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What makes it so difficult to enact and sustain comprehensive social welfare policy that would aid the disadvantaged in the United States? Addressing the relationship between populism and social welfare, this book argues that two competing camps of populists divide American politics. Regressive populists motivated by racial resentment frequently clash with progressive populists, who embrace an expansion of social welfare benefits for the less affluent, regardless of race or ethnicity. Engstrom and Huckfeldt uncover the political forces driving this divided populism, its roots in the aftermath of the civil rights revolution of the mid-twentieth century, and its implications for modern American politics and social welfare policy. Relying on a detailed analysis of party coalitions in the US Congress and the electorate since the New Deal, the authors focus on the intersection between race, class, and oligarchy.
This book presents a new perspective on creativity: that creative innovation depends on inside-of-the-box thinking. Not outside the box, as we all believed. It shows that creativity builds on what we know and how we use old ideas to produce new ones. In a highly readable format, Robert W. Weisberg uses case studies of seminal creative advances, such as Leonardo's 'Aerial Screw' and Frank Lloyd Wright's 'Falling water' house. These fascinating examples are evaluated alongside cutting-edge research to present an analysis of creativity that challenges us to think differently about this intriguing cognitive ability.
Throughout medieval Europe, for hundreds of years, monarchy was the way that politics worked in most countries. This meant power was in the hands of a family - a dynasty; that politics was family politics; and political life was shaped by the births, marriages and deaths of the ruling family. How did the dynastic system cope with female rule, or pretenders to the throne? How did dynasties use names, the numbering of rulers and the visual display of heraldry to express their identity? And why did some royal families survive and thrive, while others did not? Drawing on a rich and memorable body of sources, this engaging and original history of dynastic power in Latin Christendom and Byzantium explores the role played by family dynamics and family consciousness in the politics of the royal and imperial dynasties of Europe. From royal marriages and the birth of sons, to female sovereigns, mistresses and wicked uncles, Robert Bartlett makes enthralling sense of the complex web of internal rivalries and loyalties of the ruling dynasties and casts fresh light on an essential feature of the medieval world.
Safe and effective prescribing is one of the pillars of medical practice but is much more complicated than it seems. Many new prescribers find prescribing extremely challenging, and a plethora of independent, multidisciplinary prescribers are also seeking guidance. However, pharmacology textbooks are rarely practical. They warn to 'take care when prescribing erythromycin to a patient on warfarin, as the INR may rise'. But what should the prescriber actually do? Surviving Prescribing fulfils an important need by offering practical advice for real-world prescribing problems. The book complements existing educational resources but adds a new perspective. Written by experienced contributors from a variety of professional backgrounds, the content speaks directly to the problems routinely seen in hospital prescribing. And all in one, pocket-sized volume. Whether revising for the national Prescribing Safety Assessment, preparing for starting on the wards, or looking for a quick reference guide, this book is an essential companion.
This wide-ranging study considers the primary forms of decision-making – negotiation, mediation, umpiring, as well as the processes of avoidance and violence – in the context of rapidly changing discourses and practices of civil justice across a range of jurisdictions. Many contemporary discussions in this field–and associated projects of institutional design–are taking place under the broad but imprecise label of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR). The book brings together and analyses a wide range of materials dealing with dispute processes, and the current debates on and developments in civil justice. With the help of analysis of materials beyond those ordinarily found in the ADR literature, it provides a comprehensive and comparative perspective on modes of handling civil disputes. The new edition is thoroughly revised and is extended to include new chapters on avoidance and self-help, the ombuds, Online Dispute Resolution and pressures of institutionalisation.
Flory (this volume) provides a compelling review of evidence bearing on the reliability and validity of diagnostic interviews for personality disorders (PDs). This commentary discusses several issues central to this topic, among the most important of which are: (1) the importance of distinguishing PD categories and constructs from the measures used to quantify them; and (2) the need to separate critiques of overarching conceptual frameworks (e.g., the dimensional perspective on personality) from criticisms of narrower assessment rubrics (e.g., the Five-Factor Model). Given the introspective limitations inherent in human information processing—limitations which are magnified in many forms of personality pathology—rigorous validation of PD assessment tools requires that researchers complement self-report outcome measures with behavioral and performance-based indices of personality dysfunction. To illuminate causal relationships among different features of personality pathology researchers must use experimental methods to alter PD-related psychological processes and assess the impact of these manipulations on affect, cognition, and behavior.
The search for mechanisms in personality disorders (PDs) is of growing importance, because PDs are prevalent, costly, and challenging to treat. Unfortunately, there is a dearth of compelling mechanistic research on PDs and psychopathology more broadly, due to equivocal definitions of a “mechanism” and study designs that are atheoretical and/or ill-suited for causal inferences.This chapter defines mechanisms as elements of possible causal sequence, which not only increase the probability of observed outcomes but also reveal how the outcomes occur. In addition, the authors argue that it is not always necessary to break down a mechanism to its most elemental physical parts; rather, it is important to consider how mechanisms act as complex, interacting components of a causal chain, with a focus on those that could serve as viable targets for prevention and intervention. Considering this broader definition of a “mechanism,” it is crucial that PD researchers ground their work in testable theories, such as those considering dimensional, transdiagnostic precursors to PDs. In this chapter, the authors also address various design and statistical considerations in PD mechanistic research and highlight promising developments in identifying mechanisms of PDs across multiple levels of measurement (e.g., biological, contextual, environmental) and across the lifespan.
This rejoinder addresses commentaries by Markon and Bornovalova and colleagues. Markon highlighted challenges associated with determining cause and effect in mechanistic research. He theorized that “weak emergence” may account, in part, for the complex development of personality pathology. Bornovalova and colleagues addressed transactional relations between various phenomena that may influence development of personality pathology over time. In this rejoinder, the authors build upon these commentaries to further highlight challenges associated with identifying true mechanisms in psychopathology. They hypothesize that dynamical systems models, which conceptualize people as systems open to incalculable environmental influences, may provide an alternative approach through which researchers can examine complex mechanisms more accurately. Although such models are nascent in clinical research, particularly in the context of personality disorders, these approaches may provide more nuanced interpretations of mechanisms and may ultimately enrich our understanding of processes underlying the emergence of personality disorders.
The Scottish composer Sir James MacMillan is one of the major figures of contemporary music, with a world-wide reputation for his modernist engagement with religious images and stories. Beginning with a substantial foreword from the composer himself, this collection of scholarly essays offers analytical, musicological, and theological perspectives on a selection of MacMillan's musical works. The volume includes a study of embodiment in MacMillan's music; a theological study of his St Luke Passion; an examination of the importance of lament in a selection of his works; a chapter on the centrality of musical borrowing to MacMillan's practice; a discussion of his liturgical music; and detailed analyses of other works including The World's Ransoming and the seminal Seven Last Words from the Cross. The chapters provide fresh insights on MacMillan's musical world, his compositional practice, and his relationship to modernity.
Work is among the most important influences on safety, health and wellbeing, both as a threat to health and as a source of resources that support health. However, the nature and pace of changes to the modern workplace present significant challenges to researchers seeking to understand the health implications of these changes, as well as to government and organizational leaders seeking to craft appropriate policy solutions. This chapter has three goals: (1) to provide an overview of occupational health psychology and describe the NIOSH concept of work organization in terms of implications for occupational health, (2) to present the Job Demands–Resources model as a theoretical framework accounting for the effects of work organization on employee health, and (3) describe health implications of several key trends in the nature of work organization including the employment relationships, work schedules, technology, lean production, and safety and wellness interventions.
The changing nature of work compels corresponding changes in organization selection systems. In this chapter, we advocate for competency modeling and propose nine competencies that are becoming more instrumental for success in the modern workforce. We then propose predictor constructs and methods to measure these competencies and new ways to leverage technology in their assessment. Lastly, we discuss four challenges that organizations will face when advancing our solutions: (a) achieving buy-in for competency modeling; (b) the continued recognition of a criterion problem; (c) monitoring applicant reactions; and (d) acknowledging social and ethical issues that may arise with these proposed changes.
Many writings on the changing nature of work portray the employee–organization relationship as a casualty of the modern workplace. This chapter reviews social exchange models of the employee–organization relationship as captured in organizational support and psychological contract theories. We explore the evidence of the extent to which the employee–organization relationship has changed as a result of changes in employment practices over the past several decades. Our analysis considers both overall trends in the employee–organization relationship as well as specific issues tied to temporary and part-time work, independent contractors, tripartite employment relationships, job insecurity, job hopping, and income inequality. The evidence suggests that while certain employment practices threaten the quality of the employee–organization relationship, social exchange models provide useful and relevant frameworks through which to understand the nature of these changes and employees’ reactions to them.
In world history, the Meiji Restoration of 1868 ranks as a revolutionary watershed, on a par with the American and French Revolutions. In this volume, leading historians from North America, Europe, and Japan employ global history in novel ways to offer fresh economic, social, political, cultural, and military perspectives on the Meiji Restoration and the subsequent creation of the modern Japanese nation-state. Seamlessly mixing meta- and micro-history, the authors examine how the Japanese state and Japanese people engaged with global trends of the early nineteenth century. They also explore the internal military conflicts that marked the 1860s and the process of reconciliation after 1868. They conclude with discussions of how new political, cultural, and diplomatic institutions were created as Japan emerged as a global nation, defined in multiple ways by its place in the world.
Environmental rights are a category of human rights necessarily central to both democracy and effective earth system governance (any environmental-ecological-sustainable democracy). For any democracy to remain democratic, some aspects must be beyond democracy and must not be allowed to be subjected to any ordinary democratic collective choice processes shy of consensus. Real, established rights constitute a necessary boundary of legitimate everyday democratic practice. We analyze how human rights are made democratically and, in particular, how they can be made with respect to matters environmental, especially matters that have import beyond the confines of the modern nation state.
As the global organisation of central banks, the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) has played a significant role in the momentous changes the international monetary and financial system has undergone over the past half century. This book offers a key contribution to understanding these changes. It explores the rise of the emerging market economies, the resulting shifts in the governance of the international financial system, and the role of central bank cooperation in this process. In this truly multidisciplinary effort, scholars from the fields of economics, history, political science and law unravel the most poignant episodes that marked this period, including European monetary unification, the paradigm shifts in economic and financial analysis, the origins and influence of macro-financial stability frameworks, the rise of soft law in international financial governance, central bank crisis management in the wake of the Great Financial Crisis, and, finally, the institutional evolution of the BIS itself.
Historical studies of French science during the nineteenth century have been dominated by three recurring themes that echo the traditional polemical preoccupations of French scientists themselves. First, there has been a focus on the administrative centralization of French science under the aegis of the state. Related to this structural centralization has been a second issue, that of geographical centralization: the concentration of resources, manpower, and influence in Paris at the expense of the provinces. And finally there is the question of the relations between these two factors and a perceived view of scientific decline, or at least of a relative decline, manifested as a sense of failure to maintain the position of international leadership to which the French scientific community has commonly aspired, and even in some cases that it thought to be its due.