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The mysterious world of fungi is once again unearthed in this expansive second edition. This textbook provides readers with an all-embracing view of the kingdom fungi, ranging in scope from ecology and evolution, diversity and taxonomy, cell biology and biochemistry, to genetics and genomics, biotechnology and bioinformatics. Adopting a unique systems biology approach - and using explanatory figures and colour illustrations - the authors emphasise the diverse interactions between fungi and other organisms. They outline how recent advances in molecular techniques and computational biology have fundamentally changed our understanding of fungal biology, and have updated chapters and references throughout the book in light of this. This is a fascinating and accessible guide, which will appeal to a broad readership - from aspiring mycologists at undergraduate and graduate level to those studying related disciplines. Online resources are hosted on a complementary website.
The paper presents a comprehensive design process for the development of the minimally actuated Closed Loop Articulated Mechanical (CLAM) hand. Each of the fingers is designed as a planar one degree of freedom eight-bar linkage with an anthropomorphic backbone chain. The fingers movement is based on experimentally obtained physiological precision grasping task, with incorporated second-order task specifications, related to maintaining fingertip–body contact with a minimum number of fingers. Instead of actuating individual joints in each finger, the mechanism generates the desired anthropomorphic grasping trajectory using a single actuator in each finger. The paper offers not only details on multi-loop articulated hands design based on anthropometric data and physiological task with second-order effects for maintaining the object–fingertip contact, but also shows how this class of hands that have been considered mostly for adaptive grasping can be successfully utilized for precision grasping. The minimal number of fingers and actuators can simplify the control, resulting in a robust, lightweight, and cost-effective solution for the precision grasping of a variety of objects with different shapes and geometries.
Canada’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission Final Report (2015) highlighted the necessity of Indigenous self-determination in addressing the legacy of residential schools, yet Indigenous aging research remains dominated by Settlers. This Indigenist study by a Cree/Settler research team asked Indigenous Elders what is needed to support the wellness of the older adults in their communities. Elders shared that the healing of older survivors comes from reconnecting to the cultural knowledges that residential schools sought to eradicate. In resuming their traditional roles as transmitters of knowledge, older adults not only support their own healing, but also that of their whole communities. This understanding of the profoundly interrelational nature of Indigenous communities means that older adults’ wellness depends on first reclaiming their cultural identity and then on their roles as intergenerational transmitters of knowledge.
The doctrine of divine aseity has played a significant role in the development of classical theism. However, very little attention has been paid in recent years to the question of how precisely aseity should be characterized. We argue that this neglect is unwarranted since extant characterizations of this central divine attribute quickly encounter difficulties. In particular, we present a new argument to show that the most widely accepted contemporary account of aseity is inconsistent. We then consider the prospects for developing a new account of aseity which avoids the pitfalls we have highlighted.
Fibropapillomatosis (FP) can be an important conservation threat to green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) due to its widespread distribution and complex aetiology. Thus, understanding the impacts of FP in sea turtle populations is a research priority towards conservation efforts. The body condition index (BCI), based on straight carapace length (SCL) and body mass (BM), is an accurate indicator of body-nutritional condition that can be used in routine green turtle health evaluations. This study aimed to compare BCI in FP-free (N = 369) and FP-affected (N = 518) green turtles from Brazilian feeding areas. Body condition indices were evaluated in terms of the South-west Atlantic Fibropapillomatosis Score – FPSSWA (mild, moderate and severe), study sites (five Brazilian states), origin (intentional capture, fishery, stranding and afloat) and sex (when known). Curved and straight carapace lengths, and body mass were recorded in order to calculate BCI. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in BCI among green turtles from different study areas (P = 0.02), and lower BCI values in FP-free than in FP-positive individuals (P < 0.0001). With regards to origin, the highest BCI was found in the intentional capture group (N = 245; 1.47 ± 0.16), followed by fishery (N = 180; 1.46 ± 0.20). Analysis according to sex revealed a higher mean BCI among females than males (P < 0.017). This study provides relevant data on the health and nutritional status of green turtles along the Brazilian coast, in important feeding areas for this species.
It has been an enduring concern of institutional economics and critical realism to understand how individuals are able to exercise agency in the context of social structures, and to maintain appropriate connections, separations and balances between these two levels of causal power. This paper explores the contribution of Alasdair MacIntyre's neo-Aristotelian philosophy to the topic. Empirical data are provided from the career narratives of senior Scottish bankers recalled in the aftermath of the global financial crisis of 2007/8. The method of the study is interpretive, using themes drawn from MacIntyre's writings. These bankers faced moral choices as tensions developed between their own professional standards and the new corporate goals of the banks. We discuss MacIntyre's understanding of individual moral agency as a narrative quest in the context of different types of institution with different and often conflicting ideas about what constitutes good or right action. Habituation and deliberation are important in enabling action, but fully developed moral agency also depends on individuals being able to make choices in the space opened up by tensions within and between institutions.
Percutaneous tunneled drainage catheter (PTDC) placement is a palliative alternative to serial paracenteses in patients with end-stage cancer and refractory ascites. The impact of PTDC on quality of life (QoL) and long-term outcomes has not been prospectively described. The objective was to evaluate changes in QoL after PTDC.
Eligible adult patients with end-stage cancer undergoing PTDC placement for refractory ascites completed the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire and McGill Quality of Life instruments before PTDC placement and at 2 to 7 days and 2 to 4 weeks after PTDC. Catheter function, complications, and laboratory values were assessed. Analysis of QoL data was evaluated with a stratified Wilcoxon signed-rank test.
Fifty patients enrolled. Survey completion ranged from 65% to 100% (median 88%) across timepoints. All patients had a Tenckhoff catheter, with 98% technical success. Median survival after PTDC was 38 days (95% confidence interval = 32, 57 days). European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer scores showed improvement in global QoL (p = 0.03) at 1 week postprocedure (PP). Significant symptom improvement was reported for fatigue, nausea/vomiting, pain, dyspnea, insomnia, and appetite at 1 week PP and was sustained at 3 weeks PP for dyspnea (p < 0.01), insomnia (p < 0.01), and appetite loss (p = 0.03). McGill Quality of Life demonstrated overall QoL improvement at 1 (p = 0.03) and 3 weeks (p = 0.04) PP. Decline in sodium and albumin values pre- and post-PTDC slowed significantly (albumin slope –0.43 to –0.26, p = 0.055; sodium slope –2.50 to 1.31, p = 0.04). Creatinine values increased at an accelerated pace post-PTDC (0.040 to 0.21, p < 0.01). Thirty-eight catheter-related complications occurred in 24 of 45 patients (53%).
Significance of results
QoL and symptoms improved after PTDC placement for refractory ascites in patients with end-stage malignancy. Decline in sodium and albumin values slowed postplacement. This study supports the use of a PTDC for palliation of refractory ascites in cancer patients.
Historically, the development of XRF spectrometers has followed 2 main paths which are characterized by the means of spectral resolution they use. Those employing diffraction crystals and Braggs law to disperse the X-ray wavelengths are known as wavelength dispersive (WDX), whilst those usinq only the energy resolution of the detector, as enerqy dispersive (EDX). In the past these two have not normally been directly compared, because the WDX systems have always been the more expensive.
Previous radial distribution work which we have found reported in the literature has invariably been based on film technique. Our work is entirely based on X-ray spectrometer intensity measurements, Radial distribution (RD) patterns for silica gel and η-aluinina are presented and the correlation with accepted structures for these materials demonstrated. The advantages of spectrometer over film technique are discussed. The entire calculation problem has been programed for the IBM 650 computer, A difference technique which appears very sensitive to small structure changes is described and demonstrated for silica-alumina cracking catalysts. A procedure for identifying systematic errors in the RD pattern is presented.
This three-volume publication presents an up-to-date overview on the human colonisation of Northern Europe across the Pleistocene–Holocene transition in Scandinavia, the Eastern Baltic and Great Britain. Volume 1, Ecology of early settlement in Northern Europe, is a collection of 17 articles focusing on subsistence strategies and technologies, ecology and resource availability and demography in relation to different ecological niches. It is structured according to three geographic regions, the Skagerrak-Kattegat, the Baltic Region and the North Sea/Norwegian Sea, while its temporal focus is Late Glacial and Postglacial archaeology, c. 11000–5000 cal BC. These regions are particularly interesting given the long research history, which goes back as far as the nineteenth century (see Gron & Rowley-Conwy 2018), and the numerous environmental changes that have taken place throughout the Holocene: the presence of ice until c. 7500 cal BC, isostatic rebound alongside sea-level rise and the formation of the Baltic Sea, all of which have contributed to the preservation of outstanding archaeology.
According to an influential argument in business ethics and economics, firms are normatively required to maximize their contributions to social welfare, and the way to do this is to maximize their profits. Against Michael Jensen's version of the argument, I argue that even if firms are required to maximize their social welfare contributions, they are not necessarily required to maximize their profits. I also consider and reply to Waheed Hussain's ‘personal sphere’ critique of Jensen. My distinct challenge to Jensen seems to me fatal to any view according to which firms are normatively required to maximize their profits.
The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) publish recommendations for cancer prevention. The present study aimed to estimate the association between adherence to these cancer-specific prevention recommendations and subsequent development of cancer in a prospective cohort.
A composite adherence score was constructed based on questionnaire data to reflect overall adherence to WCRF/AICR lifestyle-related recommendations on body fatness, physical activity, diet and alcoholic drinks. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to assess the association (hazard ratio; 95 % CI) between the adherence score and risk of developing cancer.
Alberta’s Tomorrow Project, a prospective cohort study.
Men and women (n 25 100, mean age at enrolment 50·5 years) recruited between 2001 and 2009 with no previous cancer diagnosis were included in analyses.
Cancer cases (n 2066) were identified during a mean follow-up of 11·7 years. Participants who were most adherent to the selected WCRF/AICR recommendations (composite score: 4–6) were 13 % (0·87; 0·78, 0·98) less likely to develop cancer compared with those who were least adherent (composite score: 0–2). Each additional recommendation met corresponded to a 5 % (0·95; 0·91, 0·99) reduction in risk of developing cancer. When stratified by sex, the associations remained significant for women, but not for men.
Adherence to lifestyle-related cancer prevention recommendations was associated with reduced risk of developing cancer over the follow-up term in this Canadian cohort.
Recent studies have shown that faunal assemblages from Mesolithic sites in inland Northern Europe contain more fish remains than previously thought, but the archaeological and archaeozoological record does not reveal the dietary importance of aquatic species to hunter-gatherer-fishers, even at a societal level. For example, the function of bone points, as hunting weapons or fishing equipment, has long been debated. Moreover, traditional methods provide no indication of variable subsistence practices within a population. For these reasons, paleodietary studies using stable isotope analyses of human remains have become routine. We present radiocarbon (14C) and stable isotope data from nine prehistoric human bones from the Early Mesolithic-Early Neolithic site of Friesack 4, and isotopic data for local terrestrial mammals (elk, red deer, roe deer, wild boar, aurochs, beaver) and freshwater fish (European eel, European perch). The reference data allow individual paleodiets to be reconstructed. Using paleodiet estimates of fish consumption, and modern values for local freshwater reservoir effects, we also calibrate human 14C ages taking into account dietary reservoir effects. Although the number of individuals is small, it is possible to infer a decline in the dietary importance of fish from the Preboreal to the Boreal Mesolithic, and an increase in aquatic resource consumption in the Early Neolithic.
In imitation of the apostolic community, the monastic world was centred on the celebration of the Divine Office and a life of self-abnegation within the cloister, where the individual lived, worked and prayed; one dimension of the monks’ interaction with society was their intercession for founders, patrons and benefactors. By the later twelfth century a fresh understanding of the vita apostolica was gaining ground in western Europe, a concept that inspired St. Francis of Assisi to testify to the Gospel by engaging with society in a global cloister; his calling was to take Christian principles to the market place, the streets and the cross-roads. His followers divested themselves of their possessions and engaged in manual work in the towns and cities where they dwelt. This novel model of religious life was transplanted to England by nine penniless friars who landed in Kent during the late summer of 1224. Within a few years they were winning plaudits, initially for their testimony to the Gospel and then for their preaching, a ministry that became emblematic of their contribution to the local Church. Another conspicuous contribution lay in the realm of suffrages: a premium was placed on their intercession and members of the laity, the clergy and fellow religious eagerly sought their prayers. This study explores the order's establishment in Cambridge, the church of the Friars Minor in the town, the friars and intercession, the legion of testators and those interred in their church.
THE FRIARS’ SETTLEMENT IN CAMBRIDGE
The Roman town of Cambridge had much to commend it to the friars through its ancient market close to the parish church of St. Mary, its network of a dozen or so parish churches in the thirteenth century, the hospital of St. John the Evangelist and the nunnery of St. Radegund. In addition, the growth of the schools of Cambridge into a university that offered a degree in theology was a further attraction for the friars, who were already drawing students from Oxford University to their ranks. The friars were first welcomed to Cambridge by the burgesses about 1225 and they were initially accommodated on the site of the present Guildhall.
The nature of migration–forest linkages in migrant-sending regions is underreported and poorly understood. In rural Latin America and elsewhere, out-migration, together with agricultural crises and the deterritorialization of rural livelihood, are transforming forests and the communities that manage them. Drawing on research in indigenous communities of Oaxaca (Mexico), we identify the parameters of a new landscape of forest use and conservation, finding that: migration challenges community practices for self-governance of forest resources; declines in agriculture create new spaces for forest recovery and use; and forest conservation policies create economic opportunities around both extractive and non-extractive forest use.