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The renowned Gallic poet Pacatus Drepanius journeyed to Rome in the summer of AD 389 to deliver a speech to the Emperor Theodosius; both men stood for the first time before the Roman Senators. It was a moment of high political charge. The Latin speech survives and is here presented both in the original and with facing English translation; the introduction and commentary capture the groundbreaking character of the work and set it in its historical, rhetorical and literary contexts.
This innovative history of welfare economics challenges the view that welfare economics can be discussed without taking ethical values into account. Whatever their theoretical commitments, when economists have considered practical problems relating to public policy, they have adopted a wider range of ethical values, whether equality, justice, freedom, or democracy. Even canonical authors in the history of welfare economics are shown to have adopted ethical positions different from those with which they are commonly associated. Welfare Theory, Public Action, and Ethical Values explores the reasons and implications of this, drawing on concepts of welfarism and non-welfarism developed in modern welfare economics. The authors exemplify how economic theory, public affairs and political philosophy interact, challenging the status quo in order to push economists and historians to reconsider the nature and meaning of welfare economics.
The unsettling language of blood has been invoked throughout the history of Christianity. But until now there has been no truly sustained treatment of how Christians use blood to think with. Eugene F. Rogers Jr. discusses in his much-anticipated new book the sheer, surprising strangeness of Christian blood-talk, exploring the many and varied ways in which it offers a language where Christians cooperate, sacrifice, grow and disagree. He asks too how it is that blood-talk dominates when other explanations would do, and how blood seeps into places where it seems hardly to belong. Reaching beyond academic disputes, to consider how religious debates fuel civil ones, he shows that it is not only theologians or clergy who engage in blood-talk, but also lawmakers, judges, generals, doctors and voters at large. Religious arguments have significant societal consequences, Rogers contends; and for that reason secular citizens must do their best to understand them.
Grammar is integral to teaching English as a second language, and yet there is often a disconnect between theory and practice. This book bridges that gap by introducing key theories of English grammar and showing how they can be applied in teaching. By drawing on an eclectic range of sources, and using a multidisciplinary approach, Berry links advances in our knowledge of grammar, from theoretical and descriptive viewpoints, with developments in pedagogical practices, to provide a comprehensive overview of the whole process of grammar. The second part of the book contains four case studies of key areas of English grammar in which the insights of the earlier chapters are applied, illustrating how grammar theory is used in practice. Offering new insights into the way English grammar works, this book is invaluable for all professionals who 'do' English grammar: teachers, grammarians, textbook writers and syllabus designers, testers and researchers.
To assess influenza symptoms, adherence to mask use recommendations, absenteesm and presenteeism in acute care healthcare workers (HCWs) during influenza epidemics.
The TransFLUas influenza transmission study in acute healthcare prospectively followed HCWs prospectively over 2 consecutive influenza seasons. Symptom diaries asking for respiratory symptoms and adherence with mask use recommendations were recorded on a daily basis, and study participants provided midturbinate nasal swabs for influenza testing.
In total, 152 HCWs (65.8% nurses and 13.2% physicians) were included: 89.1% of study participants reported at least 1 influenza symptom during their study season and 77.8% suffered from respiratory symptoms. Also, 28.3% of HCW missed at least 1 working day during the study period: 82.6% of these days were missed because of symptoms of influenza illness. Of all participating HCWs, 67.9% worked with symptoms of influenza infection on 8.8% of study days. On 0.3% of study days, symptomatic HCWs were shedding influenza virus while at work. Among HCWs with respiratory symptoms, 74.1% adhered to the policy to wear a mask at work on 59.1% of days with respiratory symptoms.
Respiratory disease is frequent among HCWs and imposes a significant economic burden on hospitals due to the number of working days lost. Presenteesm with respiratory illness, including influenza, is also frequent and poses a risk for patients and staff.
Some people diagnosed with schizophrenia are more prone to committing acts of serious violence, especially in the presence of drug or alcohol misuse. The rarity of homicide has meant that no large controlled study has previously examined clinical risk factors.
To determine the risk factors for homicide by males diagnosed with schizophrenia.
A national nested case–control study of all previously admitted males diagnosed with schizophrenia, convicted of homicide between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2012. Univariate and multivariable conditional logistic regression models were fitted to identify predictors of homicide in this population.
During the observation period 160 male patients with schizophrenia and a history of psychiatric admission were convicted of homicide, and they were matched with 542 male control patients who had not been convicted of homicide. Patients who committed homicide were more likely to have a history of violence and comorbid personality disorder or drug misuse. They were more likely to have missed their last contact with services prior to the offence and to have been non-adherent with their treatment plan. Almost all (94%) of homicides were committed by patients who had a history of alcohol or drug misuse and/or who were not in receipt of planned treatment.
In England and Wales, homicides by patients with schizophrenia without substance misuse and in receipt of planned care are exceptionally rare. To prevent serious violence, mental health services should focus on drug and alcohol misuse, treatment adherence and maintaining contact with services.
From the 1918 influenza pandemic (H1N1) until the recent 2019 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, no efficient diagnostic tools have been developed for sensitive identification of viral pathogens. Rigorous, early, and accurate detection of viral pathogens is not only linked to preventing transmission but also to timely treatment and monitoring of drug resistance. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the gold standard method for microbiology and virology testing, suffers from both false-negative and false-positive results arising from the detection limit, contamination of samples/templates, exponential DNA amplification, and variation of viral ribonucleic acid sequences within a single individual during the course of the infection. Rapid, sensitive, and label-free detection of SARS-CoV-2 can provide a first line of defense against the current pandemic. A promising technique is non-linear coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy, which has the ability to capture rich spatiotemporal structural and functional information at a high acquisition speed in a label-free manner from a biological system. Raman scattering is a process in which the distinctive spectral signatures associated with light-sample interaction provide information on the chemical composition of the sample. In this prospective, we briefly discuss the development and future prospects of CARS for real-time multiplexed label-free detection of SARS-CoV-2 pathogens.
Despite evidence of gender differences in bipolar disorder characteristics and comorbidity, there is little research on the differences in treatment and service use between men and women with bipolar disorder.
To use routine data to describe specialist mental health service contact for bipolar disorder, including in-patient, community and support service contacts; to compare clinical characteristics and mental health service use between men and women in contact with secondary services for bipolar disorder.
Cross-sectional analysis of mental health patients with bipolar disorder in New Zealand, based on complete national routine health data.
A total of 3639 individuals were in contact with specialist mental health services with a current diagnosis of bipolar disorder in 2015. Of these 58% were women and 46% were aged 45 and over. The 1-year prevalence rate of bipolar disorder leading to contact with specialist mental health services was 1.56 (95% CI 1.50–1.63) per 100 000 women and 1.20 (95% CI 1.14–1.26) per 100 000 men. Rates of bipolar disorder leading to service contact were 30% higher in women than men (rate ratio 1.30, 95% CI 1.22–1.39). The majority (68%) had a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder. Women were more likely to receive only out-patient treatment and have comorbid anxiety whereas more men had substance use disorder, were convicted for crimes when unwell, received compulsory treatment orders and received in-patient treatment.
Although the prevalence of bipolar disorder is equal between men and women in the population, women were more likely to have contact with specialist services for bipolar disorder but had a lower intensity of service interaction.
Understanding the environmental drivers of demographic processes is a prerequisite for providing the evidence-based conservation guidance and management actions required to address management goals at population level. Human activities, to which most species are not adapted, are having an ever-increasing impact on the environment. Most policies and strategies focus on broad-scale conservation actions and disregard the fact that this type of action may not be adequate at local scale. In addition, even though the main conservation targets are well known, managers and practitioners lack an explicit framework in which to identify the varying requirements of site-specific conservation actions. Our aim was to provide an accurate tool for prioritizing specific local-scale conservation actions for endangered territorial birds. In this study we describe our proposed framework using a population of the endangered Bonelli’s Eagle Aquila fasciata as a case study. We identified the most relevant environmental drivers linked to demographic parameters (occupation, productivity and survival) at local scale shaping the dynamics of the Bonelli’s Eagle population in Catalonia (Spain). This information will be useful for designing specific local-scale conservation actions in eagles’ territories with low demographic parameter values. This is a good example of how applied research and achievable conservation practices are applicable to other Bonelli’s eagle populations and to those of other endangered raptors.
Cameroonians recently invented a new word to characterize the state of their country: anusocratie (the rule of the anus). This became central in the moral panic from 2000 onwards over a supposed proliferation of homosexuality. Anusocratie links such same-sex practices to illicit enrichment by the national elites and their involvement with secret associations of Western provenance, such as Freemasonry, Rosicrucians and the Illuminati. This article tries to unravel this conceptual knot of homosexuality, the occult (Freemasonry) and illicit enrichment: first, by historicizing it. Of interest in the Cameroonian case is the fact that a similar link is mentioned in one of the first ethnographies, Günther Tessmann's Die Pangwe. Freemasonry is clearly a colonial imposition on the country, but the link between same-sex practices and enrichment has a longer history. Second, a comparison with similar ideas elsewhere on the continent can also open up wider perspectives. The link with illicit enrichment does not figure in classical conceptions of ‘homosexuality’ as developed in Europe, yet it strongly emerges from examples from all over Africa. Both Achille Mbembe and Joseph Tonda show that this image of the anus – anal penetration – articulates popular concerns about staggering inequalities. Yet, this aspect is ignored in debates about growing ‘homophobia’ in Africa. A confrontation with classical texts from Western queer theory (Bersani, Mieli) can help us discover other layers in African discourses, notably an emphasis on sexual diversity as an answer to homophobia. It can also serve to relativize the linking of sexual practices to sexual identities, which is still seen as self-evident in much queer theory of Western provenance.
Combining the strengths of “traditional” documentary filmmaking (as “creative treatments of actualité”) with the immersive power of interactive digital technologies (from 360° video to VR to data mining to algorithms), i-Docs can transform audiences into participants, co-creators, and collaborators in nonfiction storytelling, allowing them to not only explore and experience a story on their own terms but to remix, share, and contribute their own content to a collective story. i-Docs are cross- and multiplatform, screening across cinema, computers, smartphones, and gallery installations. Showcased at leading film festivals, increasingly adopted by broadcasters—including PBS, Al Jazeera, and BBC—and critically acclaimed from the Webbys and the Pulitzers to Cannes, the i-Doc sector is set to boom. After a close reading of two i-Docs, Hunt for the Inca Ruins (2017) and Saydnaya (2016), I consider the potential of i-Docs to resolve archaeologists’ concerns about misrepresentation, accuracy, information quality, (co)authorship, and crediting original research in documentary storytelling. I also examine the sector's shortcomings of unstable production pathways, funding sources, technologies, and difficulties assessing impact. I propose that archaeologists should engage proactively with the i-Doc sector if we wish to avoid the pitfalls previously encountered in film and factual TV and make the most of this new format.