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Historical and reconstructed snow-cover data show evidence of a gradual increase in snow cover over the continental interior of North America (NA) during much of the 20th century, primarily in response to increasing snowfall. A rapid decrease in Canadian-prairies snow cover after 1970 is not observed over the Great Plains. Analysis of snow-cover-climate relationships revealed systematic increases in the sensitivity of snow cover to Northern Hemisphere (NH) temperatures over the 1940-65 period. This change is mainly due to an increase in snowfall-temperature sensitivity during this period. Seasonal analysis revealed that the observed increase in snow-cover and snowfall temperature sensitivity is primarily a spring phenomenon. A marked increase in the importance of the spring period is observed around 1960, which coincides with a well-documented change in atmospheric circulation over NA. The post-1960 period is characterized by a significant inverse relationship between snow cover and hemispheric air temperature over the Canadian prairies and northern Great Plains regions.
The three chapters in part 2 examine the key concepts, techniques and processes associated with the management of employee performance. In chapter 1 we observed that, from a descriptive ‘cybernetic’ (i.e. systems) perspective, work performance may be thought of as having three horizontal or process dimensions – that is, inputs (knowledge, skills and abilities), task effort and other types of work behaviour, and outcomes or results; and three vertical or scalar dimensions – that is, individual, group and organisation-wide performance. By definition, the methods that accentuate behaviour and competency have an individual focus.
Chapters 4 and 5 examine the main performance management methods or techniques associated with each of these dimensions. Chapter 4 considers those approaches to performance management that are results-focused. Chapter 5 will then consider the methods and techniques that are behaviourally focused and examine the concepts and techniques that emphasise performance inputs or capacities in the form of performance competencies. Chapter 6 , the fi nal chapter in part 2 , examines both the provision of performance feedback to individual employees and practices directed towards performance development, including coaching.
Having considered the key psychological and strategic dimensions to understanding the employment relationship, as well as the three main approaches to managing employee performance, we can now turn our attention to the second of the two human resource management processes with which this book is concerned, namely, the management of employee reward and, in particular, the management of employee pay or remuneration. A remuneration system typically comprises three main elements: base pay, benefits and performance-related pay. In designing any remuneration system careful attention should be paid to three key considerations: first, the relative role that each of these three components will play in total remuneration; second, the practices that will be drawn on to configure each component; and third, the target level of total remuneration for each position.
The four chapters in part 3 cover base pay and benefi ts. Chapter 7 considers the rationale for base pay, the main options for confi guring base pay, the general strengths and weaknesses of each approach, and the incidence of each. It then details the pay structures associated with each option, while chapters 8 and 9 discuss the evaluation methods and processes associated with the development of pay systems based on each of these approaches. Chapter 10 then examines the logic of employee benefit plans and the main options for confi guring such plans.
It is appropriate that we begin our journey by considering those ideas, concepts, propositions and debates that are fundamental to a rounded understanding of employee performance and reward management and, equally, to well-informed and effective practice in these fields.
The three chapters in part 1 are devoted to this end. Chapter 1 seeks to clarify the meaning, nature and purpose of our two focal human resource processes: performance management and reward management. While our treatment of the ‘what’ and ‘why’ of performance and reward management is written from an explicitly prescriptive-descriptive perspective, the treatment is neither wholly management-centred nor uncritical.
Building on this foundational knowledge, the two accompanying chapters consider, respectively, the psychological, motivational and strategic basics of performance and reward management. These chapters offer frameworks for practising performance and reward management in both a psychologically aware and a strategically informed manner. The development, implementation and maintenance of effective performance and reward management systems require simultaneous attention to each of these fundamental dimensions.
By ‘psychological’ dimensions we mean the attitudes, perceptions, values and emotional (or ‘affective’) states that prefi gure the observable actions-or behaviour-of individual employees, or at least that seem to predispose individuals towards certain behavioural actions rather than others. While ‘motivation’ is undoubtedly the most widely acknowledged and theorised of all work attitudes, as we shall see, there are others that may be no less salient or infl uential, including those that are grounded more in perception and in deeply held values and emotions than in dispassionate or rational cognition.
Now in its second edition, Managing Employee Performance and Reward continues to offer comprehensive coverage of employee performance and reward, presenting the material in a conceptually integrated way. This new edition has been substantially updated and revised by a team of specialist contributors, and includes: • An increased focus on employee engagement and the alignment between the organisation's goals and the personal goals of employees• Expanded coverage of coaching, now a leading-edge performance enhancement practice• Extensive updates reflecting the major changes in employee benefits in recent years, as organisations strive to attract and retain talent• Updated coverage of executive salaries and incentives in the contemporary post-GFC environment.This popular text is an indispensable resource for both students and managers alike. Written for a global readership, the book will continue to have particular appeal to those studying and practising people management in the Asia-Pacific region.
Having now laid out all of the pieces of the performance and reward puzzle, it is time for us to consider how to go about assembling these elements into a coherent whole. In this concluding chapter, we detail the alignment model approach to assembling the various concepts, practices and strategies explored in parts 1–4 into an integrated and strategically aligned whole. Specifically, we examine the requirements for and challenges associated with performance and reward system review and the steps involved in system change and development. Although our approach here is primarily prescriptive in nature, our prescriptions also draw on a range of insights available in the empirical or descriptive and critical literatures that have been referred to at various points throughout the text.
Having considered the main options and processes associated with base pay and benefits, we can now consider the remaining major area of reward practice, namely, performance-related rewards. Also known as ‘incentive plans’, these are rewards that are contingent or ‘at risk’ in some way, rather than being ‘fixed’ or ‘guaranteed’, as is the case with more traditional forms of base pay. For this reason, such rewards are also commonly referred to as ‘contingent’ or ‘variable’ pay plans. Moreover, while many such rewards are financial in nature (i.e. performance pay or cash incentives), performance-related rewards may also take a non-financial form.
The six chapters in part 4 offer a detailed coverage of the main types of individual and collective performance-related rewards and of key themes and debates associated with such rewards. Chapter 11 outlines the main types of performance-related rewards, considers some of the general motives for adopting performance-contingent rewards, and overviews the main arguments and supporting evidence for and against such plans. Chapters 12 to 15 examine specifi c types of performance-related reward plans that are commonly applied to line employees and managers, with particular emphasis on plan usage, strengths and weaknesses. Plans covered include individual merit pay; recognition awards; results-based individual incentives; collective short-term incentives; and collective long-term incentive plans in the form of broadly based employee share plans.
The aims of this study were to identify Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization prevalence, behavioural risk factors, and to determine staphylococcal protein A (spa) types in community-based injection drug users (IDUs). Nasal swabs were collected and methicillin susceptibility testing and spa/SCCmec typing were performed on S. aureus isolates. Generalized estimating equations were used to report adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Of the 440 participants, 24·1% were colonized and 5·7% had methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Colonization was associated with age, employment/marital status, and the presence of scabs but not with sexually transmitted disease co-infection, HIV status, antibiotic use, hospitalization, or drug treatment programme participation. The USA300 MRSA clone spa types were most common, but 15/49 spa types were new to one of the international databases. Community-based IDUs appear to have different risk factors compared to IDUs from clinical studies. In addition, the number of newly identified spa types indicates a diverse, understudied population.