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This article argues against the long-standing instinct to read African politics in terms of programmatic versus patrimonial politics. Unlike the assumptions of much of the current quantitative literature, there are substantive political struggles that go beyond ‘public goods good, private goods bad’. Scholarly framings serve to obscure the essentially contested nature of what counts as legitimate distribution. This article uses the recent political history of the Lagos Model in south-west Nigeria to show that the idea of patrimonial versus programmatic politics does not stand outside of politics but is in itself a politically constructed distinction. In adopting it a priori as scholars we commit ourselves to seeing the world through the eyes of a specific, often elite, constituency that makes up only part of the rich landscape of normative political contestation in Nigeria. Finally, the example of a large-scale empowerment scheme in Oyo State shows the complexity of politicians’ attempts to render distribution legitimate to different audiences at once.
Bilinguals usually select the right language to speak for the particular context they are in, but sometimes the nontarget language intrudes. Despite a large body of research into language selection and language control, it remains unclear where intrusion errors originate from. These errors may be due to incorrect selection of the nontarget language at the conceptual level, or be a consequence of erroneous word selection (despite correct language selection) at the lexical level. We examined the former possibility in two language switching experiments using a manipulation that supposedly affects language selection on the conceptual level, namely whether the conversational language context was associated with the target language (congruent) or with the alternative language (incongruent) on a trial. Both experiments showed that language intrusion errors occurred more often in incongruent than in congruent contexts, providing converging evidence that language selection during concept preparation is one driving force behind language intrusion.
Rising sea levels due to climate change can have severe consequences for coastal populations and ecosystems all around the world. Understanding and projecting sea-level rise is especially important for low-lying countries such as the Netherlands. It is of specific interest for vulnerable ecological and morphodynamic regions, such as the Wadden Sea UNESCO World Heritage region.
Here we provide an overview of sea-level projections for the 21st century for the Wadden Sea region and a condensed review of the scientific data, understanding and uncertainties underpinning the projections. The sea-level projections are formulated in the framework of the geological history of the Wadden Sea region and are based on the regional sea-level projections published in the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR5). These IPCC AR5 projections are compared against updates derived from more recent literature and evaluated for the Wadden Sea region. The projections are further put into perspective by including interannual variability based on long-term tide-gauge records from observing stations at Den Helder and Delfzijl.
We consider three climate scenarios, following the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), as defined in IPCC AR5: the RCP2.6 scenario assumes that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions decline after 2020; the RCP4.5 scenario assumes that GHG emissions peak at 2040 and decline thereafter; and the RCP8.5 scenario represents a continued rise of GHG emissions throughout the 21st century. For RCP8.5, we also evaluate several scenarios from recent literature where the mass loss in Antarctica accelerates at rates exceeding those presented in IPCC AR5.
For the Dutch Wadden Sea, the IPCC AR5-based projected sea-level rise is 0.07±0.06m for the RCP4.5 scenario for the period 2018–30 (uncertainties representing 5–95%), with the RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 scenarios projecting 0.01m less and more, respectively. The projected rates of sea-level change in 2030 range between 2.6mma−1 for the 5th percentile of the RCP2.6 scenario to 9.1mma−1 for the 95th percentile of the RCP8.5 scenario. For the period 2018–50, the differences between the scenarios increase, with projected changes of 0.16±0.12m for RCP2.6, 0.19±0.11m for RCP4.5 and 0.23±0.12m for RCP8.5. The accompanying rates of change range between 2.3 and 12.4mma−1 in 2050. The differences between the scenarios amplify for the 2018–2100 period, with projected total changes of 0.41±0.25m for RCP2.6, 0.52±0.27m for RCP4.5 and 0.76±0.36m for RCP8.5. The projections for the RCP8.5 scenario are larger than the high-end projections presented in the 2008 Delta Commission Report (0.74m for 1990–2100) when the differences in time period are considered. The sea-level change rates range from 2.2 to 18.3mma−1 for the year 2100.
We also assess the effect of accelerated ice mass loss on the sea-level projections under the RCP8.5 scenario, as recent literature suggests that there may be a larger contribution from Antarctica than presented in IPCC AR5 (potentially exceeding 1m in 2100). Changes in episodic extreme events, such as storm surges, and periodic (tidal) contributions on (sub-)daily timescales, have not been included in these sea-level projections. However, the potential impacts of these processes on sea-level change rates have been assessed in the report.
Social cognitive deficits are common in neuropsychiatric disorders. Given the proximity of social cognition (SC) to everyday functioning, many intervention studies (including targeted, comprehensive, and broad-based approaches) have focussed on SC. The aim of this paper was to quantitatively meta-analyse the efficacy of SC interventions in adult neuropsychiatric patients. Databases Pubmed, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge, and Embase were searched for controlled SC intervention studies published between 01-01-2003 and 01-01-2016. Forty-one studies, comprising 1,508 patients with schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders, or acquired brain injury were included. Outcome measures evaluated emotion perception (EP), social perception (SP), Theory of Mind (ToM), and social functioning (SF). The meta-analyses showed that interventions were effective in improving SC (Cohen's d=.71). Interventions targeting one specific SC function were found to be most effective (d=.89), followed by broad-based interventions, targeting non-SC domains in addition to SC (d=.65), and comprehensive interventions, that target multiple SC processes (d=.61). Targeted interventions were especially effective in improving EP and ToM. Comprehensive interventions were able to ameliorate EP, ToM, and SF. Broad-based interventions were especially effective in improving SF, but also showed effects on EP and ToM.
There is increasing interest in the exploitation of the deep subsurface of the Netherlands for purposes other than conventional oil and gas production, such as geothermal energy, shale gas exploitation and the disposal of radioactive waste, so for technical and environmental reasons it is important to understand the composition of the deep groundwater. A synthesis has been made of almost 200 existing groundwater analyses for the Oligocene and older formations in the Netherlands. Three groundwater categories are considered: (1) deep oil and gas reservoirs, (2) deep, buried and confined aquifers and (3) shallower, semi-confined aquifers with or without outcrop areas nearby. No distinct water types are found but a continuous series, with Cl ranging from around 10,000 to 200,000 mg l−1: the highest concentrations are found in the reservoirs and the lowest in the semi-confined aquifers. The most saline brines are found in the northern onshore area and adjacent offshore area, where Permian and Triassic rock salt also occurs regionally in the subsurface. The groundwater is usually pH-neutral, saturated in carbonates and anaerobic. Anhydrite saturation occurs when the Cl concentration exceeds 100,000 mg l−1, and halite saturation occurs at Cl concentrations close to 200,000 mg l−1. Few tracer analyses have been done for δ2H–H2O, δ18O–H2O, δ37Cl, Br, Li and B, which makes a rigorous palaeohydrological interpretation impossible. Lithium and B may be controlled by water–rock interaction which makes them less suitable as tracers. Some of the analyses suggest that dissolution of rock salt plays a role in determining the salinity of groundwater for some deep wells in the southern part of the Netherlands, whereas other analyses suggest that evaporated seawater influences the salinity in the associated wells. Cation-exchange patterns and alkalinity to Ca ratios indicate that groundwater in the deep, buried and shallow, semi-confined aquifers is usually freshening. Six 14C analyses of samples from the buried aquifers indicate an apparent age of at least 20,000 years. Six δ37Cl analyses of formation waters from reservoirs in South-Holland suggest diffusion of Cl from a brine towards fresher water, and the associated K and also Li concentrations further suggest that these brines are related to rock salt dissolution and are not the residue of evaporated seawater. The high Ca concentrations are enigmatic for the hypersaline formation waters in the reservoirs. A limited series of samples had been analysed for various trace elements. The median concentrations are similar to the seawater and Dutch background concentration limits for shallow groundwater, but maximum concentrations can be up to three orders of magnitude higher. In conclusion, the data synthesis shows that the composition of groundwater in reservoirs and aquifers of Palaeogene and older age varies strongly in salinity at the national scale. Presence of evaporite deposits and diffusive transport seem to play important roles in controlling the salinity. Many existing analyses have no or only a few tracer analyses, that even vary among the samples. A complete suite of analyses is needed to elucidate the hydrogeological and geochemical processes that control the groundwater composition.
We present a work in progress investigating the radial distributions of dark and luminous matter in local bright spiral galaxies spanning a range of Hubble types. the distributions are derived from multiband imaging (BVRJHK) predominately from the Ohio State University Bright Spiral Galaxy Survey (OSUBSGS) and rotation curves from the literature. We use stellar colour-MIL relationships from Bell & de Jong (2001, ApJ, 550, 212) to create radial stellar mass surface density profiles for each of our galaxies. These profiles are used to create rotation curves for the stellar component; gas masses are derived from HI when available. the resulting stellar and gas mass rotation curves are compared to observed (total mass) rotation curves, and the rotation due to dark matter is determined for each galaxy. Fits to Navarro, Frenk, & White (1996, ApJ, 462, 563; NFW) halo profiles are shown. We present this analysis for 2 example galaxies from our sample of nearly 50. We will use this data to investigate correlations between these mass components and physical properties of galaxies.
We present a simple technique to estimate mass-to-light (M/L) ratios of stellar populations based on two broadband photometry measurements, i.e. a colour-M/L relation. We apply the colour-M/L relation to galaxy rotation curves, using a large set of galaxies that span a great range in Hubble type, luminosity and scale size and that have accurately measured HI and/or Hα rotation curves. Using the colour-M/L relation, we construct stellar mass models of the galaxies and derive the dark matter contribution to the rotation curves.
We compare our dark matter rotation curves with adiabatically contracted Navarro, Frenk, & White (1997, NFW hereafter) dark matter halos. We find that before adiabatic contraction most high surface brightness galaxies and some low surface brightness galaxies are well fit by a NFW dark matter profile. However, after adiabatic contraction, most galaxies are poorly fit in the central few kpc. the observed angular momentum distribution in the baryonic component is poorly matched by ACDM model predictions, indicating that the angular momentum distribution is not conserved during the galaxy assembly process. We find that in most galaxies the dark matter distribution can be derived by scaling up the HI gas contribution. However, we find no consistent value for the scaling factor among all the galaxies.
Two classes of elliptical galaxies are now recognised (Kormendy & Bender 1996). Luminous ellipticals rotate slowly (Davies et al. 1983and tend to have boxy isophotes. Ellipticals fainter than L∗ exhibit an increasing tendency to be rotationally supported and to possess a stellar disk component. This dichotomy led Bender, Burstein & Faber (1992) to suggest that the physical variable that controls the ultimate nature of a forming galaxy is the degree of gaseous dissipation that occurs in the final merger it experiences. Low luminosity systems experience more dissipative mergers which generate high rotation, disky end products. As bigger galaxies are formed, the mergers become increasingly stellar, producing the classical slow rotating ellipticals. They termed this the gas/stellar continuum. This global dichotomy is also reflected in the bimodality of core morphologies of the heterogeneous sample of local ellipticals observed with HST. The low luminosity disky galaxies have ‘hard’ cores with a steep slope in the luminosity profile at small radii, whereas the luminous galaxies have ‘soft’ cores with flat profiles at small radii (e.g. Faber et al. 1997).
Normally elliptical galaxies are thought to be old, evolved systems, but recently a controversy has arisen over the age of ellipticals. Measurements by Gonzáles (1993, Ph.D. thesis, UCSC) show that the Hβ absorption indices of ellipticals span a range of values. Population synthesis models indicate that the Hβ index is a good age indicator and hence, contrary to normal perception, the ages of ellipticals seem to span a range of values.
A sample of 86 galaxies was imaged in the B, V, R, I, H and K passbands to study their light and colour distribution as function of radius (de Jong & van der Kruit 1994). The radial colour gradients were compared with new dust models, which included both absorption and scattering, and with the stellar population synthesis models of Bruzual & Chariot (1993) and Worthey (1994). By requiring that the models had to fit all six passband photometry at the same time, the relative effects of dust, stellar age and stellar metallicity could be seperated (de Jong 1995a, 1995b). The main results from this investigation are:
–All galaxies become bluer with increasing radius. The colour at each radius correlates strongly with the average surface brightness at that radius, with Hubble type being an additional effect. Late type galaxies are bluer at the same surface brightness than early type galaxies.
–The reddening profiles predicted by the dust models are incompatible with the data when all colours have to be fitted at the same time. Dust cannot be the major cause of the colour gradients.
–The population synthesis models by Worthey (1994) indicate that the colour gradients cannot be caused by metallicity gradients alone.
–The best fit to the data is reached in a model where the colour gradients are mainly caused by an age gradient across the disk, with an additional metallicity gradient to explain the very red central colours. The colours of galaxies of type later than Sc indicate that they have in general a lower metallicity at all radii than the earlier types.
Examples of the acceleration of energetic ions and electrons are given for the Sun, the middle heliosphere, and the outer heliosphere. The characteristics of the acceleration are revealed only after the effects of energetic particle propagation are understood.
The religious currents that are usually called Hermetism and Gnosticism flourished in the Greco-Roman world of the first centuries of our era, but their impact on Western culture is still being felt today. Both proclaimed a salvific spiritual knowledge (gnosis) about God, the world, and man meant only for an elite (i.e., those who were worthy of receiving it). Accordingly, both currents showed distinct esoteric features, but that did not prevent their adherents from writing numerous books propagating these ideas. Although their views on the origin and destiny of human beings have much in common, there are also considerable differences, especially regarding the nature of the material world and the manner of salvation. To a certain extent, Gnosticism shows a radicalization of ideas that are also present, though not dominant or structural, in Hermetism.
Late Antiquity left us an extensive literature attributed to Hermes Trismegistus. It consists of magical, astrological, and alchemical texts (the so-called technical or practical Hermetica) and philosophically inspired religious treatises (the philosophical Hermetica). In the Greek world, Hermes Trismegistus was considered a sage of the remote Egyptian past, but originally he was the Egyptian god Thoth, the god of writing, culture, cosmic order, and magic. Already in the fifth century BCE, the Greeks identified Thoth with their god Hermes, who faintly resembled the Egyptian god. The predicate “Trismegistus” (“Thrice-Great”) derived from the Egyptian manner of expressing the superlative “greatest,” by repeating the word “great” three times.
There is no reason to assume that the technical and philosophical Hermetica once belonged together as successive parts of one great hermetic teaching program. But the adepts of religious-philosophical Hermetism had no objections to making use of magical practices and astrological calculations. The main sources for our knowledge of Hermetism are the following:
1. The Greek Corpus Hermeticum (= CH), a collection of seventeen treatises, of which CH I (Poimandres) and XIII (On Rebirth) are the most interesting.
2. The Latin Asclepius, the only complete hermetic text that was known during the Middle Ages. Some fragments of the Greek original have been preserved in later authors, and its final hymn is known from a Greek magical Papyrus. There are also Coptic translations of chapters 21–29 and of the final hymn, found in Nag Hammadi Codex (= NHC) VI.
Recent observational studies (Franx and Illingworth 1987; Jedrzejewski and Schechter 1988; Bender 1988; Illingworth and Franx 1989) have shown that some elliptical galaxies have a small region near the center that rotates in the opposite direction from the outer parts of the galaxy. Often the rotation in the central part is much faster than that in the outer part. A few other galaxies show a small region near the center that rotates in the same di rection as the rest of the galaxy, but much faster. Either way, the part near the center that shows a strange pattern of rotation (the “core”) has been interpreted as a distinct dynamical subsystem. Very briefly, the observational data seem to be that (1) anomalies show up in rotation curves near the centers of some elliptical galaxies and that (2) galaxies with these strange rotational properties do not show a photometric signature: there are no noticeable bumps in the brightness profile and no unusual shapes of isophotal contours that would suggest an excess of matter concentrated near the center. No strong color variations have been reported. The puzzle is to learn what we can about elliptical galaxies in general, and about galaxies with strange central regions in particular, from these observational facts.
The local space density of galaxies as a function of their basic structural parameters -like luminosity, surface brightness and scalesize-is still poorly known. Our poor knowledge is mainly the result of strong selection biases against low surface brightness and small scalesize galaxies in any optically selected sample. We show that in order to correct for selection biases one has to obtain accurate surface photometry and distance estimates for a large (≳ 1000) sample of galaxies. We derive bivariate space density distributions in the (scalesize, surface brightness)-plane and the (luminosity, scalesize)-plane for a sample of ~1000 local Sb-Sdm spiral galaxies. We present a parameterization of these bivariate distributions, based on a Schechter type luminosity function and a log-normal scalesize distribution at a given luminosity. We show how surface brightness limits and (1+z)4 cosmological redshift dimming can influence interpretation of luminosity function determinations and deep galaxy counts.
Models of galaxy formation in a hierarchical universe predict substantial scatter in the halo-to-halo stellar properties, owing to stochasticity in galaxies' merger histories. Currently, only few detailed observations of stellar halos are available, mainly for the Milky Way and M31. We present the stellar halo color/metallicity and density profiles of red giant branch stars out to ~60 kpc along the minor axis of six massive nearby Milky Way-like galaxies beyond the Local Group from the Galaxy Halos, Outer disks, Substructure, Thick disks and Star clusters (GHOSTS) HST survey. This enlargement of the sample of galaxies with observations of stellar halo properties is needed to understand the range of possible halo properties, i.e. not only the mean properties but also the halo-to-halo scatter, what a ‘typical’ halo looks like, and how similar the Milky Way halo is to other halos beyond the Local Group.
Severe stress in social situations is a core symptom of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Connectivity between the amygdala and cortical regions is thought to be important for emotion regulation, a function that is compromised in SAD. However, it has never been tested if and how this connectivity pattern changes under conditions of stress-inducing social evaluative threat. Here we investigate changes in cortical-amygdala coupling in SAD during the anticipation of giving a public speech.
Twenty individuals with SAD and age-, gender- and education-matched controls (n = 20) participated in this study. During the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session, participants underwent three ‘resting-state’ fMRI scans: one before, one during, and one after the anticipation of giving a public speech. Functional connectivity between cortical emotion regulation regions and the amygdala was investigated.
Compared to controls, SAD participants showed reduced functional integration between cortical emotion regulation regions and the amygdala during the public speech anticipation. Moreover, in SAD participants cortical-amygdala connectivity changes correlated with social anxiety symptom severity.
The distinctive pattern of cortical-amygdala connectivity suggests less effective cortical-subcortical communication during social stress-provoking situations in SAD.
Considering people with dementia, increasing cognitive, physical, and environmental impairments can impede the capacity to express and experience intimacy and sexuality. When a move to a residential (nursing) home becomes inevitable, increasing dependency can influence this even more. The aim of the review is to provide a structured overview of all elements of intimacy across the full spectrum of intimacy and sexuality in people with dementia, living in specialist residential care.
A systematic search and review were conducted. Research published between 1990 and 2013 was identified in the electronic databases: Pubmed, PsychInfo, and Medline. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were predefined. Selected studies were assessed on quality, using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool.
Twelve of the 215 initially retrieved unique research publications were selected. A varied range of studies were found; these studies differed in design, research quality, searched population, and research theme. Different themes emerged: intimate and sexual behavior, knowledge and attitudes, capacity to consent and care culture, and staff training and guidelines.
Although results were found in a wide range of intimate and sexual behavior, knowledge, attitudes and needs of others, and descriptions of culture in residential and nursing homes, the perspective of residents was lacking in literature. Also a “protective” care paradigm was found throughout. Future research is needed to highlight resident perspective and develop training opportunities and guidelines for care staff.
Our proximity and external vantage point make M31 an ideal testbed for understanding the structure of spiral galaxies. The Andromeda Optical and Infrared Disk Survey (ANDROIDS) has mapped M31's bulge and disk out to R=40 kpc in ugriJKs bands with CFHT using a careful sky calibration. We use Bayesian modelling of the optical-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) to estimate profiles of M31's stellar populations and mass along the major axis. This analysis provides evidence for inside-out disk formation and a declining metallicity gradient. M31's i-band mass-to-light ratio (M/Li*) decreases from 0.5 dex in the bulge to ~ 0.2 dex at 40 kpc. The best-constrained stellar population models use the full ugriJKs SED but are also consistent with optical-only fits. Therefore, while NIR data can be successfully modelled with modern stellar population synthesis, NIR data do not provide additional constraints in this application. Fits to the gi-SED alone yield M/Li* that are systematically lower than the full SED fit by 0.1 dex. This is still smaller than the 0.3 dex scatter amongst different relations for M/Li via g – i colour found in the literature. We advocate a stellar mass of M*(30 kpc) = 10.3+2.3-1.7 × 1010 M⊙ for the M31 bulge and disk.
Objectives: Neuropsychological assessment of memory disorders is an important prerequisite in the treatment of patients with alcohol-related cognitive disorders. Although many memory tests are available in clinical practice, a question remains regarding which test is most appropriate for this purpose. Our study's goal was to evaluate the discriminative power of indices of a standard memory test (the California Verbal Learning Test; CVLT) versus the subtests of an ecologically valid everyday memory test (the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test; RBMT) in patients with alcohol-use disorder.
Method: The patients included 136 with Korsakoff's syndrome (KS), 73 alcoholics with cognitive impairment (CI) not fulfilling the criteria for KS, and 24 cognitively unimpaired alcoholics (ALC).
Results: KS patients performed significantly lower on all RBMT and CVLT variables than CI patients. ALC patients performed significantly better than CI patients on only one RBMT subtest, and had a significantly lower rate of forgetting and higher scores on free recall on CVLT. A combination of RBMT subtests and CVLT indices was able to discriminate KS patients from CI and ALC patients. The RBMT subtests could not significantly distinguish ALC from CI patients. Both rate of forgetting and a comparison between free and cued recall testing on the CVLT showed the largest between-group differences.
Conclusion: Although the RBMT provides information about everyday memory performance, the CVLT indices are better able to distinguish between uncomplicated alcoholics and those with cognitive impairment or KS.