 1·23)). BI diet was characterized by a high intake of legumes, nuts, seed oils, sugar and confectionery, and non-alcoholic beverages compared with GI, whereas GI diet was richer in fruit, vegetables, potatoes, olive oil, animal products and alcoholic beverages.
The GI diet seems closer to the traditional MDP than the BI diet.
Given a partial metric space (X, p), we use (BX, ⊑dp) to denote the poset of formal balls of the associated quasi-metric space (X, dp). We obtain characterisations of complete partial metric spaces and sup-separable complete partial metric spaces in terms of domain-theoretic properties of (BX, ⊑dp). In particular, we prove that a partial metric space (X, p) is complete if and only if the poset (BX, ⊑dp) is a domain. Furthermore, for any complete partial metric space (X, p), we construct a Smyth complete quasi-metric q on BX that extends the quasi-metric dp such that both the Scott topology and the partial order ⊑dp are induced by q. This is done using the partial quasi-metric concept recently introduced and discussed by H. P. Künzi, H. Pajoohesh and M. P. Schellekens (Künzi et al. 2006). Our approach, which is inspired by methods due to A. Edalat and R. Heckmann (Edalat and Heckmann 1998), generalises to partial metric spaces the constructions given by R. Heckmann (Heckmann 1999) and J. J. M. M. Rutten (Rutten 1998) for metric spaces.
In recent years, inkjet printing has become an important technology for many applications, such as organic electronics, nanotechnology, and tissue engineering, on account of its ability to precisely deposit pico litre volumes of solutions or suspensions, including polymers and metal nanoparticles, in well-defined patterns . In this work we focus on the electrical performance of PEDOT:PSS conductors inkjet printed onto natural rubber latex and the effect of mechanical deformation on conductor integrity and electrical performance.
1. B.-J de Gans, P. C. Duineveld and U. S. Schubert, Adv. Mater., 16, (2004).
To assess the nutritional status of the Andean population of Puna and Quebrada of Humahuaca, Jujuy, using anthropometric measurements.
Design and subjects
A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in a representative sample (n = 1236) of individuals from these regions. Children aged 2–9 years, adolescents (10–17 years) and adults (≥18 years; pregnant and lactating women excluded) were considered. Height-for-age, weight-for-height and body mass index (BMI) were calculated in children and adolescents and compared with World Health Organization/National Center for Health Statistics/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference standards using Z-scores or percentiles, in order to assess the prevalence of stunting, wasting/thinness and excess weight. In adults, BMI, waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip (WHR) ratio were used to identify obesity and central adiposity.
Stunting (height-for-age Z-score <–2 standard deviations) and obesity (BMI ≥ 95th percentile) were found to be major nutritional problems in children and adolescents. Stunting was prevalent in 10.7% of children and 12.4% of adolescents; 8.2% of children and 3.5% of adolescents were obese. Adults were short (mean: 155.8 cm) and values of overweight (32.3%), obesity (18.3%) and central adiposity (mean WC: 86.5 cm) were high. Older adults and those with higher economic development showed higher prevalence of obesity and central adiposity.
The present population may be at the early stages of nutritional transition as symptoms of undernutrition and overnutrition coexist at the population level. These results suggest that rates of growth retardation may be decreasing owing to improved nutritional conditions; however, this could be accompanied by a sharp increase in the prevalence of other diet-related chronic diseases.
The aim of the present study was to describe dietary patterns in a representative sample from Puna and Quebrada of Humahuaca, Jujuy, Argentina. A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in a representative sample (n 1236) of individuals from these regions. For the present study, only children aged 2–9 years (n 360), adolescents aged 10–18 years (n 223) and adults aged 18 years or over (n 465) were considered. Breast-fed children, pregnant women and lactating women were excluded. Dietary data collection methods comprised one 24 h recall and a semi-quantitative FFQ. We used principal component (PC) analyses to identify prevailing dietary patterns. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to assess the determinants of the identified dietary patterns. Two dominant PC were identified: PC1 reflected a ‘Western-like’ diet with an emphasis on not-autochthon foods. This pattern tended to be present in urban areas of the Quebrada region and was associated with a younger age, a higher level of development, and a worse diet quality. PC2 reflected an ‘Andean-like’ diet including a variety of autochthon crops. This was preferred by individuals living in rural areas from Puna with a high level of development during the post-harvest season, and was associated with a greater diet quality. These results suggest that the nutrition transition phenomenon is a reality in certain sectors of this population and might be one of the leading causes of the observed double burden of malnutrition.
The aim of this study was to assess whether the recently developed Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) was useful to evaluate the diet quality of a young Mediterranean population. A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in southern Spain (Granada-Andalucia) from 2002 to 2005. Dietary information (24 h recall and FFQ) and socio-demographic and lifestyle data were collected from a representative sample of the population (n 288, 44·1 % females and 55·9 % males) aged 6–18 years (mean 12·88 (sd 2·78) years). DQI-I was designed according to the method of Kim et al. modified by Tur et al. for Mediterranean populations. It focused on four main characteristics of a high-quality diet (variety, adequacy, moderation and overall balance). This young population from southern Spain obtained 56·31 % of the total DQI-I score, indicating a poor-quality diet. A higher score was associated with a longer breakfast and greater physical activity. The DQI-I may require further modification for application in Mediterranean populations, differentiating between olive oil and saturated fats, among other changes. Further research is needed to develop a new diet quality index adapted to the Mediterranean diet.