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In recent times, satisfiability modulo theories (SMT) techniques gained increasing attention and obtained remarkable success in model-checking infinite-state systems. Still, we believe that whenever more expressivity is needed in order to specify the systems to be verified, more and more support is needed from mathematical logic and model theory. This is the case of the applications considered in this paper: we study verification over a general model of relational, data-aware processes, to assess (parameterized) safety properties irrespectively of the initial database (DB) instance. Toward this goal, we take inspiration from array-based systems and tackle safety algorithmically via backward reachability. To enable the adoption of this technique in our rich setting, we make use of the model-theoretic machinery of model completion, which surprisingly turns out to be an effective tool for verification of relational systems and represents the main original contribution of this paper. In this way, we pursue a twofold purpose. On the one hand, we isolate three notable classes for which backward reachability terminates, in turn witnessing decidability. Two of such classes relate our approach to conditions singled out in the literature, whereas the third one is genuinely novel. On the other hand, we are able to exploit SMT technology in implementations, building on the well-known MCMT (Model Checker Modulo Theories) model checker for array-based systems and extending it to make all our foundational results fully operational. All in all, the present contribution is deeply rooted in the long-standing tradition of the application of model theory in computer science. In particular, this paper applies these ideas in an original mathematical context and shows how these techniques can be used for the first time to empower algorithmic techniques for the verification of infinite-state systems based on arrays, so as to make such techniques applicable to the timely, challenging settings of data-aware processes.
Background: Few data are available on the neuropsychological, behavioural, or structural brain imaging outcomes in adolescents who underwent corrective surgery in infancy for tetralogy of Fallot. Methods: In this single-centre cross-sectional study, we enrolled 91 adolescents (13–16 years old) with tetralogy of Fallot and 87 referent subjects. Assessments included tests of academic achievement, memory, executive functions, visual-spatial skills, attention, and social cognition, as well as brain magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Genetic abnormalities or syndromes were present in 25% of tetralogy of Fallot patients, who had markedly greater neuropsychological morbidities than did patients without a syndrome. However, even patients without a syndrome performed significantly worse than the referent group or population norms in all of the neuropsychological domains assessed. In multivariable regression in those without a genetic/phenotypic syndrome, the strongest predictors of adverse late neurodevelopmental outcomes included a greater number of complications at the first operation, more total surgical complications across all operations, and occurrence of post-operative seizures. The presence of at least one abnormality on structural magnetic resonance imaging was more frequent in tetralogy of Fallot patients than the referent group (42% versus 8%). Conclusions: Adolescents with tetralogy of Fallot are at increased neurodevelopmental risk and would benefit from ongoing surveillance and educational supports even after childhood.
AIDA (Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment) is a project of a joint mission demonstration of asteroid deflection and characterisation of the kinetic impact effects. It involves the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (with support from members of NASA centers including Goddard Space Flight Center, Johnson Space Center, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory), and the European Space Agency (with support from members of the french CNRS/Cte dAzur Observatory and the german DLR). This assessment will be done using a binary asteroid target. AIDA consists of two independent but mutually supporting mission concepts, one of which is the asteroid kinetic impactor and the other is the characterisation spacecraft. The objective and status of the project will be presented.
This article examines the gendered consequences of linking family support to state pronatalist goals in contemporary Russia. By analyzing the policies, proposals, and critiques circulating on the maternity capital program, Michele Rivkin-Fish demonstrates how state power and citizenship are being constructed through struggles over the meanings of gender and family. She further argues that studies of Russian demographic politics must bring attention to both institutional transformations and the symbolic levels of discourse. This holistic approach, rooted in feminist anthropology, illuminates the particular, cultural logics informing demographic debates as well as the apparent contradictions between ideologies, policies, and practices. Pronatalist discourses engage Russian politicians, experts, and laypersons in efforts to undo the troubling legacy of Soviet gender relations and the 1990s fertility crisis; in the process, these policies define and deploy state power in ways that sustain and normalize gender inequalities.
Neurosyphilis begins with invasion of the central nervous system (CNS) by spirochetes during the period of spirochete dissemination from the primary lesion (called secondary syphilis). The pathology of meningovascular syphilis has two major components. The cause of most cerebrovascular disease is syphilitic endarteritis, usually involving medium-to-large meningeal arteries, called Heubner's endarteritis. Brain CT or magnetic resonance imaging of patients with meningovascular syphilis and stroke typically show abnormalities consistent with ischemic lesions, which may be multiple. Conventional angiography or magnetic resonance angiography typically shows evidence of arteritis with concentric narrowing of large vessels and often focal narrowing and occasionally dilatation of smaller arteries. Syphilis of the spinal cord is a clinical rarity and usually accompanies other forms of cerebral syphilitic involvement. Ceftriaxone is currently the alternative treatment of choice in the few patients who cannot be desensitized to penicillin.
Formal thought disorder (FTD) is a debilitating symptom that affects 90 percent of schizophrenic patients and undermines a patient's capacity to communicate. This chapter reviews the clinical and cognitive symptoms related to (FTD), the evidence available that supports different aspects of semantic impairments in FTD, and recent data suggesting that a far-spreading activation theory within the semantic system is the core, underlying deficit resulting in FTD. The Thought, Language and Communication Scale (TLC) provided the first standardized tool that quantified positive FTD severity which in turn enhanced FTD research. An early neuroimaging study used positron emission tomography (PET) to evaluate the relationship between regional blood flow and symptomatology of 30 schizophrenia patients during a resting state. Based on the suggested role of semantic memory dysfunction in the pathophysiology of FTD, the chapter examines whether a specific semantic memory operation is more relevant to this symptomatology.
Lee A. Casey, Partner, Baker & Hostetler LLP; Expert Member, United Nations Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights,
David B. Rivkin, Partner, Baker & Hostetler LLP, Washington, D.C.; Visiting Fellow, Nixon Center, Member of the UN Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights
It really brought him down because he couldn't jam
The captain seemed to understand
Because the next day the cap' went out and drafted a band
And now the company jumps when he plays reveille
He's the boogie-woogie bugle boy of Company B.
– Boogie-woogie Bugle Boy, Don Raye & Hughie Prince Popularized by The Andrews Sisters, 1941
IT'S HARD TO TALK SENSE ABOUT THE GENEVA CONVENTIONS. THEY ARE Scripture for human rights activists – quite simply “the basis” of international humanitarian law. Attorney General Alberto Gonzales was excoriated in the media, and attacked during his January 2005, confirmation hearings, for merely having suggested that some Geneva provisions were “quaint” when applied to al Qaeda and the Taliban. Countless opponents of American policy in Iraq (and of the war on terror generally) have shouted themselves hoarse claiming that the Bush administration's refusal to grant Geneva prisoner of war (POW) status to unlawful enemy combatants led to the criminal abuses at Abu Ghraib. Many have suggested darkly that American POWs will one day pay for this failure.
In fact, it is high time that the American people had a long and informed talk about the Geneva Conventions. To the extent that, in agreeing to the Geneva treaties, the United States' goal was to obtain decent treatment for Americans, particularly those held as POWs, the effort has failed.
Although a direct link between the HED meteorites and the asteroid 4 Vesta is generally acknowledged, several issues continue to be actively examined that tie Vesta to early processes in the solar system. Vesta is no longer the only basaltic asteroid in the Main belt. In addition to the Vestoids of the Vesta family, the small asteroid Magnya is basaltic but appears to be unrelated to Vesta. Similarly, diversity now identified in the collection of basaltic meteorites requires more than one basaltic parent body, consistent with the abundance of differentiated parent bodies implied by iron meteorites. The timing of the formation of the Vestoids (and presumably the large crater at the south pole of Vesta) is unresolved. Peaks in Ar-Ar dates of eucrites suggest this impact event could be related to a possible late heavy bombardment at least 3.5 Gyr ago. On the other hand, the optically fresh appearance of both Vesta and the Vestoids requires either a relatively recent resurfacing event or that their surfaces do not weather in the same manner thought to occur on other asteroids such as the ordinary chondrite parent body. Diversity across the surface of Vesta has been observed with HST and there are hints of compositional variations (possibly involving minor olivine) in near-infrared spectra.
Ecosystems management can be viewed as an explicit attempt to build and manage interorganizational networks. A review of environmental management literature, however, reveals very little use of network organization models. For environmental professionals who encounter diverse stakeholders in their practice, this article offers a conceptual framework and case study that demonstrate the utility of approaching ecosystems as networks. Virtual network and learning organization models, combined with holographic (systems) thinking and generative learning paradigms, help explain how collaboration among multiple stakeholders in ecosystems management can work. The case of “Monroe 2020,” the process for generating and implementing the comprehensive plan for Monroe County, Pennsylvania, provides a real-life illustration. The Monroe 2020 plan focuses on environmental quality and community economic goals, melded with resolution of long-standing conflict and commitment to a shared vision of the County's future. It emerged through a deliberate effort to build a broad-based, long-term constituency and tools for implementation. Monroe 2020 as plan and process represents a practical, mutually reinforcing alignment of natural ecosystems management and management of the built environment for human settlement. By fostering better understanding of how to create and manage effective collaborative partnerships, the ideas expressed here can contribute significantly to improved ecosystems management.
Direct-write technologies offer the potential for low-cost materials-efficient deposition of contact metallizations for photovoltaics. We report on the inkjet printing of metal organic decomposition (MOD) inks with and without nanoparticle additions. Near-bulk conductivity of printed and sprayed metal films has been achieved for Ag and Ag nanocomposites. Good adhesion and ohmic contacts with a measured contact resistance of 400μΩ•cm2 have been observed between the sprayed silver films and a heavily doped n-type layer of Si. Silver deposited using the MOD ink burns through the Si3N4 antireflection coating when annealed at 850°C to form an ohmic contact to the n-Si underneath. An active solar cell device was fabricated using a top contact that was spray printed using the Ag MOD ink. Inkjet printed films show adhesion differences as a function of the process temperature and solvent. Silver lines with good adhesion and conductivity have been printed on glass with 100 μm resolution.
Charged with having plagiarized Stephen Spender's 1948 autobiography World within World in his 1993 novel While England Sleeps, David Leavitt responds through his novella “The Term Paper Artist” and his coedited anthology of gay writers Pages Passed from Hand to Hand by defending the place of copying and imitation in the transmission of gay culture. Echoing the preoccupation with mimicry in contemporary gay-lesbian cultural theory, Leavitt's novella fictionalizes his accused self and presents a parable of how literary inspiration, like desire, derives from inhabiting identities not one's own. “The Term Paper Artist” invites a detective game of source study that leads to figures as diverse as Henry James, E. M. Forster, and Jack the Ripper, as well as to less mentionable icons of contemporary popular culture, all of whom are used to authorize a version of gay writing and gay literary genealogy that finds generative and regenerative power in the copy.
Metal-organic and hybrid metal-organic/metal nanoparticle inkswere evaluated for use in the inkjet printing of copper and silver conducting lines. Pure, smooth, dense, highly conductive coatings were produced by spray printing with (hexafluoroacetylacetonato)copper(I)-vinyltrimethylsilane Cu(hfa)·VTMS) and (hexafluoroacetylacetonato)silver(I)(1,5-cyclooctadiene) (Ag(hfa)COD) metal-organic precursors on heated substrates. Good adhesion to the substrates tested, glass, Kapton tape and Si, has been achieved without use of adhesion promoters. The silver metal-organic ink has also beenused to print metal lines and patterns with a commercial inkjet printer. Hybrid inks comprised of metal nanoparticles mixed with the metal-organic complexes above have also been used to deposit Cu and Ag films by spray printing.This approach gives dense, adherent films that are much thicker than those obtained using the metal-organic inks alone. The conductivities of the silvercoatings obtained by both approaches are near that of bulk silver (2 μΩ·cm). The copper coatings had conductivities at least an order ofmagnitude less than bulk.
Composite thin films of 60 wt% Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 and 40 wt% MgO were produced by Pulsed Laser Deposition. The biaxial texture of the BST component on the MgO substrate has been established with XRD. All as-deposited films had an enlarged BST out-of-plane lattice parameter. A more relaxed lattice constant as well as higher degree of texture has been obtained in the films deposited at higher temperature and lower deposition rate. Post-deposition annealing in flowing oxygen results in a further relaxation and alignment of the BST lattice. The as-deposited films were not tunable at room temperature. The greatest dielectric tuning was achieved in films annealed at 1200 °C. The observed difference in tunability for the films annealed at different temperatures may result from a spatial redistribution of BST material on the substrate surface during annealing.
We have employed inks containing nanometer-sized particles of Ag and Al (nano-Ag and nano-Al, respectively) as precursor inks for the formation of contacts to n- and p-type Si, respectively. The particles as formed by the electroexplosion process were dispersed in toluene, applied to Si and annealed above the respective eutectic temperatures. In the case of nano-Ag, this directly yields an ohmic contact. However, the nano-Al was found to be coated with an oxide layer that impairs the formation of an ohmic contact. A chelating chemical etch involving treatment with hexafluoroacetylacetone was developed to remove this oxide coat. This treated nano-Al produced a good ohmic contact. Smooth, pure Ag films have also been deposited by spray printing organometallic inks prepared from Ag(hfa)(SEt2) and Ag(hfa)(COD). These films are deposited in one step onto heated glass and Si substrates at one atmosphere pressure. The films show resistivities of ∼2 µΩ·cm. These inks appear to be amenable to ink-jet printing of Ag lines and as a low temperature glue for the Ag nanoparticles for thicker metallizations.